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# Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of

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Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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22 Aug 2011, 11:42
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Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing of eight war ships as “fireships,” vessels filled with pitch, brimstone, gunpowder, and tar and sent downwind toward the closely-anchored Spanish fleet.

A.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing

B.The defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing

C.The defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing

D.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrifice

E.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the defeat of the Spanish Armada was due not only to gale winds that favored the British but also to the sacrifice
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2013, 09:47
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ranjeet75 wrote:
Why C is wrong?

Hi ranjeet75,

C.The defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing

The problem with (C) is the incorrect modification by the relative pronoun "which".

"stymied" means to prevent or hinder the progress. The logical meaning of the sentence should be that "the defeat" hindered the progress of Armada's plans (or as the sentence says "stymied the Armada's plans").

The relative clause starting with "which" is incorrectly modifying "the Spanish Armada", logically it should modify "the defeat". Note that "which" modifies the noun closest to it. Another error is the use of "sacrificing"; the word "sacrifice" can act as a noun here, so, we do not need to change it to the -ing form and make it stand as a noun

If we reword (C) as under then it will be correct:

C'. The Spanish Armada's defeat, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrifice

In the corrected version above the relative clause starting with "which" is correctly modifying "the defeat". The second correction is in the use of the noun "the sacrifice" in place of gerund "sacrificing"

Hope this helps,

Vercules
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2013, 07:48
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Hi all,

This is the sentence with choice C:

Choice C: The defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing of eight war ships as “fireships,” vessels filled with pitch, brimstone, gunpowder, and tar and sent downwind toward the closely-anchored Spanish fleet.

There is no problem with the modification of “which” in this choice. It does not make sense for “which” to modify the immediate preceding noun “the Spanish Armada”. Also notice that this noun cannot be placed anywhere else in the sentence without violating the meaning of the sentence. So “which” can very well jump over “of the Spanish Armada” and can correctly modify “The defeat”.

The link posted in my above post contains a deatil article on the same topic. It deals with when “which” or any other noun modifier can jump over entities to make logical modification and when it cannot. Solve this question from GMAT Prep for the similar use of the logical modification by a noun modifier:

From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.

(A) From studies of the bony house of the brain, which is the cranium, located in the back of the skull, come what scientists know about dinosaur brains.
(B) The knowledge that scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the bony house of the brain, located in the back of the skull, that is, the cranium.
(C) The knowledge of dinosaur brains that scientists have come from studies of the bony house of the brain, which is located in the back of the skull and is called the cranium.
(D) What scientists know about dinosaur brains comes from studies of the cranium, the bony house of the brain located in the back of the skull.
(E) Located in the back of the skull is the cranium, the bony house of the brain, and it is from studies of this that scientists know what they know about dinosaur brains.

Now let’s get back to this question. The issue with Choice C is the use of “sacrificing” is not correct. We need an entity that must be parallel to “gale winds”, a noun entity. Now “sacrificing” is also a nou in that it is a gerund. However, when a sentence requires the usage of the noun form of a word, we must use the main noun form of the word and not the “ing” noun form. Hence, we need to use “the sacrifice” here instead of “the sacrificing”.

Hope this helps.
Thnaks.
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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10 Jun 2015, 10:43
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dominicraj wrote:
Hi Mike,

I rejected E just because I saw " the defeat of the Spanish Armada was due not only to gale winds".

Can you please guide as to which all phrases can be separated this way though it is uncommon in normal usage.

The other example which I have noticed is " such..XX..as"..

Regards,
Dom.

Dear Dom,
I'm happy to respond.

What you ask is an unusual question. First, I can talk about "due to." The word "due" is an adjective, and it idiomatically takes the preposition "to." When any word idiomatically takes a preposition or even an infinitive or a "that"-clause, there is nothing sacred and inseparable about that relationship. These words certainly could be interrupted by any correlative parallelism markers ("not ... but," "both ... and," "either ... or," "not only ... but also," etc.)
able not to do X but to do Y
prevent the students either from doing X or from doing Y
commanded not only that A be J but also that K be T
The OA in this questions separates the "due" and the "to" in a similar fashion, and this is perfectly fine.

