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# Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth

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Manager
Joined: 09 Jun 2011
Posts: 142
Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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23 Sep 2011, 04:52
Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth
in temporary employment that occurred in the United
states during the 1980’s to increased participation in
the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or
(5) reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrange-
ments. However, statistical analyses reveal that demo-
graphic changes in the workforce did not correlate with
variations in the total number of temporary workers.
Instead, these analyses suggest that factors affecting.
(10) employers account for the rise in temporary employ-
ment. One factor is product demand: temporary
employment is favored by employers who are adapting
to fluctuating demand for products while at the same
time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. Another
(15) factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which
allows employers more control over the terms of
employment. Given the analyses, which reveal that
growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the
level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of
(20) groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be
discouraged from creating excessive numbers of tem-
porary positions. Government policymakers should
consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary
employees, promoting pay equity between temporary
(25) and permanent workers, assisting labor unions in orga-
nizing temporary workers, and encouraging firms to
assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who
explicitly indicate that preference.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present the results of statistical analyses and propose
further studies.
(B) explain a recent development and predict its
eventual consequences.
(C) identify the reasons for a trend and recommend
(D) outline several theories about a phenomenon and
(E) describe the potential consequences of implementing
a new policy and argue in favor of that policy.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true
of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned
in lines
9-10?
(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the
growth in temporary employment that occurred
during the 1980’s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total
number of temporary workers during the 1980’s.
(C) They were less important than demographic change
in accounting for the increase of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.
(D) They included a sharp increase in the cost of labor
during the 1980’s.
(E) They are more difficult to account for than at other
factors involved in the growth of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the
use of temporary employment by firms during the
1980’s?
(A) It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product
demand far more efficiently than they before the
1980’s.
(B) It increased as a result of increased participation in
the workforce by certain demograp groups.
(C) It was discouraged by government-mandated
policies.
(D) It was a response to preferences indicated by certain
employees for more flexible working arrangements.
(E) It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced
ability to control the terms of their employment.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the
workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980’s?
(A) Their jobs frequently led to permanent positions
within firms.
(B) They constituted a less demographically diverse
group than has been suggested.
(C) They were occasionally involved in actions
organized by labor unions.
(D) Their pay declined during the decade in comparison
with the pay of permanent employees.
(E) They did not necessarily prefer temporary
employment to permanent employment.

5. The first sentence in the passage suggests that the
observers mentioned in line 1 would be most likely to
predict which of the following?
(A) That the number of new temporary positions would
decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary
employment entered the workforce.
(B) That the total number of temporary positions would
increase as fewer workers were able to find
permanent positions
(C) That employers would have less control over the
terms of workers’ employment as workers
increased their bargaining strength.
(D) That more workers would be hired for temporary
positions as product demand increased.
(E) That the number of workers taking temporary
positions would increase as more workers in any
given demographic group entered the workforce.

6. In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line
21) most closely corresponds to which of the
following phrases?
(A) Far more than can be justified by worker
preferences
(B) Far more than can be explained by fluctuations in
product demand.
(C) Far more than can be beneficial to the success of the
firms themselves.
(D) Far more than can be accounted for by an expanding
national economy.
(E) Far more than can be attributed to increases in the
total number of people in the workforce.

7. The passage mentions each of the following as an
appropriate kind of governmental action EXCEPT
(A) getting firms to offer temporary employment
primarily to a certain group of people.
(B) encouraging equitable pay for temporary and
permanent employees
(C) facilitating the organization of temporary workers by
labor unions.
(D) establishing guidelines on the proportion of
temporary workers that firms should employ
(E) ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits
from their employers.

Manager
Joined: 05 Jul 2011
Posts: 67

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24 Sep 2011, 05:08
(10 mins)

C
B
E
E
A
A
D Please post the OAs soon.
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Manager
Joined: 09 Jun 2011
Posts: 142

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24 Sep 2011, 05:38
OA : CBEEEAA

I marked the A and D too for 5 and 7.

Current Student
Joined: 06 Sep 2013
Posts: 1998
Concentration: Finance

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25 Sep 2013, 13:49
OptimusPrimea1 wrote:
OA : CBEEEAA

I marked the A and D too for 5 and 7.

