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# Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend

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Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 28 Apr 2012, 19:57
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Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline
gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many
American legislators have concluded that an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production
would lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Which of the following, if true, casts the most
doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?
A) It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.
b) Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.
c) It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.
d) The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.
e) The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.

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Originally posted by GetThisDone on 28 Apr 2012, 19:47.
Last edited by GetThisDone on 28 Apr 2012, 19:57, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: CR - Weaken - # 3  [#permalink]

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28 Apr 2012, 19:53
+1 A

Producing ethanol requires that we have to buy gasoline.
Also, the galon of gasoline that we won't use directly in our cars, it will be used in the production. But there is more! We will have to buy an additional 0.5 galon of gasoline to produce the ethanol.

Answer: A
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Re: CR - Weaken - # 3  [#permalink]

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29 Apr 2012, 01:55
1
It came down to between A and C;

I chose A over C.

A -> If it takes 1.5 gallons of gasoline to produce 1 gallon of ethanol, then it still mean we have to continue importing gasoline ----> Weakens

C-> Even if we know that replacing the engines would be costly, we do not know if that would keep the customers from replacing the engines and continue importing Gasoline.
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Re: Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2012, 10:17
GetThisDone wrote:
Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline
gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many
American legislators have concluded that an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production
would lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Which of the following, if true, casts the most
doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?
A) It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.
b) Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.
c) It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.
d) The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.
e) The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.

Again, another ambiguious question.
If one is narrowing to option A, how would one know that it would take relatively lesser gallons of oil to produce gasoline than ethanol?
& for C, we still don't know the cost to benefit ratio here to asertain that it weakens.

I'm Confused.
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Re: Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend  [#permalink]

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06 Sep 2012, 17:58
navigator123 wrote:
GetThisDone wrote:
Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline
gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many
American legislators have concluded that an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production
would lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Which of the following, if true, casts the most
doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?
A) It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.
b) Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.
c) It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.
d) The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.
e) The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.

Again, another ambiguious question.
If one is narrowing to option A, how would one know that it would take relatively lesser gallons of oil to produce gasoline than ethanol?
& for C, we still don't know the cost to benefit ratio here to asertain that it weakens.

I'm Confused.

the question here is --> Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?

Legislator's conclusion : we can reduce the dependency of foreign oil ... the cost of oil and other stuffs is not discussed in the conclusion

C does not tell anything about the legislator's conclusion while A does... If to create 1 gallon of ethanol we use 1.5 gallon of oil .. the dependency of oil is still there ....
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Re: Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend  [#permalink]

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01 Sep 2013, 10:39
The legislators want to promote ethanol production in order to lessen our
dependence on foreign oil. Any evidence that ethanol production would not
lessen our dependence on foreign oil would undermine the legislators'
conclusion.
(A) CORRECT. If it takes 1.5 gallons of oil to make 1 gallon of ethanol, it is not
clear that producing ethanol can help us to reduce our reliance on foreign oil.
(B) As long as many drivers prefer not to switch to electric cars, it is possible that
the ethanol fuel mix will come into widespread use.
(C) Although it may be expensive to retrofit a non-ethanol vehicle, ethanol-ready
new vehicles might constitute a large potential market for subsidized ethanol.
(D) This answer choice is irrelevant because the argument does not mention
pollution.
(E) Without any information as to why the ethanol/gasoline blend has not been
widely adopted in Europe, we cannot reach any conclusions that are relevant to
the United States.
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Studies have shown that an automobile  [#permalink]

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01 Aug 2014, 18:12
1
This is my new project: Renew Old Thread => Back to basic => Just try It and give your reasoning
The topic will be sticky for 2 days from starting

Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many American legislators have concluded that an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production would lessen our dependence on foreign oil.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?

A) It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.
b) Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.
c) It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.
d) The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.
e) The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.
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Re: Studies have shown that an automobile  [#permalink]

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02 Aug 2014, 00:14
1
with using automobiles that run on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline the dependence on foreign oil will lessen.
to weaken this reasoning we should choose and option that indicates with using this blended fuel, the usage of oil will not decrease.
option A does the same.
it shows that for producing 1 liter of ethanol, 1.5 liter of oil is needed. therefore, producing ethanol in fact increases the dependency on oil.
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Re: Studies have shown that an automobile  [#permalink]

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03 Aug 2014, 01:32
2
tuanquang269 wrote:
This is my new project: Renew Old Thread => Back to basic => Just try It and give your reasoning
The topic will be sticky for 2 days from starting

Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many American legislators have concluded that an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production would lessen our dependence on foreign oil.

Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?

A) It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.
b) Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.
c) It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.
d) The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.
e) The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.

We need something that says: an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production would not lessen our dependence on foreign oil. For A , if this is the case, then we need more oil to produce ethanol, the depend on foreign oil will not be lessen.
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Weaken Revision: Studies have shown that an automobile that  [#permalink]

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18 Feb 2015, 21:59
1
1
This question is part of the GMAT Club Critical Reasoning: "Weaken an argument" revision Project.

Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many American legislators have concluded that an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production would lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Which of the following, if true, casts the most doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?

A. It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.

B. Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.

C. It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.

D. The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.

E. The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.
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Re: Weaken Revision: Studies have shown that an automobile that  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2015, 00:35
Premise: a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine
Conclusion: an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production would lessen our dependence on foreign oil.

A. It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.
--- Breaks the conclusion--> Hold it -----

B. Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.
--- Out of scope ---

C. It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.
---- It is not relevant, because there can be a chance that less dependence on foreign oil proves beneficial in longer run ---

D. The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.
--- Out of scope ---

E. The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.
---- out of scope ----

Option A is correct
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Re: Weaken Revision: Studies have shown that an automobile that  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2015, 01:07
Although my take is A but I chose least devil as I still have doubt with A.