All of the clauses of cause & consequence markers are similar:
so . . . that
such a . . . that
so . . . as to

see:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2013/gmat-idiom ... nsequence/

My friend, do you know how you build intuition and familiarity with all these structures? Read. It's the very simple advice that no one wants to hear. The very best way to improve one's "ear" for English grammar is to develop a daily habit of reading. See:
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/how-to-imp ... bal-score/

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2013, 10:22
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A. Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing -- not only due to --- but also--- wrong //ism

B. the defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing --- not only due to but also the sacrificing – wrong //ism

C tha defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing ---correlative //ism is ok but, but has relative pronoun touch rule problem

D.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrifice ---- modification problem ‘ What stymied was not the reason, but the defeat;

E.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the defeat of the Spanish Armada was due not only to gale winds that favored the British but also to the sacrifice--- speckless
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2013, 07:16
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skamal7 wrote:
can someone clarify me the touch rule, i have seen in few OG questions also that if noun+prepostional phrase,which ---if this format is used then i have seen in few sentences that which jumps and modifies the noun instead of the prepostional phrase which is closest to it .can someone explain this rule with some examples

Hi skamal7,

You can read the following article to understand when a noun modifier can jump over a prepositional phrase to modify the noun before that phrase:
noun-modifiers-can-modify-slightly-far-away-noun-135868.html

This thread also contians a few official sentences and their explanation.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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11 May 2014, 12:29
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rphardu wrote:
Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing of eight war ships as “fireships,” vessels filled with pitch, brimstone, gunpowder, and tar and sent downwind toward the closely-anchored Spanish fleet.

A.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing

B.The defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing

C.The defeat of the Spanish Armada, which stymied the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, was not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing

D.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the reason for the defeat of the Spanish Armada was not only gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrifice

E.Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands, the defeat of the Spanish Armada was due not only to gale winds that favored the British but also to the sacrifice

JusTLucK04 wrote:
Hello Mike,
Here the sacrifice vs Sacrificing: Proper Noun Usage Vs Action noun usage(Gerund) is the reason for later being wrong..I dont get it..Please post your expert comments or kindly share the magoosh link which guides us on such a usage
Thank You

Dear JusTLucK04,
I'm happy to respond.

This is hard, because there isn't any universal "rule" for this. The construction of "the sacrifice of" sounds 100% perfectly natural, and "the sacrificing of" sounds unutterably awkward and incorrect. As a very vague rule, I would say --- if the gerund makes the word longer, then there's less of a reason to use it. With many nouns, say "identification," the noun form is a much longer word than the gerund, "identifying," so the gerund might make the sentence more concise and direct. This is just a vague general guideline. It very much depends on the individual words --- I have never heard "the sacrificing of" used in a correct English sentence.

Does this make sense?
Mike
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29 Aug 2011, 04:14
Narrowed down to D and E, however selected D (took 5 min to narrow down)
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30 Aug 2011, 14:33
The subject (or the main reason of the stimulus) is the Spanish Armada.

Two indipendent clauses tied by a comma.

So E is clear and concise
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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14 Apr 2012, 16:56
For D and E, you have to look at parrallelisms. from not only to the gerund verb but also to gerund verb.
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2013, 08:56
can someone clarify me the touch rule, i have seen in few OG questions also that if noun+prepostional phrase,which ---if this format is used then i have seen in few sentences that which jumps and modifies the noun instead of the prepostional phrase which is closest to it .can someone explain this rule with some examples
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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09 Mar 2013, 04:36
@Vercules .... on your explanation of as to why the option C was wrong.

The which after the comma accorging to another popular post on this forum modifies the noun defeat correctly , since the defeat is of the Spanish Armadas. In other words the mention of Spanish armadas is aswering the question , who got defeated ? and therefore is not independent

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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2013, 17:45
I can't seem to get a certain part of parallelism in my head.

For example, in choice A - " not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing " From what i've been reading - the whole phrase - "not only due to" needs to be in // to sacrificing? Why is that? Why can't it just be "due to gale winds" to "sacrificing" in which case, wouldn't it be parallel? Can't I assume that the "due to" carries over to "sacrificing" and "gale winds"?

In option C - "not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing " = How is this considered //? Due to gale winds(past) vs. due to sacrificing which is an ing -- present?

My issue is always with the "amount of words" I consider to be parallel. If someone could clarify this issue, which is present in a lot of 700 level questions, I will be eternally grateful.

Thanks!

