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# Studies show that children who watch too much television are

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Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 10 Nov 2019, 09:02
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95% (hard)

Question Stats:

34% (02:05) correct 66% (02:05) wrong based on 844 sessions

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Studies show that children who watch too much television are more likely than others to become obese adults. Jacob, who is an obese adult, must have watched more television as a child than I did, since I am not obese.

Which of the following most closely parallels the logical structure above ?

A. The hardware store on Main Street must have had a bigger advertisement in the Sunday paper than the hardware store around the corner had. The hardware store on Main Street sold twice as many items as the hardware store around the corner did last week, and a Sunday paper advertisement has been shown to increase the number of items sold.

B. Studies show that large dogs live shorter lives, on average, than small dogs do. Rex is a large dog and therefore might be expected to live a shorter life than Mustang, who is a small dog.

C.The county superintendent stated that all schools would be canceled for the day if snowfall last night were greater than six inches. Therefore, since the snowfall was only five inches, we must be following the usual school schedule today.

D. According to research, people with unusual musical talent do not achieve their true potential unless they are given formal lessons. Therefore Jesse, who has achieved his full musical potential without formal lessons must not have unusual musical talent.

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.

Kindly help me solve this question. Thanks

Originally posted by swarman on 06 Mar 2013, 02:53.
Last edited by MikeScarn on 10 Nov 2019, 09:02, edited 1 time in total.
Fixed Typo
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 03:55
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Hi swarman

The purpose of the argument is to find an explanation i.e result of a comparaison (Jacob must have watched more television as a child than I did) to a present fact (Jacob is an obese adult, I am not an obese adult) based on a result of a study ( Studies show that children who watch too much television are more likely than others to become obese adults)

A. The hardware store on Main Street must have had a bigger advertisement in the Sunday paper than the hardware store around the corner had. The hardware store on Main Street sold twice as many items as the hardware store around the corner did last week, and a Sunday paper advertisement has been shown to increase the number of items sold.
The purpose of this argument is to find an explanation i.e result of comparaison ( the HSMS must have had a bigger ads in the S. PAPER than the HSAC) to a present fact (the HSMS sold twice as many items as the HSAC did last week) based on a result of a study ( S. PAPER ADS have been shown to increase the num of items sold)

B. Studies show that large dogs lives shorter lives, on average, than small dogs do. Rex is a large dog and therefore might be expected to live a shorter life than Mustang, who is a small dog.
The purpose of this argument is to predict an event on the future based on a result of a study

C.The county superintendent stated that all schools would be canceled for the day if snowfall last night were greater than six inches. Therefore, since the snowfall was only five inches, we must be following the usual school schedule today.
The purpose of this argument is to explain the causal-effect of a general statement

D. According to research, people with unusual musical talent do not achieve their true potential unless they are given formal lessons. Therefore Jesse, who has achieved his full musical potential without formal lessons must not have unusual musical talent.
the purpose of this argument is to find an explanation to an event occured in the past based on a result of a research

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.
The purpose of this argument is to predict something based on a general observation

Hence, A is the most closely parallels the logical structure of the original argument.

Hope that helps !
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2016, 00:04
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The author has built the argument on the lines that A causes B and it’s only A which causes B. There are no other factors. "Watching television" leads to obesity and hence, Jacob’s obesity is the result of watching television. Hence, answer choice "A" brings out the analogy perfectly. Sales increased more in the shop on the main street than in the one at the corner only because of the bigger advertisement and nothing else.
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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21 Apr 2019, 07:34
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OFFICIAL SOLUTION:

In this Mimic the Reasoning question, the original argument is flawed. Thus the correct answer will reproduce the error in the original argument. Based on the premise that too much television leads to a greater likelihood of obesity, the author draws the conclusion that someone who is obese MUST have watched more television than someone who is not obese. The argument ignores possible alternative causes for obesity (diet, genetic predisposition, etc.). Television viewing ---> obesity does not mean that Obesity ---> television. Any correct answer should contain the same flawed reasoning that IF A, THEN B also implies IF B, THEN A.
Answer (A) is correct because the premise is that a bigger Sunday ad leads to more items sold. The erroneous conclusion is that if more items were sold, the cause must have been a bigger Sunday ad. This argument ignores possible alternative causes for the number of items sold (location, selection, etc.). Answer (B) is incorrect because it provides a premise and then a specific example that fits the premise. It is not flawed and does not match the original logical structure. Answer (C) is incorrect because it provides information about how the school schedule will change if 6 inches of snow fall. The conclusion, which is not necessarily true, assumes that there will not be a change to the school schedule if fewer than 6 inches of snow fall. In fact, we don't know what will happen when 5 inches of snow fall. This is a different flaw than in the original argument. Answers (D) and (C) present valid arguments and thus do not match the original.
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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29 Dec 2015, 08:01
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Let us make the argument simple

