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# Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from

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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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07 Apr 2009, 11:27
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46% (00:51) correct 54% (01:18) wrong based on 3714 sessions

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Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

(A) prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of
(B) prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
(C) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
(D) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
(E) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 10 Aug 2017, 09:28, edited 2 times in total.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2010, 10:51
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checked on other forums and OA is C.

"dissipating by" is the correct idiom.

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

A. prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of - changes the meaning. "Sound" is not prevented. "acoustic energy" is prevented from dissipating
B. prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by - same as A
C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by - CORRECT
D. its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of - wordy and 'being' is incorrect.
E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by - same as A. This sounds like sound is preventing its accoustic energy.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2012, 12:59
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Hi Buddy : Plz find an explanation from the magical Stacey Koprince of MGMAT

The excerpt :

This is an OG question, so I can't discuss it directly, but I can discuss a similar sentence that I make up...

The debate here is between these two "types" of sentences:

1) Light can travel through space for huge distances, its energy prevented from dissipating by X.

2) Light can travel through space for huge distances, preventing its energy from dissipating by X.

The word "prevented" can be a regular conjugated verb or it can be a participle. If it's a participle, it can be part of a verb form (with another conjugated verb before it) or it can indicate a modifier. Examples of the two verb options:

"prevented" as regular conjugated verb: I prevented my paper from blowing away.

Conjugated verb + "prevented" participle: My paper was prevented from blowing away. (The paper was prevented by me.)

Now, what is the difference in those two sentence constructions? The first is active; the second is passive. In the first, the subject (I) is doing the action (prevented). In the second, the subject (paper) is having the action performed on it (I'm still doing the preventing, not the paper).

Could I write: "The paper prevented from blowing away" - meaning, the paper prevented itself from blowing away? Nope. The paper can't prevent itself from blowing away. If we want to use "the paper" as the subject, we have to write this in passive voice.

So. Energy prevented from dissipating by X. Is that a sentence? Can the energy prevent itself from dissipating? No, again. If we want to use "energy" as a subject and have an independent clause here, we have to write this in passive voice, which would be "the energy WAS prevented from dissipating by X."

What does that mean? That word "prevented" is not a conjugated verb or part of a conjugated verb form in this sentence. Therefore, it's a modifier and the stuff after the comma in C is NOT an independent clause - it's the rest of the modifier.

Now, #2.
2) Light can travel through space for huge distances, preventing its energy from dissipating by X.

We have <independent clause>, <-ing modifier>. The -ing modifier needs to modify the preceding clause. Also, the modifier needs to follow from the independent clause; that is, something in the independent clause needs to be doing this "preventing." What is doing this preventing?

Argh. It's the stuff after the word "by." That's not part of the independent clause. Nothing in the independent clause is responsible for "preventing the energy from dissipating." This is a misplaced modifier.

If it's too confusing to understand based on the example above, try this:

Paper can fly through the air for huge distances, preventing it from falling by gusts of wind.

What's preventing the paper from falling? The gusts of wind. But the "preventing" has to refer to the stuff *before* the comma. Nothing *before* the comma is actually preventing the paper from falling.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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03 Sep 2012, 22:09
siddharthasingh wrote:
Capricorn369 wrote:

Excellent explanation given by Stacey and sharted by skmskm. Cheers.

Can you elaborate the difference in meaning between b and c.

Plz have a look at Stacey's post :

B : Could I write: "The paper prevented from blowing away" - meaning, the paper prevented itself from blowing away? Nope. The paper can't prevent itself from blowing away. If we want to use "the paper" as the subject, we have to write this in passive voice.

So. Energy prevented from dissipating by X. Is that a sentence? Can the energy prevent itself from dissipating? No, again. If we want to use "energy" as a subject and have an independent clause here, we have to write this in passive voice, which would be "the energy WAS prevented from dissipating by X."

C : Paper can fly through the air for huge distances, preventing it from falling by gusts of wind.

What's preventing the paper from falling? The gusts of wind. But the "preventing" has to refer to the stuff *before* the comma. Nothing *before* the comma is actually preventing the paper from falling.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2013, 00:10
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Reading the discussion on this thread surely took my head for a spin. I don't know if I could also blame the time (its past midnight here). Anyways, I will give my two cents on this discussion.

