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# Some scientists have expressed reservations about quantum

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Joined: 17 Sep 2011
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Updated on: 15 Oct 2017, 10:31
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45% (02:19) correct 55% (02:10) wrong based on 187 sessions

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Some scientists have expressed reservations about quantum theory because of its counterintuitive consequences. But despite rigorous attempts to show that quantum theory’s predictions were inaccurate, they were shown to be accurate within the generally accepted statistical margin of error. These results, which have not been equaled by quantum theory’s competitors, warrant acceptance of quantum theory.

Which one of the following principles most helps to justify the reasoning above?
(A) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has fewer counterintuitive consequences than do its competitors. (B) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it and has withstood all of them.
(C) The consequences of a scientific theory should not be considered counterintuitive if the theory’s predictions have been found to be accurate.
(D) A theory should not be rejected until it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it.
(E) A theory should be accepted only if its predictions have not been disproved by experiment

Originally posted by deepti1206 on 23 May 2012, 12:29.
Last edited by abhimahna on 15 Oct 2017, 10:31, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question and added OA
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23 May 2012, 20:34
IMO the answer should be C.
A - there is nothing in the para that presents a case for no. of counter intuitive consequences
B - The para says that opponents of theory are yet to test is so we can't say it has withstood all of it.
D- There is nothing stated in the para to measure seriousness of attempts to disprove a theory
E- extreme option.. says theory should be accepted ONLY if predictions.. nothing in the para says that not being disproved by experiment is the only way for acceptance of theory.

Hope this helps.
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23 May 2012, 22:20
Information Given:

There are some scientists who expressed reservations about quantum theory because of its counterintuitive (ie against their intution) consequences. These scientists made attempts to show that theory's predictions are wrong but the results seem to be within the accepted limits. Hence these results warrant the acceptance of the theory from these scientists.

Let the predictions made by the Quantum theory in general be "Y"
Some scientists predicted that the theory would give the result be "X"
This value "X" is actually within the accepted limits for the theory to be accurate.

Hence the scientists who expressed reservations about the theory can extend their acceptance.

(A) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has fewer counterintuitive consequences than do its competitors. - "Should be accepted" is too strong. Number of Counterintuitive consequences has nothing to do with the acceptance of the theory. - Incorrect
(B) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it and has withstood all of them. - Again "Should be accepted" is too strong. Just because all the attempts to disprove something failed does not necessary qualify it to be accurate. - Incorrect
(C) The consequences of a scientific theory should not be considered counterintuitive if the theory’s predictions have been found to be accurate. - It has been stated that predictions of the theory and the predictions made by some scientists have been close to each other. Hence the correct answer - Correct
(D) A theory should not be rejected until it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it. - Irrelevant - Incorrect
(E) A theory should be accepted only if its predictions have not been disproved by experiment - Incorrect
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24 May 2012, 03:34
Some scientists have expressed reservations about
quantum theory because of its counterintuitive
consequences. But despite rigorous attempts to show
that quantum theory’s predictions were inaccurate,
they were shown to be accurate within the generally
accepted statistical margin of error. These results,
which have not been equaled by quantum theory’s
competitors, warrant acceptance of quantum theory.
Which one of the following principles most helps to
justify the reasoning above?
(A) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has
fewer counterintuitive consequences than do
its competitors.
(B) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has
been subjected to serious attempts to
disprove it and has withstood all of them.
(C) The consequences of a scientific theory should
not be considered counterintuitive if the
theory’s predictions have been found to be
accurate.
(D) A theory should not be rejected until it has
been subjected to serious attempts to
disprove it.
(E) A theory should be accepted only if its
predictions have not been disproved by
experiment

but the OA is B
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24 May 2012, 04:02
Lets look at it one option at a time.

(A): Incorrect. As the stimulus says, rigorous tests were performed to show quantum theory's predictions as inaccurate, but the theory was accepted when the results were found consistent with prediction (within the margin of error). This means that the acceptance/rejection of a theory depends on the results obtained through experiments, not on the basis of whether it has counterintuitive consequences.
(B): This is correct. Quantum theory was subjected to rigorous tests to show that its predictions were incorrect, but it withstood all of them. That was when it was accepted.
(C): Incorrect. The stimulus does not say that if a theory's predictions are accurate then its consequences should not be considered counterproductive.
(D): Incorrect. This is a generalization unsupported by the stimulus.
(E): Incorrect. This is again a generalization unsupported by the stimulus.

Therefore B it is.
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24 May 2012, 13:24
I got B.

B signifies the proper reasoning stated in the para.
Moreover, C tries to mention that attempts to counter quantum theory should never be made. But it is necessary to make the predictions of quantum theory stand still.