Children---> more TV-->Obese
Jacob --> Obese
I---> Slim
Therefore Jacob watched more T.V than I did

Option A The hardware store on Main Street must have had a bigger advertisement in the Sunday paper than the hardware store around the corner had. The hardware store on Main Street sold twice as many items as the hardware store around the corner did last week, and a Sunday paper advertisement has been shown to increase the number of items sold.

hardware store on Main Street=A
hardware store around the corner=B

Shop-> big adv---> Sell more goods

Therefore A sell more goods than B
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2016, 05:05
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Studies show that children who watch too much television are more likely than others to become obese adults. Jacob, who is an obese adult, must have watched more television as a child than I did, since I am not obese.

more X results in Y normally.
So Y indicates that X must have happened more.

Which of the following most closely parallels the logical structure above ?

A. The hardware store on Main Street must have had a bigger advertisement in the Sunday paper than the hardware store around the corner had. The hardware store on Main Street sold twice as many items as the hardware store around the corner did last week, and a Sunday paper advertisement has been shown to increase the number of items sold.

B. Studies show that large dogs lives shorter lives, on average, than small dogs do. Rex is a large dog and therefore might be expected to live a shorter life than Mustang, who is a small dog.
Naturally X is more than y
so ex of X follows the same.

C.The county superintendent stated that all schools would be canceled for the day if snowfall last night were greater than six inches. Therefore, since the snowfall was only five inches, we must be following the usual school schedule today.
if X then Y
if not X then not Y.........this is not the same as our pre- thinking above

D. According to research, people with unusual musical talent do not achieve their true potential unless they are given formal lessons. Therefore Jesse, who has achieved his full musical potential without formal lessons must not have unusual musical talent.
X do not result unless for y
so one without X is without Y as well..........this is not the same as our pre- thinking above

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.
X results in y
since y is not true even X might not be true...........this is not the same as our pre- thinking above.
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2019, 06:13
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ArupRS wrote:

Dear experts : can you please which one is necessary and sufficient condition in this option ?

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.

I wouldn't say there are conditions here. I would say that this is a correlation.

But within the correlation, the sufficient would be those who like vegetable, and the necessary would be those who like fruits.
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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27 Sep 2019, 03:58
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ArupRS wrote:
ArupRS wrote:

Dear experts : can you please which one is necessary and sufficient condition in this option ?

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.

I wouldn't say there are conditions here. I would say that this is a correlation.

But within the correlation, the sufficient would be those who like vegetable, and the necessary would be those who like fruits.

The flawed reasoning in option A is that it assumes since Sufficient condition doesn't happen, necessary condition also doesn't happen. ---> mistaken negation
In option E , if we consider those who like fruit as necessary condition then in absence of necessary condition, sufficient condition doesn't happen -- contra positive.

SO the reasoning in original argument and in E is not similar. Am I correct ?

regards,
Arup Sarkar

Yeah, they don’t match. E is using the contrapositive as you said whereas the argument gives a correlation and then says one must happen because it didn’t happen to the other

Posted from my mobile device
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2019, 05:58
1
swarman wrote:
Studies show that children who watch too much television are more likely than others to become obese adults. Jacob, who is an obese adult, must have watched more television as a child than I did, since I am not obese.

Which of the following most closely parallels the logical structure above ?

Mapping the argument:
If X happens ( children watch too much television) --> then Y happens (they are more obese)
Conclusion: Y has happened (jacob is obese ) --> hence X has happened (he must have watched too much TV)
Flaws - he is suffering from some medical condition.
In short the argument is X ---> Y == Y ---> X

A. The hardware store on Main Street must have had a bigger advertisement in the Sunday paper than the hardware store around the corner had. The hardware store on Main Street sold twice as many items as the hardware store around the corner did last week, and a Sunday paper advertisement has been shown to increase the number of items sold.