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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2013, 19:47
@Vercules: Can you please explain the second statement of the option E. with POE i was between D and E.
i chose D as i was not able to understand the usage of "due to" in the second statement.

"the defeat of the Spanish Armada was due not only to gale winds that favored the British but also to the sacrifice

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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2013, 23:39
nimisha99 wrote:
@Vercules: Can you please explain the second statement of the option E. with POE i was between D and E.
i chose D as i was not able to understand the usage of "due to" in the second statement.

"the defeat of the Spanish Armada was due not only to gale winds that favored the British but also to the sacrifice

Hi nimisha99

Welcome to Gmatclub!

To pick a correct answer between D and E, you should understand the meaning. The beginning part is:
Stymieing the Armada’s plans to meet up with the Duke of Parma’s army off the coast of Flanders in the Spanish Netherlands,
Stymie means block/prevent

==> Paraphrased version is: Blocking/Prevent X's plan to meet up with Y, ==> is an ACTION, if we put "the reason" after the comma, the sentence is non-sensical. Thus, the noun "the defeat" which refers to action "stymieing" is correct.

In addition, in E, the correct idiom is "due not only TO X, but also TO Y". ==> Parallel structure.

Hope it helps.

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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 00:10
This one was tough and I got it wrong. I chose C. I thought the "which" was fine, but did not see the "sacrificing" part. Actually I saw the llelism in E of "to gale winds" and "to sacrifice" in E, but thought that C was more concise and clear, than E beginning with the participial phrase. Somehow I was very uncomfortable with the....hmmm...you learn something new everyday....
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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11 Sep 2013, 22:20
russ9 wrote:
I can't seem to get a certain part of parallelism in my head, any advice will be appreciated.

For example, in choice A - " not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing " From what i've been reading - the whole phrase - "not only due to" needs to be in // to "sacrificing"? Why is that? Why can't it just be "due to gale winds" // to "sacrificing" in which case, wouldn't this represent the correct // structure? Can't I assume that the "due to" carries over to "sacrificing" and "gale winds"?

In option C - "not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing " = How is this considered //? Due to gale winds(past) vs. due to sacrificing which is an ing -- present?

My issue is always with the "amount of words" I consider to be parallel. If someone could clarify this issue, which is present in a lot of 700 level questions, I will be eternally grateful.

Thanks!

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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 00:09
russ9 wrote:
russ9 wrote:
I can't seem to get a certain part of parallelism in my head, any advice will be appreciated.

For example, in choice A - " not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing " From what i've been reading - the whole phrase - "not only due to" needs to be in // to "sacrificing"? Why is that? Why can't it just be "due to gale winds" // to "sacrificing" in which case, wouldn't this represent the correct // structure? Can't I assume that the "due to" carries over to "sacrificing" and "gale winds"?

In option C - "not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing " = How is this considered //? Due to gale winds(past) vs. due to sacrificing which is an ing -- present?

My issue is always with the "amount of words" I consider to be parallel. If someone could clarify this issue, which is present in a lot of 700 level questions, I will be eternally grateful.

Thanks!

Parallelism demands that "due to" be present in phrases after not only and but also. Only then it is parallel. You cannot assume carry overs.

n option C - "not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing " = How is this considered //? Due to gale winds(past) vs. due to sacrificing which is an ing -- present?

This is not perfect parallelism, but ok I guess. But there is an even more serious error involving "which".
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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12 Sep 2013, 11:25
russ9 wrote:
russ9 wrote:
I can't seem to get a certain part of parallelism in my head, any advice will be appreciated.

For example, in choice A - " not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing " From what i've been reading - the whole phrase - "not only due to" needs to be in // to "sacrificing"? Why is that? Why can't it just be "due to gale winds" // to "sacrificing" in which case, wouldn't this represent the correct // structure? Can't I assume that the "due to" carries over to "sacrificing" and "gale winds"?

In option C - "not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing " = How is this considered //? Due to gale winds(past) vs. due to sacrificing which is an ing -- present?

My issue is always with the "amount of words" I consider to be parallel. If someone could clarify this issue, which is present in a lot of 700 level questions, I will be eternally grateful.

Thanks!

Hi russ9,

The parallel list always contains a marker. Markers are the words that join the entities in the parallel list. The markers can be divided into two categories: a. Single-word Markers and b. Double-word Markers.