But first of all, @marcab, welcome back!!
After reading through your doubts here, I think I can figure out why you are confused between choices B and C. There is two-fold reason for your confusion

1: Use of verb-ed modifier - verb-ed modifiers modify the closest noun phrase. In the context of GMAT, I have not seen a single question in which these modifiers modify the preceding clause. Yes in normal English usage, we do use these modifiers the way we use verb-ing modifiers to modify the preceding clause. Now that being said, your explanation about the use of "prevented" to modify the subject "sound" is not correct.

2: The use of modifier "by boundaries" - The way these choices are constructed lead to two different modifications in the sentence.

Choice B: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

prevented from what?
prevented from having its acoustic energy what?
prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by what?
prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by boundaries.
Per the logical intended meaning, do the boundaries "dissipate the energy"? No. Boundaries prevent the dissipation.
Another thing - "by boundaries" is too far away from "prevented" to modify it.

Now lets look at choice C
Choice C: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

prevented from what?
prevented from dissipating
prevented by what?
prevented by boundaries
so together we have - prevented from dissipating by boundaries
By contrast, in this choice, "by boundaries" is in good proximity of "prevented" to modify it correctly.

I hope this helps with the meaning clarification!
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2013, 07:59
egmat wrote:
Reading the discussion on this thread surely took my head for a spin. I don't know if I could also blame the time (its past midnight here). Anyways, I will give my two cents on this discussion.

But first of all, @marcab, welcome back!!
After reading through your doubts here, I think I can figure out why you are confused between choices B and C. There is two-fold reason for your confusion

1: Use of verb-ed modifier - verb-ed modifiers modify the closest noun phrase. In the context of GMAT, I have not seen a single question in which these modifiers modify the preceding clause. Yes in normal English usage, we do use these modifiers the way we use verb-ing modifiers to modify the preceding clause. Now that being said, your explanation about the use of "prevented" to modify the subject "sound" is not correct.

2: The use of modifier "by boundaries" - The way these choices are constructed lead to two different modifications in the sentence.

Choice B: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

prevented from what?
prevented from having its acoustic energy what?
prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by what?
prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by boundaries.
Per the logical intended meaning, do the boundaries "dissipate the energy"? No. Boundaries prevent the dissipation.
Another thing - "by boundaries" is too far away from "prevented" to modify it.

Now lets look at choice C
Choice C: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

prevented from what?
prevented from dissipating
prevented by what?
prevented by boundaries
so together we have - prevented from dissipating by boundaries
By contrast, in this choice, "by boundaries" is in good proximity of "prevented" to modify it correctly.

I hope this helps with the meaning clarification!

e-GMAT,
Could you please come up with the detail analysis and explanation for this...I'm not able to get it

I thought correct ans: E
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2013, 01:31
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absolute phrase in c shows the context of main clause.

the meaning in c is

in the context that, energy of sound is prevented from dissipating by...., sound can travel a long distance.

the meaing relation between absolute phrase, and main clause should be understood clearly. Unforturenately, there is no grammar book which said about this point.

any one know about the meaning relation between absolute phrase and main clause, pls, share. sc is meaning game. this means we have to diferentiate between the distorted meaning and intended meaning and so, we have to know this meaning relation.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2013, 07:46
Quote:
any one know about the meaning relation between absolute phrase and main clause

The trick in order to identify absolute phrase is to check whether the clause contains a verb or not. If the clause contains a verb then it cannot be the AP.
Moreover, an AP will always answer HOW of the preceding clause.
Hope that helps.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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03 Mar 2013, 11:45
Marcab wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
1)same as underlined
2)prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
3) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
4) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
5) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

I need proper explanations that why correct answer is correct and why incorrect ones are not correct.

If you think that this is a good question, then kudo me.

Will post the OA after some discussion.

