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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic

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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks

The New American Desk Encyclopedia - Page 1174
https://books.google.com.my/books?isbn=0452011094
Meridian, ‎Meridian Editors, ‎Concord Reference Staff - 1994

SUNSPOTS, apparently dark spots visible on the face of the sun. Vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, their dark appearance is merely one of contrast with the surrounding photosphere.

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Originally posted by skim on 05 Jun 2009, 02:34.
Last edited by Bunuel on 19 Jan 2019, 02:20, edited 5 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 16 Oct 2012, 02:19
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This is indeed not a test of //ism; rather it is about meaning and grammar. If you are thinking about the verb //ism here, there is only one // marker, namely, the fanboy conjunction but. The verbs on either sides of the ‘but’ are in present and present perfect tenses, which is acceptable.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on ---- correct choice.
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun ----- the vortices have been sighted on the surface; Choice says they never have been sighted; total reversal of the original meaning
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at ---- although never have been is a fragment; The subordinate conjunction’ although’ requires a subject and verb or minimum a verb’
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at – ‘although never having been sighted at’ is not a sub-clause; same problem as in C
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on – which flouts the relative pronoun touch rule

A is the choice
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2010, 17:56
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skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on




This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks


Hi

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
Correct

(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
darkspots
That modifies dark spots which changes the intended meaning

(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
although begins a subordinate clause without a subject, thus making it a fragment

(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
although begins a subordinate clause without a subject, thus making it a fragment

(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on
which modifies surface and that makes no sense

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

The terms you and Tarek99 are looking for are Transitive and Intransitive verbs. Transitive Verbs require a direct object, whereas Intransitive verbs do not take a direct object (Instransitive verbs cannot be put in the passive voice).

So to answer your question directly, "to sight" is a transitive verb and requires a direct object; however if it is used as a noun modifier, then it does not require a a direct object since its not acting as a verb.

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Verbs in the past participle form can be used a noun modifiers. In general adjectives, Past Participles, and Present Participles (acting as a noun modifier) are all be parallel.

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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2009, 06:50
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bigoyal wrote:
I'll vote for C.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on - "are visible" and "have never been" are not parallel.
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun - "dark spots that never have been sighted" sounds awkward and changes the meaning.
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at - "sunspots .. appear..." and "sunspots.. sighted.." are parallel construction
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at - "although never having been" sounds awkward and wordy. Also not parallel to "appear as"
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on - same error as D



I will have to disagree with you because I feel that "sighted at" suggests the location of the sighting. For example:

A huge fight was sighted at the construction site ----> it means that those who saw the fight were also there at the construction site.

So when you look at option C, it suggests that someone wasn't able to see the sunspots when he or she was at the sun's poles or equator. Unless that person is Chris Angels, I don't think that such a stunt can be possible....lol
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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Oct 2012, 08:14
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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun's poles or equator.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

Let us first start with the modifier doubt regarding “which”. Generally, “which” refers to the immediate preceding noun. However, that is not the case always. It can also refer to a little far away noun as well. Following is the link to the article that explains in detail when “which” can refer to a slightly far away noun:

http://gmatclub.com/forum/noun-modifier ... 35868.html

In choice E, “which” can only refer to the immediate preceding noun “Sun’s surface” because “on the Sun’s surface” modifies the verb “appear”. Where do the dark spots appear? On Sun’s surface.

Hence, “Sun’s surface” can also be placed right after “appear”. That is the reason why “which” cannot jump over “Sun’s surface” to refer to “dark spots”.

I will suggest that you go through the article first and then read my explanation again. Then it will be absolutely clear to you, why “which” in option E only refers to “Sun’s surface”. This incorrect modification leads to incorrect meaning, making choice E incorrect.

Hope this helps. :)
Thanks.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Mar 2012, 21:39
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I have chosen A for this question:

A. The two verbs are parallel here. "Are visible" tells us that this fact is true in the current time and is parallel to "have never been sighted" that suggests we have still not been able to see these sunspots on the poles or equator of the sun. Although the tenses are different, it is still parallel because of the meaning of the sentence. The use of "are" gives us correct subject verb agreement.

B. The last part of this answer choice makes no sense. "Sighed on the surface of the sun then sun's..." is definitely not correct.

C. I had 2 issues with this answer choice. Firstly, the simple past tense of the verb "sighted" suggests that this fact occurred in the past and is not valid in the current time frame, so we are left wondering if this is true or not in the present time. I believe the intention of the sentence is that we have not been able to see these sunspots on the poles or equators in the past and that fact continues today. Therefore, simple past tense usage is incorrect. Also, I was confused by the use of the word "although" because it starts off a subordinate clause, but this clause does not have a subject.

