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# Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ

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Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 17 Aug 2019, 04:21
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Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employment that occurred in the United States during the 1980s to increased participation in the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrangements. However, statistical analyses reveal that demographic changes in the workforce did not correlate with variations in the total number of temporary workers. Instead, these analyses suggest that factors affecting employers account for the rise in temporary employment. One factor is product demand: temporary employment is favored by employers who are adapting to fluctuating demand for products while at the same time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. Another factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which allows employers more control over the terms of employment. Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions. Government policymakers should consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary employees, promoting pay equity between temporary and permanent workers, assisting labor unions in organizing temporary workers, and encouraging firms to assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who explicitly indicate that preference.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

(A) present the results of statistical analyses and propose further studies
(B) explain a recent development and predict its eventual consequences
(C) identify the reasons for a trend and recommend measures to address it
(D) outline several theories about a phenomenon and advocate one of them
(E) describe the potential consequences of implementing a new policy and argue in favor of that policy

2. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned in lines 10–19?

(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the growth in temporary employment that occurred during the 1980s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total number of temporary workers during the 1980s.
(C) They were less important than demographic change in accounting for the increase of temporary employment during the 1980s.
(D) They included a sharp increase in the cost of labor during the 1980s.
(E) They are more difficult to account for than are other factors involved in the growth of temporary employment during the 1980s.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the use of temporary employment by firms during the 1980s?

(A) It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product demand far more efficiently than they did before the 1980s.
(B) It increased as a result of increased participation in the workforce by certain demographic groups.
(C) It was discouraged by government-mandated policies.
(D) It was a response to preferences indicated by certain employees for more flexible working arrangements.
(E) It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced ability to control the terms of their employment.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980s?

(A) Their jobs frequently led to permanent positions within firms.
(B) They constituted a less demographically diverse group than has been suggested.
(C) They were occasionally involved in actions organized by labor unions.
(D) Their pay declined during the decade in comparison with the pay of permanent employees.
(E) They did not necessarily prefer temporary employment to permanent employment.

5. The first sentence in the passage suggests that the “observers” mentioned in line 1 would be most likely to predict which of the following?

(A) That the number of new temporary positions would decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary employment entered the workforce
(B) That the total number of temporary positions would increase as fewer workers were able to find permanent positions
(C) That employers would have less control over the terms of workers’ employment as workers increased their bargaining strength
(D) That more workers would be hired for temporary positions as product demand increased
(E) That the number of workers taking temporary positions would increase as more workers in any given demographic group entered the workforce

6. In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line 23) most closely corresponds to which of the following phrases?

(A) Far more than can be justified by worker preferences
(B) Far more than can be explained by fluctuations in product demand
(C) Far more than can be beneficial to the success of the firms themselves
(D) Far more than can be accounted for by an expanding national economy
(E) Far more than can be attributed to increases in the total number of people in the workforce

7. The passage mentions each of the following as an appropriate kind of governmental action EXCEPT

(A) getting firms to offer temporary employment primarily to a certain group of people
(B) encouraging equitable pay for temporary and permanent employees
(C) facilitating the organization of temporary workers by labor unions
(D) establishing guidelines on the proportion of temporary workers that firms should employ
(E) ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits from their employers

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Edit: Formating

Originally posted by nitya34 on 26 Nov 2009, 07:04.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 17 Aug 2019, 04:21, edited 7 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (174).
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2011, 04:57
3
OptimusPrimea1 wrote:
Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth
in temporary employment that occurred in the United
states during the 1980’s to increased participation in
the workforce by certain groups, such as first-time or
(5) reentering workers, who supposedly prefer such arrange-
ments. However, statistical analyses reveal that demo-
graphic changes in the workforce did not correlate with
variations in the total number of temporary workers.
Instead, these analyses suggest that factors affecting.
(10) employers account for the rise in temporary employ-
ment. One factor is product demand: temporary
employment is favored by employers who are adapting
to fluctuating demand for products while at the same
time seeking to reduce overall labor costs. Another
(15) factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which
allows employers more control over the terms of
employment. Given the analyses, which reveal that
growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the
level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of
(20) groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be
discouraged from creating excessive numbers of tem-
porary positions. Government policymakers should
consider mandating benefit coverage for temporary
employees, promoting pay equity between temporary
(25) and permanent workers, assisting labor unions in orga-
nizing temporary workers, and encouraging firms to
assign temporary jobs primarily to employees who
explicitly indicate that preference.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to
(A) present the results of statistical analyses and propose
further studies.
(B) explain a recent development and predict its
eventual consequences.
(C) identify the reasons for a trend and recommend
(D) outline several theories about a phenomenon and
(E) describe the potential consequences of implementing
a new policy and argue in favor of that policy.
2. According to the passage, which of the following is true
of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned
in lines
9-10?
(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the
growth in temporary employment that occurred
during the 1980’s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total
number of temporary workers during the 1980’s.
(C) They were less important than demographic change
in accounting for the increase of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.
(D) They included a sharp increase in the cost of labor
during the 1980’s.
(E) They are more difficult to account for than at other
factors involved in the growth of temporary
employment during the 1980’s.