Choice 1 - uses "as a result of" (there cannot be a result of boundaries)
Choice 2 - ed verb (modifying closest noun/ other reason already mentioned in post)
Choice 3 - correct pronoun referent, ed form of verb and use of by
Choice 4 - uses as a result of
Choice 5 - ing verb, modifying entire clause
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 21:59
Somehow I don't agree with the previous explanation about verb-ed modifiers.

"prevented from blah blah......",Sound can travel through water ...............

Is Correct !

however , the problem with (B) is that

having its acoustic energy dissipated by boundaries.

Acoustic energy is not dissipated by boundaries as per the meaning.

Furthermore, the placement of "by boundaries " is anywhere correct as it is a Verb modifier
with less restrictions to its placement.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2013, 07:35
Quote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
1)same as underlined
2)prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
3) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
4) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
5) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

Responding to a PM
The basic difference between B and C is the subject.
In B, subject is "sound'. So B implies that "sound" is prevented from having its acoustic energy bla bla bla.
C, in which the subject is "acoustic energy", on the other hand implies that "sound's acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating bla bla bla". Moreover the construction that is used in C is of "absolute phrase". Whenever you come across this construction, just ask HOW after the clause just before the absolute phrase. If the Absolute phrase answers your "how" question correctly in exact words then that choice is the answer.
"Sound can travel through water for enormous distances". HOW?
ANSWER: its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

Hope that helps.
Let me know if more clarification is required.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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04 Sep 2013, 13:58
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Marcab wrote:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
1)same as underlined
2)prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by
3) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
4) its acoustic energy prevented from being dissipated as a result of
5) preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by

I need proper explanations that why correct answer is correct and why incorrect ones are not correct.

If you think that this is a good question, then kudo me.

Will post the OA after some discussion.

Step 1)

I noticed the first phrase before the comma was a complete thought: "Sound can travel through water for enormous distances"

So that means what follows the comma must be a descriptive phrase.

Step 2)

I noticed one of the answer choices was a descriptive -ING verb phrase - so I ask myself: does it make sense that the SOUND is the one that is PREVENTING its acoustic energy from dissipating by X?

No - it does not make sense that sound prevents something.

So that leads me to look at (C) and (D) more carefully.

Step 3)

Between these two choices, (C) is clearly simpler - with fewer words. It also does not have the red flag word "being"in there. So at this point, (C) appears to be the best of the available answer choices.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2013, 02:38
IMO C

In C, we have an Absolute Phrase- A modifier that is modifying the subject i.e. Sound. In case of B, prevented from having its acoustic energy dissipated by -it's a Verb-ed modifier modifying the nearest noun could be either 'Water' or 'distances'. Ambiguous and moreover, this is not what is intended by the sentence.

Similar to this question:

With surface temperatures estimated at minus 230 degrees Fahrenheit, Jupiter's moon Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with 60 square miles of water thought to be frozen from top to bottom.

(A) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, and with

(B) Europa has long been considered far too cold to support life, its

(C) Europa has long been considered as far too cold to support life and has

(D) Europa, long considered as far too cold to support life, and its

(E) Europa, long considered to be far too cold to support life, and to have

Thanks!!

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 12:55
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Hi fameatop,

This is in response to your PM.

Let's analyze the structure of Choice C: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

There is no doubt that the portion before the comma is an Independent Clause with "Sound" as a Subject and "can travel" as a Verb.
Now let's look at the latter portion of the sentence.

its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

This structure is actually Noun + Noun Modifier that modifies the preceding clause.
Noun = its acoustic energy
Noun Modifier = prevented from dissipating...

What does this portions says? It says that its (sounds) acoustic energy prevented. Now does it make sense that the sound itself prevents its acoustic energy? No, it does. Now read further. "its acoustic energy prevented... by water layers of different temperatures and densities." Now, does this make sense? Yes, it does. This structure actually provided the characteristic of the acoustic energy in that it says that this acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

In original Choice C, "prevented" CANNOT be a passive voice also because it is not preceded by a helping verb such as is/am/are/was/were etc. So, prevented here id just a verb-ed modifier, a Noun Modifier that modifies the preceding noun entity "its acoustic energy". Together this modified noun + noun modifier modifies the preceding clause by presenting the reason for the main action in the sentence.

