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Sound can travel through water for enormous

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Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by dentobizz on 10 Nov 2013, 20:51, edited 1 time in total.
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checked on other forums and OA is C.

"dissipating by" is the correct idiom.

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of - changes the meaning. "Sound" is not prevented. "acoustic energy" is prevented from dissipating
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by - same as A
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by - CORRECT
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of - wordy and 'being' is incorrect.
E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by - same as A. This sounds like sound is preventing its accoustic energy.
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Re: Tough one [#permalink]

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Hi Buddy : Plz find an explanation from the magical Stacey Koprince of MGMAT

The excerpt :

This is an OG question, so I can't discuss it directly, but I can discuss a similar sentence that I make up...

The debate here is between these two "types" of sentences:

1) Light can travel through space for huge distances, its energy prevented from dissipating by X.

2) Light can travel through space for huge distances, preventing its energy from dissipating by X.


Let's start with #1.
The word "prevented" can be a regular conjugated verb or it can be a participle. If it's a participle, it can be part of a verb form (with another conjugated verb before it) or it can indicate a modifier. Examples of the two verb options:

"prevented" as regular conjugated verb: I prevented my paper from blowing away.

Conjugated verb + "prevented" participle: My paper was prevented from blowing away. (The paper was prevented by me.)

Now, what is the difference in those two sentence constructions? The first is active; the second is passive. In the first, the subject (I) is doing the action (prevented). In the second, the subject (paper) is having the action performed on it (I'm still doing the preventing, not the paper).

Could I write: "The paper prevented from blowing away" - meaning, the paper prevented itself from blowing away? Nope. The paper can't prevent itself from blowing away. If we want to use "the paper" as the subject, we have to write this in passive voice.

So. Energy prevented from dissipating by X. Is that a sentence? Can the energy prevent itself from dissipating? No, again. If we want to use "energy" as a subject and have an independent clause here, we have to write this in passive voice, which would be "the energy WAS prevented from dissipating by X."

What does that mean? That word "prevented" is not a conjugated verb or part of a conjugated verb form in this sentence. Therefore, it's a modifier and the stuff after the comma in C is NOT an independent clause - it's the rest of the modifier.

Now, #2.
2) Light can travel through space for huge distances, preventing its energy from dissipating by X.

We have <independent clause>, <-ing modifier>. The -ing modifier needs to modify the preceding clause. Also, the modifier needs to follow from the independent clause; that is, something in the independent clause needs to be doing this "preventing." What is doing this preventing?

Argh. It's the stuff after the word "by." That's not part of the independent clause. Nothing in the independent clause is responsible for "preventing the energy from dissipating." This is a misplaced modifier.

If it's too confusing to understand based on the example above, try this:

Paper can fly through the air for huge distances, preventing it from falling by gusts of wind.

What's preventing the paper from falling? The gusts of wind. But the "preventing" has to refer to the stuff *before* the comma. Nothing *before* the comma is actually preventing the paper from falling.
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Re: Tough one [#permalink]

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New post 03 Sep 2012, 22:09
siddharthasingh wrote:
Capricorn369 wrote:
Answer is C.

Excellent explanation given by Stacey and sharted by skmskm. Cheers.

Can you elaborate the difference in meaning between b and c.


Plz have a look at Stacey's post :

B : Could I write: "The paper prevented from blowing away" - meaning, the paper prevented itself from blowing away? Nope. The paper can't prevent itself from blowing away. If we want to use "the paper" as the subject, we have to write this in passive voice.

So. Energy prevented from dissipating by X. Is that a sentence? Can the energy prevent itself from dissipating? No, again. If we want to use "energy" as a subject and have an independent clause here, we have to write this in passive voice, which would be "the energy WAS prevented from dissipating by X."

C : Paper can fly through the air for huge distances, preventing it from falling by gusts of wind.