Hope I made the point clear.
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24 May 2012, 21:25
guys my bad! for some weird reason i never registered the word 'equaled' in the question and interpreted it as evaluated! (I have no idea how that happened!) now B makes more sense! I stand corrected.
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08 Jun 2012, 04:24
Scientists who are opposing the quantum theory want to oppose it because of the results they got which was oppositive to what they have assumed or predicted.
The results that have found by the scientist are with in the permissible limits to be eligible as legitimate.
Hence the other set of scientists think that the other set of scientists should accept the quantum theory.

(A) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has fewer counterintuitive consequences than do its competitors. - It has nothing to do with the number of conterintuitive consequences - Incorrect(B) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it and has withstood all of them. - Not necessarily. If the results found are outside the permissible limits, then this statement would be wrong - Incorrect
(C) The consequences of a scientific theory should not be considered counterintuitive if the theory’s predictions have been found to be accurate. - If the results are inside the permissible limits then the results should not be considered counter intutive. - Correct
(D) A theory should not be rejected until it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it. - It has already been mentioned in the passage that serious attempts have been made to disprove the theory - Incorrect
(E) A theory should be accepted only if its predictions have not been disproved by experiment - not necessarily, what if the results are beyond the permissible limits - Incorrect
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08 Jun 2012, 06:09
I think the answer should be "b" .It is not about acceptiing whether the theory is counter intutive or not .It is about accepting the theory to be valid or not .I think B states this properly .
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08 Jun 2012, 06:41
deepti1206 wrote:
Some scientists have expressed reservations about
quantum theory because of its counterintuitive
consequences. But despite rigorous attempts to show
that quantum theory’s predictions were inaccurate,
they were shown to be accurate within the generally
accepted statistical margin of error. These results,
which have not been equaled by quantum theory’s
competitors, warrant acceptance of quantum theory.
Which one of the following principles most helps to
justify the reasoning above?
(A) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has
fewer counterintuitive consequences than do
its competitors.
(B) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has
been subjected to serious attempts to
disprove it and has withstood all of them.
(C) The consequences of a scientific theory should
not be considered counterintuitive if the
theory’s predictions have been found to be
accurate.
(D) A theory should not be rejected until it has
been subjected to serious attempts to
disprove it.
(E) A theory should be accepted only if its
predictions have not been disproved by
experiment

the answer to this question is this part of paragraph
"These results,
which have not been equaled by quantum theory’s
competitors, warrant acceptance of quantum theory."

i feel that the answer is B
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11 Jun 2012, 21:08
1
sidhu09 wrote:
Scientists who are opposing the quantum theory want to oppose it because of the results they got which was oppositive to what they have assumed or predicted.
The results that have found by the scientist are with in the permissible limits to be eligible as legitimate.
Hence the other set of scientists think that the other set of scientists should accept the quantum theory.

(A) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has fewer counterintuitive consequences than do its competitors. - It has nothing to do with the number of conterintuitive consequences - Incorrect(B) A scientific theory should be accepted if it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it and has withstood all of them. - Not necessarily. If the results found are outside the permissible limits, then this statement would be wrong - Incorrect
(C) The consequences of a scientific theory should not be considered counterintuitive if the theory’s predictions have been found to be accurate. - If the results are inside the permissible limits then the results should not be considered counter intutive. - Correct
(D) A theory should not be rejected until it has been subjected to serious attempts to disprove it. - It has already been mentioned in the passage that serious attempts have been made to disprove the theory - Incorrect
(E) A theory should be accepted only if its predictions have not been disproved by experiment - not necessarily, what if the results are beyond the permissible limits - Incorrect

Try to identify the conclusion. The conclusion is not about counterintutive, but about acceptance of the theory.
B precisely talks about the criterion of ACCEPTANCE, hence CORRECT.
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11 Jun 2012, 22:45
I got B within 20 seconds...

The stem says QT is suspected to be false due to its counter-intuitive nature, but then accepted on grounds of rigorous *within margins of error* stats analysis. So of course B should be right.

C is wrong because a theory doesn't have to be non-counter-intuitive to be accepted. The stat analysis in fact addresses nothing about counter-intuitivity.

That said, I feel that this question is highly unlikely to be seen on a GMAT test day. The question sounds like a LSAT question to me.
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18 Aug 2018, 15:32
Ans should be option B as the main conclusion is about the acceptance of a theory and not the counterintuitive nature of a theory.
Re: Some scientists have expressed reservations about quantum   [#permalink] 18 Aug 2018, 15:32
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