D. The subordinate clause set off by the word although does not have a subject.

E. Which seems to modify sun's surface.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2013, 13:22
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Though the OA is A, can anyone please explain how active voice and passive voice are parallel in choice A. since "and" indicate parallelism and both parts preceding and following "and" should be parallel in structure and logic..."are visible ---active voice and have never been ---passive"..plz correct me if i m wrong.

Pretty interesting query. The doubt in this question really is - can active voice be parallel to passive voice?
I will explain this using a different question and then will look forward to you applying this logic to the question in this thread.

Another Official Sentence


Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier’s pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve.

Doubt raised
Although the above sentence is correct, 'joined' , ' was injured' , and 'was discharged' do not seem parallel to me.

Doubt Clarification


Active voice can be parallel to passive voice.

In this sentence we have three actions related to Deborah:
1) Deborah joined
2) Deborah was injured
3) Deborah was discharged

Thus here, active verbs are parallel to passive verbs. Logically, the above is the only way we can express these. If we were to make everything in active voice, then we will lose the preciseness and effectiveness of the sentence: “Deborah joined the army; enemies injured her; army discharged her...”. This is highly complex and not effective at all.

Thus, active verbs can very well be parallel to passive verbs when the context requires!

Now say we have a sentence:
Mouse ran up the clock, and water spout was climbed by the spider.

This sentence is not parallel since the two clauses do not have logically parallel subjects because of use of different voice. It should be made parallel as follows:
Mouse ran up the clock, and spider climbed the water spout.

Here is one more sentence:
Mary cooked elaborate dinner, which was indulged by all the guests.
This sentence is correct as is: First part is active voice and second part - which clause is in passive construction.

Thus, it really depends on the context of the sentence if active voice can be made parallel to passive voice. The end goal is to communicate the idea in the most effective manner.

I hope this helps. Now apply the same logic to the Sunspots question. :)

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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jul 2013, 08:05
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The correct parallel structure in the original sentence emphasizes the contrast between where sunspots are found {are visible... Sun) and where they are not {have never been sighted... equator). Sunspots is the subject of the sentence; are is the verb of the first part of the contrast, and have been sighted is the verb of the second. (The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past participle sighted) Both parts of the sentence conclude with phrases indicating location.The contrast itself is indicated by the conjunction but.

A Correct. This sentence clearly and correctly draws a contrast between where sunspots are found and where they are not.
B The modifying clause that never... Sun distorts the meaning of the sentence; also,without punctuation, the phrase on the surface of the Sun the Suns poles or equator is ungrammatical and makes no sense.
C Although typically introduces a subordinate clause, which has a subject and a verb,but here there is no subject and "sighted' is not a complete verb.
D Although usually introduces a subordinate clause,but there is no subject of the clause and having been sighted is not a complete verb phrase.
E This phrasing makes the sentence somewhat awkward and unclear.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 12 Nov 2016, 15:01
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zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts,

I totally got the reason why eliminate D.
but I am still curious whether "having been sighted" can be an adjective ?
it might not be the point of this question but it can help me to understand "having" because I am sunk in "having" recently, I have no idea when "having" is correct, when incorrect.

and I have another question
OE say: B) also, without punctuation, the phrase on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator is ungrammatical and makes no sense.

It's hard for me to understand , genuinely want your help

++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

Hi sayantanc2k,

Does it mean add a comma as following,
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun , the Sun’s poles or equator.

it confused me a lot if add comma like this,

so the part after the added comma is noun phrase, right?
in an another word, the surface of the sun is the same as the sun's poles or equator, hm.. feel strange,
that's my confusion and sorry for my implicit previous post.

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~

Dear zoezhuyan,

I'm happy to respond. :-) I see that my brilliant colleague sayantanc2k already responded, but I will add a little more.

As sayantanc2k, the structure "having been sighted" is a perfect participle. Any participle can act as a noun or verb modifier. Be careful in your terminology, though: just because a participle acts as a noun modifier, we can't call it an "adjective." Technically, when a participle acts as a noun modifier, it is an "adjectival phrase"--that is a phrase that acts as a adjective--but it is not simply an "adjective."

