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Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis

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Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 04 Oct 2007, 04:03
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A
B
C
D
E

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Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

(A) Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
(B) A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
(C) Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
(D) Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
(E) Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by Mahmud6 on 08 Nov 2017, 05:33, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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12345678 wrote:
Some types of organisms originated through
endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by
another so that a part of the former becomes a
functioning part of the latter. An unusual
nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and
resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within
a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions
of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of
this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only
a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were
not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.
Which one of the following is most strongly
supported by the information above?
(A) Only organisms of types that originated
through endosymbiosis contain
nucleomorphs.
(B) A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte
holds all of the genetic material of some
other organism.
(C) Nucleomorphs originated when an organism
endosymbiotically engulfed a
chlorarachniophyte.
(D) Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis
unless at least one of them contains a
nucleomorph.
(E) Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of
two organisms having undergone
endosymbiosis.


Difficult to understand. Between C or E for me.
I go with E.

The stem says that N is found within C. Also, two versions of N are found within C due to the E process. To me, this means that C originates from the process of E.
A is out of scope
B is not right because N only contains genetic material of the one it engluf, not "all" genetic material within C.
D is out of scope
For C, N cannot possibly engulf C since N is in C engulfing another of the same in C.

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2007, 08:51
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I agree with E as well though I took almost 3 minutes to digest what the question is saying.

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2007, 09:05
wow.. this one sounds like a RC question! it was a toss up between C and E for me!!

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 06 Oct 2007, 14:20
Wow- this question took me close to 10minutes. I had to read it over and over again. My vote is for Choice E.
The passage states " Some types of organisms originated through
endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by
another" ( another- implies organism).

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2007, 04:35
12345678 wrote:
Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by
another so that a part of the former becomes a
functioning part of the latter. An unusual
nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and
resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within
a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions
of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of
this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only
a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were
not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus
.
Which one of the following is most strongly
supported by the information above?
(A) Only organisms of types that originated
through endosymbiosis contain
nucleomorphs.
(B) A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte
holds all of the genetic material of some
other organism.
(C) Nucleomorphs originated when an organism
endosymbiotically engulfed a
chlorarachniophyte.
(D) Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis
unless at least one of them contains a
nucleomorph.
(E) Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of
two organisms having undergone
endosymbiosis
.


E for me too.

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2012, 14:13
I'll go with E as well but could someone please confirm the OA?
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.

Last edited by ankurgupta03 on 26 Feb 2014, 02:03, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2014, 08:56
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Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a
part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA
and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of
a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single
version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus. Which one of the
following is most strongly supported by the information above?
A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 23 Feb 2014, 09:23
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IMO E

I actually took time in understanding the stem but then by POE I picked E.

Here is my reasoning:

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs. -- Extreme and never indicated in the stem.
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism. --- Again seems extreme in stating all of the genetic material of some other organism and also wrong as it can't be deduced from the stem.
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte. --- This too we can't deduce from the stem.
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.--- This too is wrong and kind of extreme too
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis. ---This is a rephrase of the stem info i.e. unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph

Good question indeed :-)

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 24 Feb 2014, 07:55
Going with E.
All the complex terms make it difficult to comprehend the logic behind the argument which seems pretty straightforward otherwise.
One type of organism gobbles another one.Some part of the latter becomes functional for the GOBBLER.This happens in a type of plant.So that plant must have been formed by that process.

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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msj1234567 wrote:
Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.

Dear msj1234567,
I'm happy to respond. :-) I searched the web a little, looking for the source. This question may be an LSAT question --- it also has the feel of an LSAT question. That's OK. The arguments on the LSAT are way harder than GMAT CR, but if you can handle LSAT arguments, you are in good shape for GMAT CR.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?
We want to draw a conclusion, something that must be true based on the passage. You may find this blog helpful:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-criti ... inference/

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
We don't know. Maybe most nucleomorphs arise from endosymbiosis, but a few in some totally unrelated species arise from a viral infection of something else. Such a possibility is not excluded by the argument, which only concerns the results of endosymbiosis. Thus, we can't be sure this is true. This is incorrect.

B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
Maybe. Maybe it hold all, or most, or over 50%, or etc. We don't know. It definitely holds some, but "all" is too extreme. This is incorrect.

C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
Hmmm. Who engulfed whom? Was the chlorarachniophyte the "engulfer" or the "engulfee"? We don't know, and the passage gives us no clear basis on which to decide. This is incorrect.

D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
Hmmm. This is not clear. In my reading of the passage, it seemed like two organism with ordinary, run-of-the-mill nuclei, could merge and make a nucleomorph as a result of endosymbiosis. That part is definitely clear from the passage, that nucleomorphs result from endosymbiosis. Does one thing have to have a nucleomorph before endosymbiosis even begins? This is unclear. This answer is incorrect.

E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.
Well, the chlorarachniophytes have two versions of the same gene, which suggests that their nucleomorph resulted from endosymbiosis. We don't know who engulfed whom, but it seems quite clear that the resulting chlorarachniophyte came about from the endosymbiosis of two organism. It may be that one of those two was the chlorarachniophyte itself --- this choice leaves this possibility open. Nevertheless, the fact that the chlorarachniophyte as we now know it, with its nucleomorph, must be the result of endosymbiosis. That's indisputable. This is the correct answer.

Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2014, 22:38
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msj1234567 wrote:
Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.


