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# Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that

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Director
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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19 Dec 2013, 03:40
Quote:

Hi, My doubt here is that what is the parallel list here? Option 1 or Option 2?
Option 1:
1)defending
2)acting and sounding
3)scouting

Option 2:
1)defending
2)acting
3)sounding
4)scouting

Why do we need 'and' between acting & sounding when these are parallel to other 2 items in the list?

Or in other words what's wrong with this sentence -

Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels, sounding a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.

Hi Deepak

None of your options is correct.

Structure is
1 defending, (acting.. and sounding),
and
2 scouting

E is clearly wrong because of parallelism issue. Rest all options have 'and' and hence we need to look for a valid construction.

'defending, acting, sounding and scouting ' - is NOT one of the options

Also, note the 'comma' before 'and scouting'. This separates 'acting and sounding' from 'defending and scouting'.

'defending, acting... and sounding... , and scouting'

"acting as sentinels and sounding..danger" is describing the act of 'defending the entrance'.

Hope this helps!
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2013, 07:09
Because the verb phrases used to describe the bats' duties are governed by the phrase different duties such
as, they should each be expressed in the present participial (or "-ing") form to parallel defending and scouting.
Choices A, C, D, and E all violate parallelism by employing infinitives (to...) in place of participial phrases. In E
the singular sentinel is not consistent with residents, and the omission of and distorts the meaning of the
original. Only B, the best answer, preserves the sense of the original, uses the correct idiom, and observes the
parallelism required among and within the three main verb phrases.
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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31 Dec 2013, 08:11
onedayill wrote:
Can some one please explain why C is wrong?

Don;t say because B is //

First going thru the meaning of sentence, they are talking about a types of bat caves (honey hiveseir ) that have certain members in their group which perform some actions & these actions are
1. Defending the entrane
2. Acting as sentinels & to sound a warning at the approach of danger
3. Scouting ...

Now, reason why 3 is wrong because the 2 actions which are in non-underlined part are in -ing form i.e. they are correct & by the rule of parallelism we must make all phrase,clause,verb etc. parallel to each other thus in this case, If we use to act as sentinel it will be wrong.

Hope you have found above in order !!
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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22 Jan 2015, 21:49
Question:
Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.
a) acting as sentinels and to sound
b) acting as sentinels and sounding
c) to act as sentinels and sound
d) to act as sentinels and to sound
e) to act as sentinel sounding

answer is B. Just wish to check last segment of the sentence mentions ",and scouting outside" mentions independent clause since it is separated by ", and" but actually it is not a independent clause because it does not have a subject-verb. If last sentence is not independent clause then it is part of the list but then repetition of "and" will not make it wordy? Little confused need help.
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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23 Jan 2015, 01:22
Merged similar topic. Please follow the forum rules for posting AND made a search before to post a question

See the above explanations.

regards
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2017, 00:13
why not "acting as sentinels and to sound " is a sub series of defending the entrance? so that "defending the entrance" can still be parallel with "scouting outside"
in this way they defend the entrance by means of "to act as sentinels and to sound a warning"
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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11 Mar 2017, 23:34
YangYichen wrote:
why not "acting as sentinels and to sound " is a sub series of defending the entrance? so that "defending the entrance" can still be parallel with "scouting outside"
in this way they defend the entrance by means of "to act as sentinels and to sound a warning"

Yes, "acting as sentinels and sounding " is actually the sub series of defending the entrance. These two activities tell us how do they defend.

And Defending and Scouting are || to each other.
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2017, 12:30
Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.

the residents that take on different duties such as;
-defending the entrance
-acting as sentinels
-to sound a warning - incorrect
-scouting outside

The only answer choice that modifies the third phrase correctly as 'souding' is B
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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26 Jul 2017, 08:35
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2017, 00:10
abhimahna wrote:
YangYichen wrote:
why not "acting as sentinels and to sound " is a sub series of defending the entrance? so that "defending the entrance" can still be parallel with "scouting outside"
in this way they defend the entrance by means of "to act as sentinels and to sound a warning"

Yes, "acting as sentinels and sounding " is actually the sub series of defending the entrance. These two activities tell us how do they defend.

And Defending and Scouting are || to each other.

Hi,
cant we look at the structure like this- X,Y, and Z
here X= defending the entrance, Y= acting as sentinels and sounding a warning at the approach of danger Z= , and scouting outside...
Notice that there is no comma before and sounding a warning. and there is a comma before the 3rd element in the list ie. Z( , and scouting outside).
So, basically Y stands as a club of 2 ings separated by and.
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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08 Oct 2017, 00:11
carcass wrote:
Merged similar topic. Please follow the forum rules for posting AND made a search before to post a question

See the above explanations.

regards

Hi,
cant we look at the structure like this- X,Y, and Z
here X= defending the entrance, Y= acting as sentinels and sounding a warning at the approach of danger Z= , and scouting outside...
Notice that there is no comma before and sounding a warning. and there is a comma before the 3rd element in the list ie. Z( , and scouting outside).
So, basically Y stands as a club of 2 ings separated by and.
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that  [#permalink]

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19 Jan 2019, 04:40

ririis wrote:
Hi GMAT Ninja,

Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and to sound a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.

(A) acting as sentinels and to sound

(B) acting as sentinels and sounding

(C) to act as sentinels and sound

(D) to act as sentinels and to sound

(E) to act as a sentinel sounding

This question's OA is B. My question is what "sounding" functions as? It can't be the parallelism of "acting" and " scouting" because of 2 "and" preceded "sounding" and "scouting". Therefore it must be a noun and parallel with "sentinels".

Before we get into the weeds with grammar terminology, let's take an intuitive, non-technical look at the words in bold:

Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that take on different duties such as defending the entrance, acting as sentinels and sounding a warning at the approach of danger, and scouting outside the cave for new food and roosting sites.

All four of these words are doing the same thing, right? Each is a duty that can be taken on by the residents of the bat caves. So as a starting point, it makes sense that they could all be in the same grammatical form, since the residents do all four of those things (defending the entrance, acting as sentinels, sounding a warning, and scouting for food). So even if you don't think about the technicalities of grammar and parallelism at all, you might decide that this seems acceptably parallel, and move on.

If you do want some jargon: all of those four words (defending, acting, sounding, scouting) are gerunds, which is a fancy way of saying that they're "-ing" words that function as nouns. (More on "-ing" words in this article.)

And it wouldn't make sense for "sentinels" and "sounding" to be parallel to each other: "...acting as sentinels and sounding a warning..." If the two words in bold were parallel, then the sentence would be saying that the residents "act as sentinels" (which makes sense) and "act as sounding a warning" (which makes no sense). (More on parallelism in this video if anybody wants a basic refresher.)

Finally, you might be wondering why the word "and" appears so many times in the correct answer. I don't have a very satisfying answer to that, to be honest. In a sense, "acting as sentinels" and "sounding a warning" are all part of the same duty: "sounding a warning" is part of what the residents must do if they're "acting as sentinels." So those two activities are separated by their own "and", but they're still part of the larger structure of parallelism in the sentence ("defending..., acting and sounding..., scouting...").

I hope this helps!
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Re: Some bat caves, like honeybee hives, have residents that   [#permalink] 19 Jan 2019, 04:40

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