X = Sunday paper ad ---> Y = increase in sales
Hence Y = sales have increased ---> X = the store must have had an Sunday ad
- Correct

B. Studies show that large dogs live shorter lives, on average, than small dogs do. Rex is a large dog and therefore might be expected to live a shorter life than Mustang, who is a small dog.
- Wrong
X = large dogs ---> Y = shorter lives
For this option to be correct: Y = Rex lived a shorter life ---> X = Rex was a large dog

C.The county superintendent stated that all schools would be canceled for the day if snowfall last night were greater than six inches. Therefore, since the snowfall was only five inches, we must be following the usual school schedule today.
- Wrong
X = if it snowed > 6 inches ---> Y = all schools would be cancelled
For this choice to be correct: Y = all schools were cancelled ---> X = hence it snowed > 6 inches

D. According to research, people with unusual musical talent do not achieve their true potential unless they are given formal lessons. Therefore Jesse, who has achieved his full musical potential without formal lessons must not have unusual musical talent.
- Wrong
There are X 1 and X2 leading to Y. Our argument only supports one "X"

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.
- Wrong
X = People like vegetables ---> Y = people also like fruits
For this argument to be true: Y = Eli likes fruits ---> X = she also likes vegetables
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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15 Jul 2019, 08:03
Rock750 wrote:
Hi swarman

The purpose of the argument is to find an explanation i.e result of a comparaison (Jacob must have watched more television as a child than I did) to a present fact (Jacob is an obese adult, I am not an obese adult) based on a result of a study ( Studies show that children who watch too much television are more likely than others to become obese adults)

A. The hardware store on Main Street must have had a bigger advertisement in the Sunday paper than the hardware store around the corner had. The hardware store on Main Street sold twice as many items as the hardware store around the corner did last week, and a Sunday paper advertisement has been shown to increase the number of items sold.
The purpose of this argument is to find an explanation i.e result of comparaison ( the HSMS must have had a bigger ads in the S. PAPER than the HSAC) to a present fact (the HSMS sold twice as many items as the HSAC did last week) based on a result of a study ( S. PAPER ADS have been shown to increase the num of items sold)

B. Studies show that large dogs lives shorter lives, on average, than small dogs do. Rex is a large dog and therefore might be expected to live a shorter life than Mustang, who is a small dog.
The purpose of this argument is to predict an event on the future based on a result of a study

C.The county superintendent stated that all schools would be canceled for the day if snowfall last night were greater than six inches. Therefore, since the snowfall was only five inches, we must be following the usual school schedule today.
The purpose of this argument is to explain the causal-effect of a general statement

D. According to research, people with unusual musical talent do not achieve their true potential unless they are given formal lessons. Therefore Jesse, who has achieved his full musical potential without formal lessons must not have unusual musical talent.
the purpose of this argument is to find an explanation to an event occured in the past based on a result of a research

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.
The purpose of this argument is to predict something based on a general observation

Hence, A is the most closely parallels the logical structure of the original argument.

Hope that helps !

Wow. This is actually a huge point. Try to understand the purpose of the argument than the conclusion or the logic. If you get to understand that the purpose is to find why a fact is formed with another theory, the correct answer should be only A.
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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25 Sep 2019, 06:05

Dear experts : can you please which one is necessary and sufficient condition in this option ?

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.
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Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are  [#permalink]

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26 Sep 2019, 22:39
ArupRS wrote:

Dear experts : can you please which one is necessary and sufficient condition in this option ?

E. People who like vegetables also like fruits. Elizabeth does not like fruits, so she must not like vegetables either.

I wouldn't say there are conditions here. I would say that this is a correlation.

But within the correlation, the sufficient would be those who like vegetable, and the necessary would be those who like fruits.

The flawed reasoning in option A is that it assumes since Sufficient condition doesn't happen, necessary condition also doesn't happen. ---> mistaken negation
In option E , if we consider those who like fruit as necessary condition then in absence of necessary condition, sufficient condition doesn't happen -- contra positive.

SO the reasoning in original argument and in E is not similar. Am I correct ?

regards,
Arup Sarkar
Re: Studies show that children who watch too much television are   [#permalink] 26 Sep 2019, 22:39
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