A say: It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.

It is already mentioned that 85E/15G have better mileage that 100G. Then, consider the case when 1.5 gallons of oil run the car only 10miles but equivalent 1gallon Etahonol runs it 25miles or make it further simple.

85 ltr. Ethanol + 15 ltr Gasoline (100 ltr mix) = say 20 miles (better mileage already given)
100 ltr. Gasoline = say 10 miles.
Now, for producing 85 ltr. ethanol, it took 127.5 gallon gasoline.
Therefore, 127.5+ 15 = 142.5 ltr Gasoline mix runs 20 miles. However on other hand, 100ltr gasoline runs 10miles or 142.5ltr runs only 14.25miles. Therefore, it can still lessen dependence on foreign fuel.

Please explain or correct me if I am wrong in my reasoning..
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Re: Weaken Revision: Studies have shown that an automobile that  [#permalink]

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19 Feb 2015, 06:39
IMO - (A)
B,C,D,E - they are more or less irrelevant to the conclusion .
As regards to (A)
heres the math , in producing 1 gallon of ethanol-gasoline mixture we need 1.425 gallons of oil. however it produces better mileage an we need to see how much oil is required per mile in comparison to conventional gasoline. But here is the problem, we are told "better mileage" we need a specific number on the mileage to carry out the math which we dont have. So the math really isnt needed in this one i guess
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Re: Weaken Revision: Studies have shown that an automobile that  [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2015, 05:36
Marked, C - as the cost benefits of Gasoline are being surpassed by the cost of refit of the engine. Later realised that I am wrong in giving precedence to C over A.
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Re: Weaken Revision: Studies have shown that an automobile that  [#permalink]

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09 Apr 2016, 12:02
options B,D and E are completely out of scope options.option C is irrelevant with respect to concerned topic.the correct answer is option A
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Re: Weaken Revision: Studies have shown that an automobile that  [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2017, 21:17
Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many Type - weaken

The legislators want to promote ethanol production in order to lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Any evidence that ethanol production would not lessen our dependence on foreign oil would undermine the legislators' conclusion.

A. It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol. - CORRECT. If it takes 1.5 gallons of oil to make 1 gallon of ethanol, it is not clear that producing ethanol can help us to reduce our reliance on foreign oil.
B. Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix. - As long as many drivers prefer not to switch to electric cars, it is possible that the ethanol fuel mix will come into widespread use.
C. It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix. - Although it may be expensive to retrofit a non-ethanol vehicle, ethanol-ready new vehicles might constitute a large potential market for subsidized ethanol.
D. The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline. - This answer choice is irrelevant because the argument does not mention pollution.
E. The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe. - Without any information as to why the ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe, we cannot reach any conclusions that are relevant to the United States.

Answer A
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Re: Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend  [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2017, 12:11
Conclusion :- increase in tax incentives for ethanol production would lessen our dependence on foreign oil.
Weaken :- increase in tax incentives for ethanol production would not lessen our dependence on foreign oil.

(A) CORRECT. If it takes 1.5 gallons of oil to make 1 gallon of ethanol, it is not
clear that producing ethanol can help us to reduce our reliance on foreign oil.
(B) As long as many drivers prefer not to switch to electric cars, it is possible that
the ethanol fuel mix will come into widespread use.
(C) Although it may be expensive to retrofit a non-ethanol vehicle, ethanol-ready
new vehicles might constitute a large potential market for subsidized ethanol.
(D) This answer choice is irrelevant because the argument does not mention
pollution.
(E) Without any information as to why the ethanol/gasoline blend has not been
widely adopted in Europe, we cannot reach any conclusions that are relevant to
the United States.
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Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend  [#permalink]

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28 Sep 2018, 06:52
the govt thinks that by giving tax incentives on ethanol the price of fuel would go down and people will buy car that runs on less expensive fuel and will get better mileage.But if the car needs thousands of dollars to get fitted with the equipments, people won't buy the car that runs on ethanol. so how the plan will succed?
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Re: Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend  [#permalink]

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01 Oct 2018, 23:00
[quote="GetThisDone"]Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend of 85% ethanol/15% gasoline
gets better mileage than an otherwise similar car equipped with a gasoline engine. Many
American legislators have concluded that an increase in tax incentives for ethanol production
would lessen our dependence on foreign oil. Which of the following, if true, casts the most
doubt upon the validity of the legislators’ conclusion?
A) It takes 1.5 gallons of oil to produce 1 gallon of ethanol.
b) Electric cars are cheaper to operate than cars running on the ethanol fuel mix.
c) It costs thousands of dollars to retrofit an automobile to run on the ethanol fuel mix.
d) The ethanol/gasoline blend emits more pollution that regular gasoline.
e) The ethanol/gasoline blend has not been widely adopted in Europe.

premise1: automobiles on blend give better mileage.
legislatures conclusion: increasing incentive for ethanol PRODUCTION would LESSEN DEPENDENCE.

a) 1.5 gallons of oil makes 1 gallon of ethanol ( production needs oil. Dependence on gasoline for production exists. ) => hold
b) out of scope
c) retrofitting expensive-> might deter people from using such cars-> no demand for mix -> no supply => dependence continues => hold
d)out of scope
e)out of scope

comparing A and C.

A. directly weakens as for making ethanol you do need oil. ! gallon is consuming more of oil. Dependence is actually increasing.
C. talks about retrofitting. what about new cars ? people might just buy new cars that run on mix.In the long run might decrease dependence .

Choose A.
Re: Studies have shown that an automobile that runs on a blend   [#permalink] 01 Oct 2018, 23:00
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