The problem with (D) is the incorrect structure "although" + [participle]. The word "although" is a subordinate conjunction, designed to open a dependent clause: it is designed to have a full bonafide [noun] + [verb] clause after it. A participle cannot take the place of a full clause.

For (B), I think the OE gives only half the story. Part of the problem is that, when we have a list, we need commas: X, Y, or Z. That's one issue, but the deeper problem is the breech in logic. The prompt tells us quite clear: "Sunspots . . . are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun ..." Even if we know absolutely nothing about sunspots, we need to take that as an article of faith: sunspots are dark spots on the surface of the sun.
Given that, (B) makes the incredibly illogical statement: "Sunspots . . . never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun ..."
If sunspots are defined as dark spots on the surface of the sun, that implies that somebody had to see these dark spots on the surface of the sun at some point, and so the statement that they have never been seen on the surface of the Sun flies in the face of fact! That, I would say, is the real problem with (B).

My friend, do not be naive in trusting the OE given in the OG. The GMAT official questions, in the OG and in GMAT Prep, are among the best test questions on the planet: I am simply in awe of their high quality. By contrast, the OE vary wildly: some are good, some are mediocre, some leave out important things, and some every make incorrect statements. Every release questions has been on the GMAT: it had to undergo rigorous testing before appearing on the GMAT, and then it garnered mountains of data while it was on the GMAT. Every question in the OG or on GMAT Prep has hundreds of thousands of data points behind it, supporting its high quality. By contrast, when they wrote the OG, somebody (probably a starving grad student) had to write the explanations; perhaps they were proofread once or twice, but these have undergone absolutely no statistical feedback procedure. I write questions as part of my job. Of the hundreds of questions I have written, only a handful of my very best questions approach the quality of official question. By contrast, I and all the experts on GMAT Club regular give better explanations than those in the OG. Don't be surprised if the OE in the OG doesn't say everything or misses the point. Come here if you want high quality explanations.

My friend, does all this make sense?

Take very good care of yourself, my friend. :-)

Mike :-)
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 14 Dec 2011, 20:42
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First of all "appear as" vs "are visible as". I made the mistake of eliminating are visible as because I thought it was wordier than "appear as" as well had passive voice. Is that too weak of an argument to eliminate them?


First, you state that "are visible as" had passive voice is wrong. Because this sentence we need using passive voice because we do not know who will sighted. Choice A, B, D, and E all use passive voice. Of course, "are visible" is not passive voice.

Second, "appear as" used to express performing something or showing up as. So, using "appear as" will change the meaning that the sunspots will perform or show up as dark spots. This meaning is non-sense.

I will give some example with "appear as + NOUN" ("appear as + not NOUN" is wrong)

RIGHT: Dave Gilmore is currently APPEARING AS Widow Twanky in the Arts Theatre's production of "Puss in Boots".
RIGHT: Imperfections APPEAR AS tiny cracks

Quote:
secondly, in the answer choice (E), which is wrong, the answer explanation mentions that the sentence is akward because it uses "which" instead of "but" for the following clause. I thought the real reason it was wrong is because "which" is a relative pronoun, which modifies the noun immediately before it. Therefore it would modify "surface" incorrectly. Am i wrong there?


"which" is not use wrong relative pronoun. "on the Sun's surface" play a role of mission critical modifier that will modify the spots. Definitely, you cannot put "which" between "spots" and "on the Sun's surface", this will change the placement. The problem in choice E is about the meaning.

I will give an example about the critical modifier:

I will choose the method of surgery THAT can save the cancer patient.

THAT in this case modify METHOD, not SURGERY. We will not what method is. So, using "of surgery" will make the meaning clearer.

Hope that helps

P/S: Mission critical modifier is tough topic (including me)

You should read more in this thread.

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mis ... 10633.html
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Aug 2016, 12:16
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Responding to a PM:

1. Can you throw some light on sighted on vs sighted at usage in terms of meaning.
"Sighted on" can be used to refer to a surface, a line or a point. "Sighted at" can be used to refer to a location. Since poles / equator can be considered points/line or location, both the usages would be alright.
2. Why although usage is incorrect here in options.
As per the OE, "although" should be used to introduce a clause.
3. Sighted or have been sighted is mentioned as not a complete verb? Why? What does it need more?
"Sighted" is not a complete verb - since the usage is in passive voice, complete forms would be "is sighted", "was sighted" etc.
" Have been sighted" is definitely a complete verb. (passive -present perfect)
4. Is there no difference in between Sunspots visible as dark spots and Sunspots appear as dark spots?
In some cases the meaning can be different:
"Appear" may mean " to become visible" (i.e., something was not visible before, but now it is):
Madonna appeared on the stage.
"Visible" does not imply so:
She was visible because of her bright dress.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Jun 2009, 06:19
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skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on




This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks



I choose A as my answer.
What you need to know is that "visible" is an adjective. You should also know that past participle is also treated as an adjective. Here's an example of a past participle, which is always used as an adjective:

1) The man carried a broken window. ---> the "broken" is a past participle describing the "window", which is a noun.