I have D and E as well. Anyone want to confirm the OAs" for these two questions?
Intern
Joined: 27 Sep 2013
Posts: 1
Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2013, 00:35
Hi, everybody, I am a new friend.
Manager
Joined: 21 Aug 2012
Posts: 199
Concentration: General Management, Operations
Schools: HBS '19 (S)
GMAT 1: 740 Q49 V42
Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2013, 10:39
q5 cannot be E since it mentions temporary employment increases if workforce in ANY demographic increases while observers beleived that certain demographic group attributed to the increase

q7 cannot be A ... since it is mentioned assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who explicitly indicate that preference.
Intern
Joined: 12 Jul 2013
Posts: 12
Concentration: Economics, Finance
GMAT 1: 700 Q50 V34
GPA: 3.46
Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2013, 20:26
The OA provided here is wrong. Everyone can find the correct answers in OG13. They are the questions from 45 to 51. The correct answers are 1C 2B 3E 4E 5A 6A 7D.
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2014, 12:56
Easy Passage
Time taken : 13 minutes
All Correct
_________________

Regards,

S

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Manager
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Location: India
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2015, 02:35
Hi can anyone post explanations for the questions ...!!! ?
_________________

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Status: A mind once opened never loses..!
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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30 Jun 2015, 02:49
1
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Q:1

A The author uses statistical analyses as the
basis of an explanation, but the analyses act
only as support for the larger purpose of
explaining a trend; no further studies are
proposed.

B The author explores possible reasons for a
recent development but recommends ways to
curb or change that development; the author
does not predict the consequences if the
situation is left unchanged or the
recommendations unmet.

C Correct. The author examines possible
reasons for the rise in temporary
employment and makes specific
recommendations to change the current
situation.

D The use of the phrase several theories is
enough to make this inaccurate. Two types
of explanation are suggested: employee
preference or employer self-interest.

E The author makes recommendations but
provides no arguments in support of those
recommendations—merely suggesting that
they are aimed at discouraging employers
from creating too many temporary positions.

Q:2

This question is based on information explicitly
stated in lines 10-12. The statistical analyses
suggest that factors affecting employers account for the
rise in temporary employment.

A Some observers attribute the rise to the
composition of the workforce; the passage
does not identify what most experts believe.

B Correct. The factors affecting employers
may explain the rise in temporary
employment.

C The passage suggests that these factors were
more important than demographic changes
in explaining the rise.

D Although there is some suggestion in lines
15-16 that employers at some point
experienced difficulty from the cost of labor,
the passage does not suggest that a sharp
increase in that cost occurred in the 1980s—
and even suggests that labor costs may have
decreased because of labor's reduced
bargaining strength.

E The issue of how to account for those factors
(i.e., explain why they occurred) is not raised
in the passage—so the issue of whether
those factors are more difficult to account
for than other factors is not raised.

Q:3

Since the word suggests is used in the question, the
answer is probably not directly stated in the
passage and therefore has to be inferred. The
author believes that the rise in temporary
employment during the 1980s can be explained
by two factors affecting employers: product
demand and labors reduced bargaining strength.
Temporary employment allows employers to
adapt their workforce to the fluctuating demand
for their product. At this time, labors reduced
bargaining strength left employers, not workers, in
greater control of the terms of employment.

A This goes too far beyond the information
provided in the passage. The passage neither
says nor implies anything about efficiency
levels before the 1980s.

B The author says that demographic changes in
the workforce did not correlate with variations
in the total number of temporary workers,
ruling out this explanation.

C In 1992, the author recommended
government-mandated policies because they
did not exist.

D The author says that growth in temporary
employment now far exceeds the level
explainable by... groups said to prefer
temporaryjobs.

E Correct. Labor's reduced bargaining power
resulted in employers' increased control over
the terms of employment.

Q:4

The question's use of the word suggests indicates
that the answer is probably not directly stated in
the passage. The author says that the rise in
temporary employment nowfar exceeds the level
explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups
said to prefer temporaryjobs. Thus, the number of
workers employed on a temporary basis is far
greater than the number of workers who actually
do prefer temporary employment.

A No evidence is presented that temporary
jobs led to permanent positions.

B The passage grants that there was increased
participation in the workforce by certain groups,
such asfirst-time or reentering workers. This
suggests more rather than less demographic
diversity.

C The role of temporary workers in labor
unions is not discussed.

D The passage does suggest that the pay of
temporary workers is less than that of
permanent workers, but not that the pay of
temporary workers declined.

E Correct. The passage indicates that the
number of workers in temporary jobs was
higher than the number of workers who
stated a preference for temporary work.

Q:6

In its context in this passage, the word excessive
indicates a value-judgment by the author. The
author recommends that firms be discouragedfrom
creating excessive numbers of temporary positions on
the basis of the statistical analyses, which show
that the rise in temporary employment nowfar
exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry
rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs. In the
context of lines 24—31, it is clear that the author
believes that the large expansion in temporary
employment exclusively serves employer interests
at the expense of employee interests (including
their preferences), and \s\ for that reason,
excessive.

A Correct. An expansion of temporary
employment that serves employer interests
more than it serves employee interests (such
as preferences) is considered by the author to
be excessive.

B It is not because the expansion in temporary
employment allows employers to respond to
fluctuations in product demand that the
author regards the expansion as excessive.

C The relation of temporary employment to
the success of firms is not discussed.

D The relation of temporary employment to an
expanding economy is not discussed.

