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# Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen

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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2005, 10:46
amit_upasani@hotmail.com wrote:
Choice C => There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.
which contradicts #2 above. There actually are two substances that vaporize more readily than methane.

There are two substances that vaporize more readily than methane, but neither of them vaporize less readily than CO. So in other words, no substance vaporizes more readily than methane and less readily than CO. Therefore it is ok, not contraditing to your point #2.
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2005, 11:37
>> (C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.

However, it fills only one of the gaps. Nitro still has two positions left in the hierarchy.

What's the OA?
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2005, 19:38
amit_upasani@hotmail.com wrote:
>> (C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.

However, it fills only one of the gaps. Nitro still has two positions left in the hierarchy.

What's the OA?

Agree with you that (C) does fill only one gap, but i feel it holds up the conclusion much stronger than (A).

I'll stick with (C).

OA ?
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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16 Mar 2005, 20:01
Thank you all

All in all, the OA is indeed C.

Welcome more discussions.
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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07 May 2011, 11:53
another tricky one , where the exact wordings of an option can not be overlooked , i got this wrong. 'less readily than CO but more readily than methane' this sets a boundary condition between which no other substance can lie, and the way it is worded , makes one think about nitrogen being the substance which is more readily vaporized.
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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27 Aug 2015, 01:05
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2015, 11:37
I will go with C. initially i was stuck b/w A and C. A does not give any clear hint about the order, which is very much essential. C resolves this issue.
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Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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26 Apr 2016, 08:51
But C just addresses the fact that there is no gas between carbon monoxide and methane.
Maybe there is some gas between nitrogen and carbon monoxide.

Moreover A is a good assumption and also weakens it.
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2016, 23:54
chunjuwu wrote:
Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on the surface of Pluto. Such ices have a tendency to vaporize, producing an atmosphere. Since the proportion of any gas in such an atmosphere depends directly on how readily the corresponding ice vaporizes, astronomers have concluded that the components of Plutoâ€™s atmosphere are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, in order of decreasing abundance.

The astronomersâ€™ argument relies on which one of the following assumptions?

(A) There is no more frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane.

(B) Until space probes reach Pluto, direct analysis of the atmosphere is impossible.

(C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.

(D) Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere of a planet only if nitrogen ice is found on the surface of that planet.

(E) A mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane is characteristic of the substances from which the Solar System formed.

OA Provided

Lets assume that there is indeed a gas which vaporizes more readily than CM, but the abundance on the surface is less. The fact does not state that " ONLY three gases are found on the surface.
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Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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08 Jun 2016, 23:55
chunjuwu wrote:
Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on the surface of Pluto. Such ices have a tendency to vaporize, producing an atmosphere. Since the proportion of any gas in such an atmosphere depends directly on how readily the corresponding ice vaporizes, astronomers have concluded that the components of Plutoâ€™s atmosphere are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, in order of decreasing abundance.

The astronomersâ€™ argument relies on which one of the following assumptions?

(A) There is no more frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane.

(B) Until space probes reach Pluto, direct analysis of the atmosphere is impossible.

(C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.

(D) Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere of a planet only if nitrogen ice is found on the surface of that planet.

(E) A mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane is characteristic of the substances from which the Solar System formed.

OA Provided

Lets assume that there is indeed a gas which vaporizes more readily than CM, but the abundance on the surface is less. The fact does not state that " ONLY three gases are found on the surface. There may be 5 more gases on the surface but they are in less quantity, so when they vaporize more readily than CO the amount in the atmosphere will be less.

So, how can C be correct answer?
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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12 Nov 2016, 00:13
[quote="chunjuwu"]Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on the surface of Pluto. Such ices have a tendency to vaporize, producing an atmosphere. Since the proportion of any gas in such an atmosphere depends directly on how readily the corresponding ice vaporizes, astronomers have concluded that the components of Plutoâ€™s atmosphere are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, in order of decreasing abundance.

The astronomersâ€™ argument relies on which one of the following assumptions?

(A) There is no more frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane.

(B) Until space probes reach Pluto, direct analysis of the atmosphere is impossible.

(C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide.

