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# Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from

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Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2010, 10:13
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Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturer’s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

OA is E but C E both are attractive. Can somebody give me a logic.
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2010, 11:38
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Answer is E, C is too strong "will decrease investment unless"

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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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14 Jan 2010, 11:54
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SudiptoGmat wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturer’s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

OA is E but C E both are attractive. Can somebody give me a logic.

With stronger patent laws, manufacturers will be encouraged to invest more does not mean that they will be discouraged with weaker patent laws (may be laws are weak right now and manufacturers are receding their investments?, nothing of this kind can be claimed). So when C states that Manufacturers will decrease investments unless there are stronger laws cannot be asserted, fails the fact-test. Among all remaining options, only E is sensible.
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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16 Jan 2010, 13:38
SudiptoGmat wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturer’s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

OA is E but C E both are attractive. Can somebody give me a logic.

C is based on the fact that Manufacturers would only be encouraged to do investments if the patent laws are intact! This isnt the case which is stated in the stem! Hence not valid.
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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15 May 2011, 20:18
C and E both seem attractive.

For C:
If A then B (Stronger patent laws then more investment)
If NOT A then NOT B (If weak patent laws then no investment) - NOT always CORRECT

Hence C is out.

Choice E is correct.
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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16 May 2011, 10:31
investments increase productivity, is clearly mentioned in the last line of the argument.

Its a clean E,para phrasing the last line.
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2012, 07:19
if there are strong patents, then manufacturers will be encouraged to invest
P -> I

C) manufacturers will decrease investment unless patents are strong
I' [not decrease investment] -> P
this may not be correct. so E is the answer.

a couple of examples of unless statements and their conditional diagrams.
Unless a person studies, he or she will not receive an A+.
A+ -> Study

There can be no peace without justice.
Peace -> Justice
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2012, 04:25
E is conditionally the best answer
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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14 Mar 2012, 04:48
SudiptoGmat wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturer’s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

OA is E but C E both are attractive. Can somebody give me a logic.

You cant justify C using the stimulus. Manufacturers may have no option but to invent new products to ensure survival.

E can definately be justified : strong patent laws can stimulate productivity by enticing the producers.
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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13 Nov 2012, 22:01
SudiptoGmat wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturer’s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?
(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

OA is E but C E both are attractive. Can somebody give me a logic.

Because I think no answer above explains clear and simple enough, I will give mine:

C: There's no certainty that manufacturers will decrease investment. Their investment may not rise, but it may equal to that of previous time. The premise only said " ... manufacturers would be encouraged to invest ..."

E: Correct
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Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2013, 18:32
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturerâ€™s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

I chose A on the following lines.

Scope of the Argument:

1. Investments in Patents
2. Productivity
3. Patent Laws

According to the scopes, options B, C, and D become out of scope. I am unable to choose between A & E.

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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 03:49
ankit546 wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturerâ€™s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

I chose A on the following lines.

Scope of the Argument:

1. Investments in Patents
2. Productivity
3. Patent Laws

According to the scopes, options B, C, and D become out of scope. I am unable to choose between A & E.

i do not why you have doubts about A. A is clearly NOT stated in the argument at all. If you dissect the argument

1) Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. to prevent frauds

2) With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. is clear I guess

3) Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturers productivity. something leads to something else. is clear

Hope this helps
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 05:20
ankit546 wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturerâ€™s productivity.
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

I chose A on the following lines.

Scope of the Argument:

1. Investments in Patents
2. Productivity
3. Patent Laws

According to the scopes, options B, C, and D become out of scope. I am unable to choose between A & E.

The scope is incorrectly identified... It's not investment in patents but investment in development of something that could be patented...so there is no role of a financial institution here...hence A is far from a final answer.
you've already shortlisted the correct one,E it is.
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 09:52
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Expert's post
ankit546 wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturer's productivity.

Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

I chose A on the following lines.

Scope of the Argument:

1. Investments in Patents
2. Productivity
3. Patent Laws

According to the scopes, options B, C, and D become out of scope. I am unable to choose between A & E.

Hi Ankit,

This is a conclusion question, and the correct answer to a conclusion "Must be True" according to the stimulus. An answer choice for which we have to assume anything extra can be safely eliminated.

The correct answer to these questions could be of two types:

i) Restatement of a premise already mentioned in the stimulus
ii) A logical result of combining tow or more premises

Lets consider both the answer choices A and E

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.

Here you have to make an assumption that the financial institutions are investing in manufacturing companies. In real life this is a common thing but, the manufacturer could also invest its own profits into research and development of new products. This will not benefit financial institution. So this choice will not be "Must be True" based on the stimulus.

If the choice would have been worded as under it would have been correct:

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit manufacturers. --> this must be true as per the passage.

Strict patent laws --> Protect manufacturers

manufacturers protected --> they get encouraged to invest in R&D

Investment in R&D --> increased productivity

Logical conclusion: Strict patent laws --> increased productivity

Now (E)

(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

This choice is a logical conclusion that we derived above. No new assumption has to be made for this to be true. Therefore it "Must be True" based on the premises given in the stimulus.

Hope it helps,
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2013, 10:55
Vercules wrote:
ankit546 wrote:
Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from being pirated. With that protection, manufacturers would be encouraged to invest in the development of new products and technologies. Such investment frequently results in an increase in a manufacturer's productivity.

Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn from the information above?

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.
(B) Increased productivity in manufacturing is likely to be accompanied by the creation of more manufacturing jobs.
(C) Manufacturers will decrease investment in the development of new products and technologies unless there are stronger patent laws.
(D) The weakness of current patent laws has been a cause of economic recession.
(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

I chose A on the following lines.

Scope of the Argument:

1. Investments in Patents
2. Productivity
3. Patent Laws

According to the scopes, options B, C, and D become out of scope. I am unable to choose between A & E.

Hi Ankit,

This is a conclusion question, and the correct answer to a conclusion "Must be True" according to the stimulus. An answer choice for which we have to assume anything extra can be safely eliminated.

The correct answer to these questions could be of two types:

i) Restatement of a premise already mentioned in the stimulus
ii) A logical result of combining tow or more premises

Lets consider both the answer choices A and E

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit financial institutions as well as manufacturers.

Here you have to make an assumption that the financial institutions are investing in manufacturing companies. In real life this is a common thing but, the manufacturer could also invest its own profits into research and development of new products. This will not benefit financial institution. So this choice will not be "Must be True" based on the stimulus.

If the choice would have been worded as under it would have been correct:

(A) Stronger patent laws tend to benefit manufacturers. --> this must be true as per the passage.

Strict patent laws --> Protect manufacturers

manufacturers protected --> they get encouraged to invest in R&D

Investment in R&D --> increased productivity

Logical conclusion: Strict patent laws --> increased productivity

Now (E)

(E) Stronger patent laws would stimulate improvements in productivity for many manufacturers.

This choice is a logical conclusion that we derived above. No new assumption has to be made for this to be true. Therefore it "Must be True" based on the premises given in the stimulus.

Hope it helps,

Thanks a lot guys.

Hi Vercules,

For the option A, I had taken into consideration that only financial institutions will invest. Now the answer seems much clearer.

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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from [#permalink]

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07 Jul 2017, 07:33
Merged topics. Please, search before posting questions!
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Re: Stronger patent laws are needed to protect inventions from   [#permalink] 07 Jul 2017, 07:33
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