Remember, we are talking about the CORRCT OFFICIAL answer choice. It cannot have a grave error of fragment.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2013, 07:11
It feels like something is missing...

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

If we replace
dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities
with "something", we get

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from something.

This sounds like saying: Tom arrived late, his colleagues annoyed by this fact.

What I'm trying to say is that this sounds incomplete. I think it's missing a "with" like:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, with its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
Any takes on this?

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2014, 08:30
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sidpopy wrote:
E is the right answer, how come "C" .
how can one connect two independent sentences with out conjunction. In "C" the two sentence are run on sentences.

Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

E. preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by
What is its referring to? Sound or Water? antecedent is not clear E is wrong.

C. its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by
This is called an absolute phrase and modifies the entire clause that precedes it.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2014, 07:59
Samwong wrote:
The OA is C
The source is Verbal Review 2nd Ed

I'm confused about the structure of the sentence. According to the explanation from the book, "prevented..." is a participial phrase modifying the noun "acoustic energy". Since there is no conjunction between "distances" and "its", is the second part of the sentence an appositive (noun phrase)? If the second part is an appositive, which noun is it modifying?

Main clause

"Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities."

I also believe it's a noun phrase, but an absolute phrase. Granted, I have seen little of this style on OG GMAT questions, but the description of an absolute phrase fits the bill. See below from http://grammar.ccc.commnet.edu/grammar/phrases.htm

"Usually (but not always, as we shall see), an absolute phrase (also called a nominative absolute) is a group of words consisting of a noun or pronoun and a participle as well as any related modifiers. Absolute phrases do not directly connect to or modify any specific word in the rest of the sentence; instead, they modify the entire sentence, adding information. They are always treated as parenthetical elements and are set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma or a pair of commas (sometimes by a dash or pair of dashes). Notice that absolute phrases contain a subject (which is often modified by a participle), but not a true finite verb.

"It is not unusual for the information supplied in the absolute phrase to be the most important element in the sentence. In fact, in descriptive prose, the telling details will often be wrapped into a sentence in the form of an absolute phrase:

"Coach Nykesha strolled onto the court, her arms akimbo and a large silver whistle clenched between her teeth.
The new recruits stood in one corner of the gym, their uniforms stiff and ill fitting, their faces betraying their anxiety."

I hope this helps.

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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2014, 09:10
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Hi honchos,

This is in response to your PM.

Let’s first understand the meaning of the original sentence:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
o prevented from dissipating its acoustic energy as a result of boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

MEANING

• This sentence represents a fact that sound can travel through water for long distances.
• Then it tells the reason behind this fact: It says that the water layers of different temperatures and densities create boundaries in the ocean. These boundaries prevent the acoustic energy of sound form dissipating.
So, according to the original sentence the action of ‘preventing’ is done by the boundaries created by water layers.

Now, let’s take a look at OPTION E:
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
o preventing its acoustic energy from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

VERB-ing MODIFIER
If a verb-ing modifier is placed after a clause and it is preceded by a comma, then it modifies the preceding clause. This modifier makes sense with the subject of the preceding clause, and it:
ii) Or presents the result of the preceding clause.

Tom killed the snake, using a stick. (Additional Information)
The recession adversely affected the company’s business, reducing its profits by 50%. (Result)
In both the above sentences, the subject makes sense with the verb-ing modifier, since it is clear from these sentences that “Tom used the stick” and “The recession reduced the profits”.

Now, in the given sentence, the verb-ing modifier ‘preventing’ presents additional information about the preceding clause. Also, the subject ‘sound’ should make sense with ‘preventing’.
So, this sentence conveys the meaning that sound prevents its acoustic energy from dissipating. This is not the intended meaning of the original sentence since the boundaries did the action of preventing, not the sound.

Hope this helps!
Deepak
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2014, 19:39
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Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2014, 07:15
Marcab
My explanation
second portion in option c is not an independent clause ( It would be if - its acoustic energy is prevented from dissipating by---)
Think like ( its acoustic energy) -One entity prevented (Modifier) from dissipating by
so it is ok

Kudos [?]: [0], given: 3

Re: Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, prevented from   [#permalink] 17 Sep 2014, 07:15

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