As for the question regarding "sighted', it means that its a verb that doesn't need to be followed by an object. For example:

2) Tom runs ---> you don't have to say where did Tom run. The verb "runs" can stand by itself without the need to add an object. However, some of the verbs will NEED to be followed by an object to complete the thought of the sentence. For example:

3) Tom completes his homework ----> can you imagine how odd it will be if the sentence were written without "his homework"? So this shows an example of some verbs that MUST be followed by an object.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2012, 10:26
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skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


"don't lose contradiction meaning" - B and E out
"sight at" not "on"- A,B,E out
"which" can't refer to surface - E out
"although" requires complete S+A + "having been" means action before another action or after finishing one action something new started - D out.
"action verb" > "stationary be + adj/active noun" - A,B out

The best option should be "although the spots have never been sighted at"
POE gives C.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Feb 2014, 12:01
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My 2 cents :
msln2008 wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

Please can you answer my queries below regarding the above OG question.

1. When compared to sighted at equator, sighted on equator sounds good and I feel we must say sighted on equator and not sighted at equator as equator is not a place like an area in a city. Please can you let me now if my understanding above is correct and can I eliminate an option based solely on this one?

2. Consider the sentence, Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. Can I assume sighted is a verb - ed modifier which modifies the previous noun Dark Spots? or the presence of although would restrict sighted as a verb-ed modifier?
Ans: It is very common to get confused with presence of a modifier in subordinate conjunction marker. Even I also struggled initially to understand that we can place modifiers in this way e.g Although sighted at equator, sunspots are blah blah clause; thus, Always check whether it is a clause or a modifier introduced with subordinate conjunction or any transition word. You correctly identified that its an ed modifier not a verb. GOOD !!


3. Consider the below two sentences:
a. Sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but have never been sighted on equator. (X but Y) Correct
b. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. (X although Y). Grammatically right/ Meaning wise wrong
here sighted is modifying dark spots instead of Sunspots. Although is just invisible here focus on only ed modifier and ed modifier modifies preceding noun

In sentence (a) can I say the parallelism rules allow the sunspots to be the subject in both X and Y clauses? Yes
If the answer is yes for the above question I assume then the same holds true for (b) also. Is my understanding correct? No

While attempting this question I felt the construction X but Y is not appropriate (for I think X, but Y is the correct form) and hence eliminated option A and selected C thinking that the "sighted" is acting as verb-ed modifier for dark spots. However, I was wrong. Please could you elaborate your answer for my 3 queries above?

But is a coordinating conjunction; it is one of the FANBOYS
Refer sentence structure and comma : Subject verb1, and Subject verb 2 [ clause 1, and clause 2 ]
Here Subject is common for both verbs no comma required: Subject verb1 and verb2 [ only one clause subject is common]

In option C You correctly identified the ed modifier, but meaning wise it should modify sunspots not dark spots: dark spots is describing how sunspots appear.


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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Oct 2016, 05:13
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zoezhuyan wrote:
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts,

I totally got the reason why eliminate D.
but I am still curious whether "having been sighted" can be an adjective ?
it might not be the point of this question but it can help me to understand "having" because I am sunk in "having" recently, I have no idea when "having" is correct, when incorrect.

and I have another question
OE wrote:
B) also, without punctuation, the phrase on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator is ungrammatical and makes no sense.


It's hard for me to understand , genuinely want your help

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~



experts,
HELP PLEASE...

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~


As indicated in a response to another post of yours, here as well "having been sighted" is a perfect participle (in passive voice). The base verb is "sight". In passive it would be "to be sighted". The perfect participle is "having been sighted", which indicates a completed action of being sighted. This structure implies that the sighting has been completed.

Your second question is a statement, a correct statement - without comma, the structure makes no sense.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Jun 2017, 05:40
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Quote:
C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at

(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at

D) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


Use of 'although' in C and D: The subordinate conjunction 'although', when used at the end of a sentence can only be in the form of a clause with a full subject and verb and not in the form of phrase or modifier. 'Although never sighted', and 'although never having been sighted'' are not legitimate clauses. So, C and D can be omitted.