The information given in the argument is complicated due to the scientific terminology used. Try to make a relationship chart on your rough sheet which looks something like this:

Endosymbiosis - Engulfing of an organism though it serves some function inside the other's body.

chlora... - the plant
|
| (inside it)
|
unusual nucleomorph - DNA resembling cell nucleus
|
| (inside it)
|
Two versions of a gene (implying the nucleomorph is the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus)

So Chlora the plant contains unusual nucleomorph which suggests endosymbiosis.

Now all you need to do is run through the options.

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs. - Not supported
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism. - All genetic material? We dont know
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte. - Not supported
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph. - Not supported
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis. - This is supported. This is what we inferred in our analysis too.

Answer (E)
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2014, 05:44
The terminology used in this question is too complicated, however the information re-phrased translates to this:

1) Some new organism is born when one engulfs the other.
2) The resulting organism has a part of the engulfed organism that is still functioning.
3) A plant (chlora...) contains an unusual nucleo....
4) This unusual nucleo... has 2 versions of a gene where as the norm is only 1 version of the gene. UNLESS this nucleo is the part of an engulfed organism. (see point 2 above).

Now look at the choices...

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
Refer to point 3 above. Note that this particular nucleomorph is unusual, so it is not necessary that only newly born organisms have nucleomorphs... OUT
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
See point 2 above. it is not necessary that "all of the genetic material be present" only a part is present. OUT
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
See point 3, Plant(chlora...) is what contains nucleomorph and plant still exists, hence this answer is misrepresenting what is mentioned in the argument OUT
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
Nowhere mentioned in the argument OUT
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.
Only choice left after the above POE. (OR) We can also deduce this from points 3 & 4 above hence our answer.

Hope I was able to explain it properly.
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2014, 02:37
msj1234567 wrote:
Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a
part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA
and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of
a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single
version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.


Here are some abbreviation:
Endosymbiosis = E
Chlorarachniophytes = C
Nucleomorph = N
Single Gene = 1
Two Versions of Gene = 2

Let's take a part of the last sentence, "one would expect to find 1 if the N were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus."

From this I'm completely allowed to state "if one will not find 1, then N are the remains of an engulfed organism's nucleus, then" (flipping and negating both)

Note that "an engulfed organism's nucleus" is from E.

Thus, we can simply say, "if not 1, then N went through E."

The passage states that "2 were found in N" implying that N is not 1. So the statement looks okay so far.

Also note that the N are in C.

Thus, the conclusion is basically saying, "because N is 2, C went through E"

(E) states exactly the same thing as the last conclusion.

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

(A) Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
(B) A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
(C) Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
(D) Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
(E) Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.


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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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Prajat wrote:
Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

(A) Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
(B) A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
(C) Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
(D) Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
(E) Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.


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OA is E

The Arguments states :
1. Endosymbiosis is a process that involves 2 organisms (1st becomes a functioning part of the latter)
2. 'Unusual' Nucleomorph has been discovered in some plant : chlorarachniophyte and two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this Nuclemorph
3. If the nucleomorph was not associated with Endosymbiosis then only 1 version of gene would have been found.



Answer choices
A) Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs. - This is a direct elimination as it states 'Only' those organisms contain Nucleomorphs that originated through endosymbiosis.
(B) A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism. - Not mentioned in the argument, totally out of scope
(C) Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte. - The nucleomorphs origination process is note explained or given in the argument.
(D) Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph. - Endosymbiosis process is not dependent on nucleomorph.
(E) Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis. - Correct answer choice - Chlorarachniophytes - 2 versions of a particular gene - only possible with Endosymbiosis - 2 organisms.

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 22 Apr 2017, 01:47
(A) Only organisms of types that originated
through endosymbiosis contain
nucleomorphs. - Not supported by the argument. Its a strong statement to make.

(B) A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte
holds all of the genetic material of some
other organism. - Again not supported. Argument says nucleomorph contains the plants DNA not all genetic info of the other organism.

(C) Nucleomorphs originated when an organism
endosymbiotically engulfed a
chlorarachniophyte.- origination of nucleomorphs is not mentioned.

(D) Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis
unless at least one of them contains a
nucleomorph. - Not supported.

(E) Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of
two organisms having undergone
endosymbiosis. - supported in the argument. Check the last line.
Quote:
Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism's nucleus.
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2017, 11:25
msj1234567 wrote:
Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis, the engulfing of one organism by another so that a part of the former becomes a functioning part of the latter. An unusual nucleomorph, a structure that contains DNA and resembles a cell nucleus, has been discovered within a plant known as a chlorarachniophyte. Two versions of a particular gene have been found in the DNA of this nucleomorph, and one would expect to find only a single version of this gene if the nucleomorph were not the remains of an engulfed organism’s nucleus.

Which one of the following is most strongly supported by the information above?

A. Only organisms of types that originated through endosymbiosis contain nucleomorphs.
B. A nucleomorph within the chlorarachniophyte holds all of the genetic material of some other organism.
C. Nucleomorphs originated when an organism endosymbiotically engulfed a chlorarachniophyte.
D. Two organisms will not undergo endosymbiosis unless at least one of them contains a nucleomorph.
E. Chlorarachniophytes emerged as the result of two organisms having undergone endosymbiosis.


Bumping for discussion and more attempts.
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Re: Some types of organisms originated through endosymbiosis   [#permalink] 26 Jul 2017, 11:25

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