3. The passage suggests which of the following about the
use of temporary employment by firms during the
1980’s?
(A) It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product
demand far more efficiently than they before the
1980’s.
(B) It increased as a result of increased participation in
the workforce by certain demograp groups.
(C) It was discouraged by government-mandated
policies.
(D) It was a response to preferences indicated by certain
employees for more flexible working arrangements.
(E) It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced
ability to control the terms of their employment.

4. The passage suggests which of the following about the
workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980’s?
(A) Their jobs frequently led to permanent positions
within firms.
(B) They constituted a less demographically diverse
group than has been suggested.
(C) They were occasionally involved in actions
organized by labor unions.
(D) Their pay declined during the decade in comparison
with the pay of permanent employees.
(E) They did not necessarily prefer temporary
employment to permanent employment.

5. The first sentence in the passage suggests that the
observers mentioned in line 1 would be most likely to
predict which of the following?
(A) That the number of new temporary positions would
decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary
employment entered the workforce.
(B) That the total number of temporary positions would
increase as fewer workers were able to find
permanent positions
(C) That employers would have less control over the
terms of workers’ employment as workers
increased their bargaining strength.
(D) That more workers would be hired for temporary
positions as product demand increased.
(E) That the number of workers taking temporary
positions would increase as more workers in any
given demographic group entered the workforce.

6. In the context of the passage, the word “excessive” (line
21) most closely corresponds to which of the
following phrases?
(A) Far more than can be justified by worker
preferences
(B) Far more than can be explained by fluctuations in
product demand.
(C) Far more than can be beneficial to the success of the
firms themselves.
(D) Far more than can be accounted for by an expanding
national economy.
(E) Far more than can be attributed to increases in the
total number of people in the workforce.

7. The passage mentions each of the following as an
appropriate kind of governmental action EXCEPT
(A) getting firms to offer temporary employment
primarily to a certain group of people.
(B) encouraging equitable pay for temporary and
permanent employees
(C) facilitating the organization of temporary workers by
labor unions.
(D) establishing guidelines on the proportion of
temporary workers that firms should employ
(E) ensuring that temporary workers obtain benefits
from their employers.

1 - C
Main point question
Main point is - Author first discusses a trend and reasons of temporary employment and finally suggests some measures to control temporary employment.

2 - B
Specific question
In line no 10-12 "suggest that factors affecting employers account for the rise in temporary employment."

3 - E
Inference question
In line no 16 - "labor’s reduced bargaining strength"

4 - E
Inference question
Line no 17 - "Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions"

5 - A
Inference question
"Some analysts believed that worker chose temporary jobs voluntarily"
Hence if there are less temporary workers would decline if the workers are unwilling to work.

6 -A
Specific question
Line no. 17 - "Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce <b>entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs</b>, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions."

7 - D
Specific question
Clearly D is not stated in the last sentence of the passage.
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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13 May 2014, 03:59
1
infotalk wrote:
carcass wrote:
infotalk wrote:
In 51, I was confused between A and B. Can somebody explain why the answer is "B". Is it because of "may" ?

No

The main difference is this

51. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned in lines 10–19?
(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the growth in temporary employment that occurred during the 1980s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total number of temporary workers during the 1980s.

You were close but not enough.

Hope this helps

Maybe I still dont understand. Are you saying B is gramatically correct? I mean You could have initiation in growth as a valid phrase ...

No, the reason why A is incorrect is because it says employers initiated the growth meaning employers were the reason why the growth began and then eventually it was because of some other reason ( the growth began because of the employers but they were not the only reason behind the growth ) INCORRECT

and B says that "employers may account for the increase in the total no of temp workers " which is true as per the passage
i hope you get it.

Thank you
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2015, 13:33
1
nishith17 wrote:
11 mins 47 sec

C
B
A - OA is E. Can someone please explain?
D - OA is E. Can someone please explain?
A
A
D

53: "The passage suggests which of the following about the workers who took temporary jobs during the 1980s?"
The passage says that "Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs"
So the number of workforce on temporary position much bigger than number of workers who say that they prefer temporary jobs

Correct answer E says that "They (workers on temporary positions) did not necessarily prefer temporary employment to permanent employment."

Incorrect answer D says that "Their (workers on temporary positions) pay declined during the decade in comparison with the pay of permanent employees."
From the phrase "promoting pay equity between temporary and permanent workers" we can infer that permanent workers and temporary workers have inequity in their wages.
But we don't have information about dynamics of wages to temporarily workers during the decade so this answer is incorrect.
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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11 Apr 2017, 20:42
1
joegchow,

Quote:
For question 54, I agree that choice A is correct, but I can't find a good reason to reject choice E. Please explain.