(D) Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere of a planet only if nitrogen ice is found on the surface of that planet.

(E) A mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane is characteristic of the substances from which the Solar System formed.

Let's break down into premises and conclusion

Premsie 1:Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on the surface of Pluto.
Premise 2:Such ices have a tendency to vaporize, producing an atmosphere.
Premise 3: The proportion of any gas in such an atmosphere depends directly on how readily the corresponding ice vaporizes.

Conclusion: astronomers have concluded that the components of Plutoâ€™s atmosphere are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, in order of decreasing abundance.
As per the conclusion N2> CO> CH4

Think for a moment how astronmers conclude "N2> CO> CH4" based on the above primises
Possible assumption: rate of evaporation of N2 is greater than CO and rate of evoparation of CO is greater than CH4.
In one premise it was wtitten any (hilighted in red).
on the basis of this
No gas comes in between N2 and CO and in between CO and CH4.

Let's POE

(A) IncorrectThere is no more frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane. we cannot assume this because nothing related to this is indicated in the passage. So, A is Irrrevelant.

(B) IncorrectUntil space probes reach Pluto, direct analysis of the atmosphere is impossible. Out of scope. No way this helps us to achieve the conclusion

(C) CorrectThere is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide. This mathches with our prethinking.
Don't forget to negate the correct option to checkoption's validity. If negated option invalidate the conclusion the that assumption is valid assumption.
Let's negate
There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide. The negated version says there is some frozen substance in between then. Hence shatters our conclusion.

(D) IncorrectNitrogen is found in the atmosphere of a planet only if nitrogen ice is found on the surface of that planet. Nothing such can be assumend.

(E) IncorrectA mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane is characteristic of the substances from which the Solar System formed. This option is of no help

Hence C
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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15 Nov 2016, 11:40
Here is my analysis

Argument structure
Conc: Astronomers have concluded that the components of Pluto's atmosphere are nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane, in order of decreasing abundance.
Basis of concusion (P): Since the proportion of any gas in such an atmosphere depends directly on how readily the corresponding ice vaporizes,
P1: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen nitrogen, methane, and carbon monoxide on the surface of Pluto.
P2: Such ices have a tendency to vaporize, producing an atmosphere.

Pre-thinking
First thing to notice when you start reading the argument is that S analysis revealed the existence of 3 elements in Pluto (so you assume that could be more elements). But when you reach the conclusion, the author says that Astronomers have concluded that the components of Pluto's atmosphere are the same 3 elements (so no more element in Pluto's atmosphere). Now, the basis of the conclusion says that the abundance of each element in the atmosphere depends on how easily the frozen elements evaporate. Because the conclusion establishes an order of the abundance of each gas in Pluto's atmosphere, one can assume that there are only 3 element, that Nitrogen is the most abundant, and that CO is the least abundant.

(A) There is no more frozen nitrogen on the surface of Pluto than there is either frozen carbon monoxide or methane. Incorrect
No clue about the abundance of frozen gases in Pluto's surface.

(B) Until space probes reach Pluto, direct analysis of the atmosphere is impossible. OFS.

(C) There is no frozen substance on the surface of Pluto that vaporizes more readily than methane but less readily than carbon monoxide. Correct!
Aligned with pre-thinking. If negated, the conclusion of scientists is shattered.

(D) Nitrogen is found in the atmosphere of a planet only if nitrogen ice is found on the surface of that planet. OFS
Too broad in scope.. we are talking about Pluto in the argument. We can not make that generalization.

(E) A mixture of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and methane is characteristic of the substances from which the Solar System formed. OFS
Too broad in scope.. we are talking about Pluto in the argument. Nothing is mention about Solar System
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Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen [#permalink]

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16 Nov 2016, 10:54
How do I confirm if there are only 3 gases in Pluto's atmosphere?

On negating B, even if I say that there is some gas between carbon monoxide and methane, then also the argument holds. Below, I have explained the negation of B diagrammatically

N, CO, X, CH4

Even in this case, the conclusion N, CO, CH4 is maintained?
Re: Spectroscopic analysis has revealed the existence of frozen   [#permalink] 16 Nov 2016, 10:54

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