What's preventing the paper from falling? The gusts of wind. But the "preventing" has to refer to the stuff *before* the comma. Nothing *before* the comma is actually preventing the paper from falling.
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Re: Set26-37 Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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Hi fameatop,

This is in response to your PM. :)

Let's analyze the structure of Choice C: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

There is no doubt that the portion before the comma is an Independent Clause with "Sound" as a Subject and "can travel" as a Verb.
Now let's look at the latter portion of the sentence.

its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

This structure is actually Noun + Noun Modifier that modifies the preceding clause.
Noun = its acoustic energy
Noun Modifier = prevented from dissipating...

(For more on this topic, please read the article in this link: noun-noun-modifiers-before-we-start-discussing-about-the-137292.html)

What does this portions says? It says that its (sounds) acoustic energy prevented. Now does it make sense that the sound itself prevents its acoustic energy? No, it does. Now read further. "its acoustic energy prevented... by water layers of different temperatures and densities." Now, does this make sense? Yes, it does. This structure actually provided the characteristic of the acoustic energy in that it says that this acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

In original Choice C, "prevented" CANNOT be a passive voice also because it is not preceded by a helping verb such as is/am/are/was/were etc. So, prevented here id just a verb-ed modifier, a Noun Modifier that modifies the preceding noun entity "its acoustic energy". Together this modified noun + noun modifier modifies the preceding clause by presenting the reason for the main action in the sentence.

Remember, we are talking about the CORRCT OFFICIAL answer choice. It cannot have a grave error of fragment.

Hope this helps. :-)
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 04 Dec 2013, 07:11
It feels like something is missing...

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

If we replace
dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities
with "something", we get

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from something.

This sounds like saying: Tom arrived late, his colleagues annoyed by this fact.

What I'm trying to say is that this sounds incomplete. I think it's missing a "with" like:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, with its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
Any takes on this?
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 16 Jan 2014, 08:30
sidpopy wrote:
E is the right answer, how come "C" .
how can one connect two independent sentences with out conjunction. In "C" the two sentence are run on sentences.


Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by
What is its referring to? Sound or Water? antecedent is not clear E is wrong.

C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
This is called an absolute phrase and modifies the entire clause that precedes it.

Read about absolute phrases on gmatclub and magoosh
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Re: Sound [#permalink]

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New post 10 Mar 2014, 07:59
Samwong wrote:
The OA is C
The source is Verbal Review 2nd Ed

I'm confused about the structure of the sentence. According to the explanation from the book, "prevented..." is a participial phrase modifying the noun "acoustic energy". Since there is no conjunction between "distances" and "its", is the second part of the sentence an appositive (noun phrase)? If the second part is an appositive, which noun is it modifying?

Main clause

"Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities."


I also believe it's a noun phrase, but an absolute phrase. Granted, I have seen little of this style on OG GMAT questions, but the description of an absolute phrase fits the bill. See below from http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm

"Usually (but not always, as we shall see), an absolute phrase (also called a nominative absolute) is a group of words consisting of a noun or pronoun and a participle as well as any related modifiers. Absolute phrases do not directly connect to or modify any specific word in the rest of the sentence; instead, they modify the entire sentence, adding information. They are always treated as parenthetical elements and are set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash or pair of dashes). Notice that absolute phrases contain a subject (which is often modified by a participle), but not a true finite verb.

"It is not unusual for the information supplied in the absolute phrase to be the most important element in the sentence. In fact, in descriptive prose, the telling details will often be wrapped into a sentence in the form of an absolute phrase:

"Coach Nykesha strolled onto the court, her arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between her teeth.
The new recruits stood in one corner of the gym, their uniforms stiff and ill fitting, their faces betraying their anxiety."

I hope this helps.
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Hi honchos,

This is in response to your PM. :)

Let’s first understand the meaning of the original sentence:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
o prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

MEANING

• This sentence represents a fact that sound can travel through water for long distances.
• Then it tells the reason behind this fact: It says that the water layers of different temperatures and densities create boundaries in the ocean. These boundaries prevent the acoustic energy of sound form dissipating.
So, according to the original sentence the action of ‘preventing’ is done by the boundaries created by water layers.