However, E is trickier. Even though one can apparently eliminate based on the wrong reference of which' 'to Sun's surface, still there is a strong argument that the relative pronoun indeed refers to the spots only.
According To Ron, E is wrong because that it implies that the same spots that appear on the surface of the Sun have not been sighted on the poles or the equator.

Of course, it understandable that spots do not travel.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jul 2017, 08:37
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OreoShake wrote:
Can 'have' and 'are' be parallel? They are brilliant but have never practiced the sport. Seems funny.

Dear OreoShake,

I'm happy to respond. :-)

My friend, remember that parallelism is primarily a logical structure, and the grammar is secondary to the logic. Remember that we always can create parallel structures that are grammatically flawless and logically absurd.
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The short answer to your question is "yes"---of course "are" and "have" can be parallel. In fact, "is/are" can be parallel with any other verb. The caveat, as with all parallelism, is that the parallelism must be logically sound.
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Does all this make sense?
Mike :-)
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 30 Jul 2017, 02:30
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ydmuley wrote:
Hello GMATNinja - I solved this question for the second time and unfortunately got it wrong both the times. Your detailed analysis on this question would be highly appreciated.


Hi ydmuley ,

Can I explain you please? :)

We have

Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

Quote:
(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on


Okay, this sentence implies the sun spots were not seen in the past and not even now. But still they are visible as dark spots. Hence, Correct answer.

Quote:
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun


This choice is run on. Try to connect this choice with the original sentence. You will find the error as highlighted below:

Sunspots are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator.

Did you notice what I am saying? Sun the Sun's poles?? What is this? Hence, Incorrect.

Quote:
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at


Okay, here is the catch. It says never sighted at. So, this happened in the past. Does that mean they are sighted now? We don't know, right?

Now, you could ask me which is the correct idiom "sighted at" or "sighted on". My answer will be I don't care about idioms unless I don't have any other option than to care about it. Technically, I believe sighted on means I have an object on which I am having something while sighted at means at some place? Again, I don't care about it.

Hence, it is not giving the intended meaning. Hence, out.

Quote:
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at


The usage of having been is incorrect here. Although should have a clause with it. But when I am saying 'never having been..', I am missing the correct usage.

Quote:
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on


It implies Surface of the sun have been sighted on the pole. Lol. This cannot happen. Hence, Incorrect.

Does that make sense?
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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 28 Feb 2019, 15:48
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Hello Everyone!

Let's take a closer look at this question, one issue at a time, and narrow it down to the correct choice! Before we dive in, here is the original question, with any major differences between each option highlighted in orange:

Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

After a quick glance over the options, a couple major differences jump out:

1. How they begin: visible as / appear as
2. Verb tense: have been sighted / sighted / having been sighted


It's always a good idea to start with any issue that will eliminate 2-3 options at once. Let's start with #1 on our list because it'll eliminate the most options to get us started!

While it may seem that appear and visible are interchangeable terms, they do mean slightly different things:

Visible = The object already exists, is not moving, and you are able to see it. (The stop sign is visible from a distance of 200 yards.)
Appear = The object is created as you're looking, or it moves into your path of vision. (My dog appears at my feet when he's ready to go for a walk.)

It makes more sense in this context to say that sunspots are visible on the surface of the Sun. They already exist, and they aren't moving into your vision path - they are stationary. The sentence is merely stating that you are able to see them, not that they move around or are created in front of your very eyes.

Therefore, we can eliminate options C, D, and E because they use the more vague "appear," rather than the clearer term "visible."

Now that we have it narrowed down to only 2 options, let's take a closer look at the remaining options:

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on

This option is CORRECT! It uses the clear term "visible" to describe sunspots, and it makes logical sense to use "have never been sighted" to refer only to the poles and equator.

(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun

This is INCORRECT because it drastically changes the original meaning of the sentence! The original sentence states that we can see sunspots on the surface of the Sun, with the exception of the poles and equator. This sentence says they have never been sighted on the surface, which isn't true!


There you go - option A is the correct choice! It uses clear terminology and makes logical sense!

**************************************************************************************************************

Now, I'm sure you're wondering what would happen if we tackled #2 on the list instead. Here is how we could break down this question based on verb tenses:


(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on

This is CORRECT because it uses the correct verb tense (present perfect) to show that they weren't found in the past, and haven't been found in the present too.