E The author does not consider the issue of
overall increases in the workforce as a whole,
only the issue of increases in temporary
employment.
_________________

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Manager
Joined: 07 Jun 2012
Posts: 63
GMAT Date: 11-01-2012
Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth [#permalink]

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08 Mar 2017, 01:31
iamdp wrote:
Q:1

A The author uses statistical analyses as the
basis of an explanation, but the analyses act
only as support for the larger purpose of
explaining a trend; no further studies are
proposed.

B The author explores possible reasons for a
recent development but recommends ways to
curb or change that development; the author
does not predict the consequences if the
situation is left unchanged or the
recommendations unmet.

C Correct. The author examines possible
reasons for the rise in temporary
employment and makes specific
recommendations to change the current
situation.

D The use of the phrase several theories is
enough to make this inaccurate. Two types
of explanation are suggested: employee
preference or employer self-interest.

E The author makes recommendations but
provides no arguments in support of those
recommendations—merely suggesting that
they are aimed at discouraging employers
from creating too many temporary positions.

Q:2

This question is based on information explicitly
stated in lines 10-12. The statistical analyses
suggest that factors affecting employers account for the
rise in temporary employment.

A Some observers attribute the rise to the
composition of the workforce; the passage
does not identify what most experts believe.

B Correct. The factors affecting employers
may explain the rise in temporary
employment.

C The passage suggests that these factors were
more important than demographic changes
in explaining the rise.

D Although there is some suggestion in lines
15-16 that employers at some point
experienced difficulty from the cost of labor,
the passage does not suggest that a sharp
increase in that cost occurred in the 1980s—
and even suggests that labor costs may have
decreased because of labor's reduced
bargaining strength.

E The issue of how to account for those factors
(i.e., explain why they occurred) is not raised
in the passage—so the issue of whether
those factors are more difficult to account
for than other factors is not raised.

Q:3

Since the word suggests is used in the question, the
answer is probably not directly stated in the
passage and therefore has to be inferred. The
author believes that the rise in temporary
employment during the 1980s can be explained
by two factors affecting employers: product
demand and labors reduced bargaining strength.
Temporary employment allows employers to
adapt their workforce to the fluctuating demand
for their product. At this time, labors reduced
bargaining strength left employers, not workers, in
greater control of the terms of employment.

A This goes too far beyond the information
provided in the passage. The passage neither
says nor implies anything about efficiency
levels before the 1980s.

B The author says that demographic changes in
the workforce did not correlate with variations
in the total number of temporary workers,
ruling out this explanation.

C In 1992, the author recommended
government-mandated policies because they
did not exist.

D The author says that growth in temporary
employment now far exceeds the level
explainable by... groups said to prefer
temporaryjobs.

E Correct. Labor's reduced bargaining power
resulted in employers' increased control over
the terms of employment.

Q:4

The question's use of the word suggests indicates
that the answer is probably not directly stated in
the passage. The author says that the rise in
temporary employment nowfar exceeds the level
explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups
said to prefer temporaryjobs. Thus, the number of
workers employed on a temporary basis is far
greater than the number of workers who actually
do prefer temporary employment.

A No evidence is presented that temporary
jobs led to permanent positions.

B The passage grants that there was increased
participation in the workforce by certain groups,
such asfirst-time or reentering workers. This
suggests more rather than less demographic
diversity.

C The role of temporary workers in labor
unions is not discussed.

D The passage does suggest that the pay of
temporary workers is less than that of
permanent workers, but not that the pay of
temporary workers declined.

E Correct. The passage indicates that the
number of workers in temporary jobs was
higher than the number of workers who
stated a preference for temporary work.

Q:6

In its context in this passage, the word excessive
indicates a value-judgment by the author. The
author recommends that firms be discouragedfrom
creating excessive numbers of temporary positions on
the basis of the statistical analyses, which show
that the rise in temporary employment nowfar
exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry
rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs. In the
context of lines 24—31, it is clear that the author
believes that the large expansion in temporary
employment exclusively serves employer interests
at the expense of employee interests (including
their preferences), and \s\ for that reason,
excessive.

A Correct. An expansion of temporary
employment that serves employer interests
more than it serves employee interests (such
as preferences) is considered by the author to
be excessive.

B It is not because the expansion in temporary
employment allows employers to respond to
fluctuations in product demand that the
author regards the expansion as excessive.

C The relation of temporary employment to
the success of firms is not discussed.

D The relation of temporary employment to an
expanding economy is not discussed.

E The author does not consider the issue of
overall increases in the workforce as a whole,
only the issue of increases in temporary
employment.

mikemcgarry Can you please explain the 6th Question?? Corresponds?? how do i read the question and what should i understand from it. ?? Kindly give your thoughts on the question and the solution.
Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth   [#permalink] 08 Mar 2017, 01:31
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