Now, let’s take a look at OPTION E:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
o preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

VERB-ing MODIFIER
If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the preceding clause. This modifier makes sense with the subject of the preceding clause, and it:
i) Either provides additional information about the preceding clause
ii) Or presents the result of the preceding clause.

Tom killed the snake, using a stick. (Additional Information)
The recession adversely affected the company’s business, reducing its profits by 50%. (Result)
In both the above sentences, the subject makes sense with the verb-ing modifier, since it is clear from these sentences that “Tom used the stick” and “The recession reduced the profits”.

Now, in the given sentence, the verb-ing modifier ‘preventing’ presents additional information about the preceding clause. Also, the subject ‘sound’ should make sense with ‘preventing’.
So, this sentence conveys the meaning that sound prevents its acoustic energy from dissipating. This is not the intended meaning of the original sentence since the boundaries did the action of preventing, not the sound.


Hope this helps! :)
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*700* Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

The independent clause is "Sound can travel through water for enormous distances" and rest is the modifier.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of -> prevented is past participle modifier (verbed modifier) and should modify the nearest noun -> enormous distances -> doesn't make sense.

B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by -> Same issue as that of A)

C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by -> correct as prevented is modifying the "its acoustic energy" - a noun

D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of -> dissipating not as a result of boundaries of ocean but because of boundaries of ocean

E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by -> comma + verbing modifier attaches to the subject of the previous clause which means Sound itself is preventing its acoustic energy which is ridiculous.
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Re: *700* Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.


A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
comma+ed modifier modifies the closest noun - thus incorrect

B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
same error as in A.

C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
noun+noun modifier used correctly.

D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
being is correctly used in 2 cases:
1. when it is used as a noun
2. when it is used in a passive voice construction
none of these cases is here, hence incorrect.

E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by
comma+ing modifier modifies entire clause by associating itself with subject and verb of the clause preceded. thus, in this case it is incorrectly used.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 30 Oct 2015, 20:53
This is a really great question. Definitely a 700+ level. +1 Kudos to the submitter.

Overlooking the intended meaning, I initially marked E. I knew i was marking the wrong answer but none other made sense either. Then i came across the concept of 'Absolute Phrase'. The OA of this question is actually one :)

I googled and got this definition:
Absolute Phrase
"An absolute phrase is a modifier (quite often a participle), or a modifier and a few other words, that attaches to a sentence or a noun, with no conjunction. An absolute phrase cannot contain a finite verb."

Its construction a great way to learn GMAT SC, here's our sentence with its own absolute phrase: (i just created one if you notice ;))
"Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities".


Here's another example from GMAT Prep:
With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Farenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water though to be frozen from top to bottom

A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with
B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its
C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has
D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its
E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have

Here's more about Absolute Phrases if you would like
http://www.testmagic.com/grammar/explan ... uction.asp
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Re: SC:VR2 Sound can travel through [#permalink]

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New post 25 Feb 2016, 22:05
mahakmalik wrote:
Please explain why it should be C.?
I thought sound travels long distances because it's energy is prevented from dissipating.So a participle should come to modify whole clause.
That is why i marked E


Option C matches the intended meaning which states "Acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating by boundaries" means "The prevention happens because of the boundaries over there"

Option E states "Something is preventing from the dissipation that will happen through the boundaries". This entirely change the meaning of the sentence.

To understand more about modifiers (Verb -ing + -ed modifiers) read e-gmat articles from 3 to 7. this will give u a better understanding.

e-gmat-s-all-sc-topics-consolidated-144985.html#p1162634
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 12 Jul 2016, 23:35
C is the correct answer,
Here MEANING is as important as grammar.
A non living thing cannot prevent anything on its own. Sound cannot prevent dissipation of energy. The dissipation of energy of sound can be prevented by something else; in this case the boundaries of water layers.