(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun

While this sentence uses the correct verb tense, the location of the verb is wrong! In this case, it's referring to the surface of the Sun, which doesn't make sense - we CAN see sunspots on the surface! This is INCORRECT because it drastically changes the intended meaning, which is a big no-no on the GMAT!

(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at

This is INCORRECT because it uses past tense to show that the sunspots were not visible in the past, but says nothing about the present. The original sentence suggests that the sunspots are still not visible on the poles or equator today, so we need to use present perfect tense to show that.

(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at

This option is INCORRECT for a couple reasons. First, it doesn't make sense to say that sunspots aren't visible AT the poles or equator - it's clearer to say they aren't visible ON those areas. Second, it uses the wrong verb tense (past perfect) in passive voice, which changes the meaning somewhat. This states that sunspots were not visible on the poles and equator in the past, but doesn't say anything about the present!

(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

This option does use the correct verb tense, but it is still INCORRECT because it uses the term "appear" rather than "visible," which is much clearer.

As you can see, starting your process with #2 on our list is much more complicated and doesn't help you eliminate large chunks of options easily. You can certainly answer a question this way, but it may take you MUCH longer to arrive at the correct answer!


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Originally posted by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 26 Sep 2018, 10:02.
Last edited by EMPOWERgmatVerbal on 28 Feb 2019, 15:48, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic  [#permalink]

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New post 15 Dec 2011, 00:19
tuanquang269 wrote:
Quote:
First of all "appear as" vs "are visible as". I made the mistake of eliminating are visible as because I thought it was wordier than "appear as" as well had passive voice. Is that too weak of an argument to eliminate them?


First, you state that "are visible as" had passive voice is wrong. Because this sentence we need using passive voice because we do not know who will sighted. Choice A, B, D, and E all use passive voice. Of course, "are visible" is not passive voice.

Second, "appear as" used to express performing something or showing up as. So, using "appear as" will change the meaning that the sunspots will perform or show up as dark spots. This meaning is non-sense.

I will give some example with "appear as + NOUN" ("appear as + not NOUN" is wrong)

RIGHT: Dave Gilmore is currently APPEARING AS Widow Twanky in the Arts Theatre's production of "Puss in Boots".
RIGHT: Imperfections APPEAR AS tiny cracks

Quote:
secondly, in the answer choice (E), which is wrong, the answer explanation mentions that the sentence is akward because it uses "which" instead of "but" for the following clause. I thought the real reason it was wrong is because "which" is a relative pronoun, which modifies the noun immediately before it. Therefore it would modify "surface" incorrectly. Am i wrong there?


"which" is not use wrong relative pronoun. "on the Sun's surface" play a role of mission critical modifier that will modify the spots. Definitely, you cannot put "which" between "spots" and "on the Sun's surface", this will change the placement. The problem in choice E is about the meaning.

I will give an example about the critical modifier:

I will choose the method of surgery THAT can save the cancer patient.

THAT in this case modify METHOD, not SURGERY. We will not what method is. So, using "of surgery" will make the meaning clearer.

Hope that helps

P/S: Mission critical modifier is tough topic (including me)

You should read more in this thread.

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mis ... 10633.html



thanks so much for the help, i'm looking at the mission critical modifier. I've been through most of the MGMAT sentence correction guide. why is there no mention of this? the only mention of "which" is that it MUST modify the noun immediately preceding it. There are some advanced sections i haven't covered, perhaps it is there?

Also I still am not convinced of the passive voice. I believe that all the answer choices starting with "are visible" are passive voice. Because we could easily attach an object performing the "seeing" ie "are visible by observers". Whereas "appear as" not only does not have the "to be" verb form, but if you were to attach an object with a preposition like above, ie "[sunspots] appear as darkspots to observers" it still seems to me the "sunspots" are the action doer.

Also, the "appear as" vs "are visible as" is confusing to me.

"imperfections appear as tiny cracks" seems exactly the same as "sunspots appear as darkspots". sunspots don't appear as sunspots as you would probably imagine them to be bright, instead they appear as darkspots, lacking light. i saw this somewhere:

2. [for something] to be seen or occur in a particular form or with particular characteristics. The tumors appear as shadows on the X-ray. The first signs of the disease appear as a fever and a rash.

I admit too, when i first went through the problem i eliminated all the "appear as" because it seemed different in meaning. But when I read the OG explanation it mentioned nothing about the meaning of appear as vs are visible as.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic   [#permalink] 15 Dec 2011, 00:19

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