The passage states that the observers mentioned in line 1 "have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employment that occurred in the United States during the 1980s to increased participation in the workforce by certain groups"; therefore, those observers would not, as stated in choice E, predict "that the number of workers taking temporary positions would increase as more workers in any given demographic group entered the workforce". Those observers would only predict that the numbers of workers taking temporary positions would increase as more workers in those certain groups, "such as first-time or reentering workers," entered the workforce, not necessarily as more workers in any demographic group entered the workforce (ie if a large group of MBA graduates who do not prefer temporary work arrangements enters the workforce, the observers would not expect an increase in the number of workers taking temporary positions).
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2014, 04:14
infotalk wrote:
In 51, I was confused between A and B. Can somebody explain why the answer is "B". Is it because of "may" ?

No

The main difference is this

51. According to the passage, which of the following is true of the “factors affecting employers” that are mentioned in lines 10–19?
(A) Most experts cite them as having initiated the growth in temporary employment that occurred during the 1980s.
(B) They may account for the increase in the total number of temporary workers during the 1980s.

You were close but not enough.

Hope this helps
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2014, 08:49
1) One factor is product demand: temporary employment is favored by employers who are adapting to fluctuating demand for products while at the same time seeking to reduce overall labor costs.

2) firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions.

Connecting the dots: A is the answer
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2015, 13:17
ronr34 wrote:
ronr34 wrote:
52 - why not A?
Can anyone give an explanation why E is preferred?

Anyone have an answer for this?

Passage says that: "One factor is product demand: temporary employment is favored by employers who are adapting to fluctuating demand for products while at the same time seeking to reduce overall labor costs."
So we can say that employers favor temporary employment because it helps them adapting to fluctuating demand.

But answer 52a says: "It enabled firms to deal with fluctuating product demand far more efficiently than they did before the 1980s."
We don't have information about how employers deal with fluctuating product demand before 1980 and we can't infer that.

Answer E is correct because passage says: "Another factor is labor’s reduced bargaining strength, which allows employers more control over the terms of employment."
So workers labor's influence decrease while employers' influence increase.
and answer E says: "It increased partly as a result of workers’ reduced ability to control the terms of their employment."
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2015, 11:38
kanigmat011 wrote:
Can somebody explain
52. Why not A instead of E

56 Why D as it is mentioned in the passage as below
"firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions. "

Hello kanigmat011

some-observers-have-attributed-the-dramatic-growth-in-tempor-87312-20.html#p1541783

It is explanation exactly about 52 A and E

----

56 question

passage says "firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions. "
and answer says "establishing guidelines on the proportion of temporary workers that firms should employ"

Proportions is something strict: for example car plants should have 4 part of constant employers and 1 part temporary employers.
But this will be strange because maybe one car plant don't need temporary employers at all and other car plant need more than 1/5 of temp employers

So passage didn't make so strong recommendation and just propose to discourage firms from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions.
So it possibly that with this recommendation all firms eventually will have different proportions of constant and temporarily employers.

Does that make sense?
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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28 May 2017, 16:58
For Q#4 why is OA E instead of C,
in very first line, in fact we
are told that workers prefer temporary arrangement, but the actual factors of it
are because of fluctuating product demand and labor's reduced bargaining strength,
I selected C because of second factor cited earlier.
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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29 May 2017, 08:34
For Q#4 why is OA E instead of C,
in very first line, in fact we
are told that workers prefer temporary arrangement, but the actual factors of it
are because of fluctuating product demand and labor's reduced bargaining strength,
I selected C because of second factor cited earlier.

The gist is that firms decided to increase temporary positions for their own benefit.

From the first line, we have that entry by different groups were because they preferred such arrangement - "who supposedly prefer such arrangements." but deep into the passage we have that "[b]Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs[/b]"

So E is justifiable since we know that some employees did not necessarily prefer the arrangement. Keyword is "necessarily".

C says that they were involved in actions organized by labor unions. This is a recommendation and we don't have any proof whether they did engage.
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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14 Oct 2018, 02:25
dinhvuong16

Pls see this phrase...

"Given the analyses, which reveal that growth in temporary employment now far exceeds the level explainable by recent workforce entry rates of groups said to prefer temporary jobs, firms should be discouraged from creating excessive numbers of temporary positions"

The above statement is basically telling = people preferring these jobs are less in number than actually present.

Option A) Far more than can be justified by worker preferences = basically just a rephrase...
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ  [#permalink]

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29 May 2019, 00:30
In question no 5,How would experts predict that the number of new temporary positions would decline as fewer workers who preferred temporary employment entered the workforce.

Thanks
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Re: Some observers have attributed the dramatic growth in temporary employ   [#permalink] 29 May 2019, 00:30
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