Other example are :-
Using thermometer, body's temperature can be measured --> Not preferable
Using thermometer, a doctor can measure body's temperature.--> BETTER CHOICE

The new fire extinguishers prevented a huge fire at the cinema hall even before the arrival of fire fighters. --> Not preferable
Using the new fire extinguishers, the cinema hall workers prevented a huge fire even before the arrival of fire fighters --> BETTER CHOICE



Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 14 Jul 2016, 11:18
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of - Incorrect
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by - Incorrect - present continuous
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by - Correct.
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of - Incorrect
E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

mikemcgarry - plz share correct explanation.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2016, 15:14
anje29 wrote:
I have a doubt though it is a official guide question and answer C is correct , but I can't understand how the two clauses are just separated by comma not any connecting word .

Experts , please help


The second part after comma is not an independent clause; it is an absolute phrase. Absolute phrases consist of the following structure:
noun (or noun phrase) + noun (noun phrase) modifier

Absolute phrase modifiers modify the adjacent clause as a whole.

Here,
noun phrase= its acoustic energy
noun phrase modifier = prevented from dissipating (prevented is a past participle, not a verb)

The absolute phrase modifier its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating... modifies the clause Sound can travel through water for enormous distances.

Thus the use of comma is alright. Another example of absolute clause is as follows:

His held head high, he left the room.

The underlined part here is the absolute phrase.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jul 2016, 15:49
Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by


prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries
its doesnt have clear antecedant.
Meaning is not clear: its acoustic energy as a result of boundries in the ocean. Meaning less.

A. Wrong cause of above reason
B. Same reason.
C. Right ans.
D. Being dissipated, changes the meaning , which say , its accoustic energy can or cannot be dissipated, not a fact, but original sentence conveys fact.
E. Wrong meaning: Sound is preventing its acoustic energy.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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crazykaushik wrote:
Though everybody has agreed at "C" as OA, I still have a doubt regarding this. Doesn't it create a run on sentence construction? There is a clause before comma and then without any coordinating conjunction or there stands another clause starting with its. Experts please explain.

Hi crazykaushik, a run-on sentence construction is when two Independent clauses are connected by a comma.

In option C, the following portion of the sentence is not an Independent clause:

its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

In fact, it is not even a clause. This kind of a construct is called absolute modifier and has the following structure:

i) Noun (its acoustic energy) +
ii) Noun-modifier (prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities)

This is very frequently tested on GMAT and so, it might be a good idea to make yourself comfortable with this structure.

Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Absolute modifiers, their application and examples in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 12 Aug 2016, 06:39
Sunil01 wrote:
Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by



hi experts,
I am not getting the usage of comma here.
I know comma is not in the underlined part, but I want to understand the usage of comma.
what is the impact on the sentence if we remove comma.

Thanks & regards,
Sunil01


We need a comma before a non-essential modifier - a modifier that states something extra about the noun or the sentence it modifies and can be omitted without changing the meaning of the rest of the sentence. Here "its acoustic energy...." is a non- essential absolute phrase modifier, and hence a comma is mandatory. Absolute phrase modifiers are always non-essential type.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous [#permalink]

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New post 13 Oct 2016, 13:27
Economist wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result ofboundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different
temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
E preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by


prevented - is a v-ed modifier, it modifies the closest noun in touches (which is distances). this is clearly not the intended meaning. hence, a & b are out.

E- the v-ing modifier can either provide a discription on the "how aspect" or "result" regarding the preceding clause and it's verb. in this case it does not makes sense to say that:
- "Sound can travel by water by preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating"
- "as a result that sound travel by water, it acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating.."

hence E is out.

D - the use of "being is incorrect here. "Being" is used to describe a "present continuous situation" or to describe a situation (e.g. "being health all the time is good for your family). hence D is out.

C. we have a "noun" (acoustic energy) + "noun modifier" (prevented -> "V-ed" modifier which modifies the preceding noun) which can modify any entity in the preceding clause/phrase or the entire clause/phrase itself. in this case it modifies the noun "sound".
Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous   [#permalink] 13 Oct 2016, 13:27

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