You can read the following article for more detail on this topic:
markers-in-parallelism-139076.html

This sentence also employs a parallelism marker. That marker is "not only... but also...". It is evident that it is a Double-word Marker. And the rule to apply these markers is that they must be followed by "grammatically as well logically identical entities".

So basically, not only X but also Y where X must be parallel to Y.

Now in Choice A: X = due to gale winds...
Y = the sacrificing...

These entities are not parallel. We must repeat "due to" after :but also" as well to make both the entities "identical". This is the reason why Choice A is incorrect.

Now let's analyze if Choice C is correct on parallelism: X = gale winds...
Y = the sacrificing...

As I have already mentioned in my previous post, these two entities APPEAR to be parallel because both are Noun Entities, but these entities are NOT parallel. The reason is that "gale winds" is a "proper noun entity" but "the sacrificing" is not a "proper noun entity". It is a verb-ing noun ( a gerund) that actually denotes an action. So an action word CANNOT be parallel to a noun word. So Choice C also fails in parallelism.

Now let's analyze the correct answer Choice E for parallelism: X = gale winds...
Y = the sacrifice...
Here both the entities are "identically parallel entities". They both are perfect noun entities.

So, whenever we have a Double-word Marker, we must make sure that they both are followed by he "identical entities".

One more thing I would like to talk about is that "the sacrificing" is a noun. A noun does not have tense. Only verbs have tense. Even if "sacrificing" end with "-ing", it does not show any tense. So there is no question of "sacrificing" being in present tense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of [#permalink]

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14 Sep 2013, 21:27
egmat wrote:
russ9 wrote:
russ9 wrote:
I can't seem to get a certain part of parallelism in my head, any advice will be appreciated.

For example, in choice A - " not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also the sacrificing " From what i've been reading - the whole phrase - "not only due to" needs to be in // to "sacrificing"? Why is that? Why can't it just be "due to gale winds" // to "sacrificing" in which case, wouldn't this represent the correct // structure? Can't I assume that the "due to" carries over to "sacrificing" and "gale winds"?

In option C - "not only due to gale winds that favored the British but also due to the sacrificing " = How is this considered //? Due to gale winds(past) vs. due to sacrificing which is an ing -- present?

My issue is always with the "amount of words" I consider to be parallel. If someone could clarify this issue, which is present in a lot of 700 level questions, I will be eternally grateful.

Thanks!

Hi russ9,

The parallel list always contains a marker. Markers are the words that join the entities in the parallel list. The markers can be divided into two categories: a. Single-word Markers and b. Double-word Markers.

You can read the following article for more detail on this topic:
markers-in-parallelism-139076.html

This sentence also employs a parallelism marker. That marker is "not only... but also...". It is evident that it is a Double-word Marker. And the rule to apply these markers is that they must be followed by "grammatically as well logically identical entities".

So basically, not only X but also Y where X must be parallel to Y.

Now in Choice A: X = due to gale winds...
Y = the sacrificing...

These entities are not parallel. We must repeat "due to" after :but also" as well to make both the entities "identical". This is the reason why Choice A is incorrect.

Now let's analyze if Choice C is correct on parallelism: X = gale winds...
Y = the sacrificing...

As I have already mentioned in my previous post, these two entities APPEAR to be parallel because both are Noun Entities, but these entities are NOT parallel. The reason is that "gale winds" is a "proper noun entity" but "the sacrificing" is not a "proper noun entity". It is a verb-ing noun ( a gerund) that actually denotes an action. So an action word CANNOT be parallel to a noun word. So Choice C also fails in parallelism.

Now let's analyze the correct answer Choice E for parallelism: X = gale winds...
Y = the sacrifice...
Here both the entities are "identically parallel entities". They both are perfect noun entities.

So, whenever we have a Double-word Marker, we must make sure that they both are followed by he "identical entities".

One more thing I would like to talk about is that "the sacrificing" is a noun. A noun does not have tense. Only verbs have tense. Even if "sacrificing" end with "-ing", it does not show any tense. So there is no question of "sacrificing" being in present tense.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.

Well described ! And thanks for the link !
_________________

Kudos would be appreciated -:) !

http://www.EnglishForEveryone.in

GMAT Prep : Critical Reasoning Decoded

Kudos [?]: 7 [0], given: 5

Re: Stymieing the Armadas plans to meet up with the Duke of   [#permalink] 14 Sep 2013, 21:27

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