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# Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ

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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 26 Sep 2018, 11:46
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Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

64% (01:06) correct 36% (01:14) wrong based on 4990 sessions

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Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks

Originally posted by skim on 05 Jun 2009, 02:34.
Last edited by Bunuel on 26 Sep 2018, 11:46, edited 2 times in total.
Renamed the topic and edited the question.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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16 Oct 2012, 02:19
8
This is indeed not a test of //ism; rather it is about meaning and grammar. If you are thinking about the verb //ism here, there is only one // marker, namely, the fanboy conjunction but. The verbs on either sides of the ‘but’ are in present and present perfect tenses, which is acceptable.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on ---- correct choice.
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun ----- the vortices have been sighted on the surface; Choice says they never have been sighted; total reversal of the original meaning
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at ---- although never have been is a fragment; The subordinate conjunction’ although’ requires a subject and verb or minimum a verb’
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at – ‘although never having been sighted at’ is not a sub-clause; same problem as in C
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on – which flouts the relative pronoun touch rule

A is the choice
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2010, 17:56
18
9
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks

Hi

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
Correct

(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
darkspots
That modifies dark spots which changes the intended meaning

(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
although begins a subordinate clause without a subject, thus making it a fragment

(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
although begins a subordinate clause without a subject, thus making it a fragment

(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on
which modifies surface and that makes no sense

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

The terms you and Tarek99 are looking for are Transitive and Intransitive verbs. Transitive Verbs require a direct object, whereas Intransitive verbs do not take a direct object (Instransitive verbs cannot be put in the passive voice).

So to answer your question directly, "to sight" is a transitive verb and requires a direct object; however if it is used as a noun modifier, then it does not require a a direct object since its not acting as a verb.

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Verbs in the past participle form can be used a noun modifiers. In general adjectives, Past Participles, and Present Participles (acting as a noun modifier) are all be parallel.

Take Care
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2009, 06:19
1
4
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks

I choose A as my answer.
What you need to know is that "visible" is an adjective. You should also know that past participle is also treated as an adjective. Here's an example of a past participle, which is always used as an adjective:

1) The man carried a broken window. ---> the "broken" is a past participle describing the "window", which is a noun.

As for the question regarding "sighted', it means that its a verb that doesn't need to be followed by an object. For example:

2) Tom runs ---> you don't have to say where did Tom run. The verb "runs" can stand by itself without the need to add an object. However, some of the verbs will NEED to be followed by an object to complete the thought of the sentence. For example:

3) Tom completes his homework ----> can you imagine how odd it will be if the sentence were written without "his homework"? So this shows an example of some verbs that MUST be followed by an object.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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05 Jun 2009, 06:50
11
2
bigoyal wrote:
I'll vote for C.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on - "are visible" and "have never been" are not parallel.
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun - "dark spots that never have been sighted" sounds awkward and changes the meaning.
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at - "sunspots .. appear..." and "sunspots.. sighted.." are parallel construction
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at - "although never having been" sounds awkward and wordy. Also not parallel to "appear as"
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on - same error as D

I will have to disagree with you because I feel that "sighted at" suggests the location of the sighting. For example:

A huge fight was sighted at the construction site ----> it means that those who saw the fight were also there at the construction site.

So when you look at option C, it suggests that someone wasn't able to see the sunspots when he or she was at the sun's poles or equator. Unless that person is Chris Angels, I don't think that such a stunt can be possible....lol
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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14 Dec 2011, 20:42
1
2
Quote:
First of all "appear as" vs "are visible as". I made the mistake of eliminating are visible as because I thought it was wordier than "appear as" as well had passive voice. Is that too weak of an argument to eliminate them?

First, you state that "are visible as" had passive voice is wrong. Because this sentence we need using passive voice because we do not know who will sighted. Choice A, B, D, and E all use passive voice. Of course, "are visible" is not passive voice.

Second, "appear as" used to express performing something or showing up as. So, using "appear as" will change the meaning that the sunspots will perform or show up as dark spots. This meaning is non-sense.

I will give some example with "appear as + NOUN" ("appear as + not NOUN" is wrong)

RIGHT: Dave Gilmore is currently APPEARING AS Widow Twanky in the Arts Theatre's production of "Puss in Boots".
RIGHT: Imperfections APPEAR AS tiny cracks

Quote:
secondly, in the answer choice (E), which is wrong, the answer explanation mentions that the sentence is akward because it uses "which" instead of "but" for the following clause. I thought the real reason it was wrong is because "which" is a relative pronoun, which modifies the noun immediately before it. Therefore it would modify "surface" incorrectly. Am i wrong there?

"which" is not use wrong relative pronoun. "on the Sun's surface" play a role of mission critical modifier that will modify the spots. Definitely, you cannot put "which" between "spots" and "on the Sun's surface", this will change the placement. The problem in choice E is about the meaning.

I will give an example about the critical modifier:

I will choose the method of surgery THAT can save the cancer patient.

THAT in this case modify METHOD, not SURGERY. We will not what method is. So, using "of surgery" will make the meaning clearer.

Hope that helps

P/S: Mission critical modifier is tough topic (including me)

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mis ... 10633.html
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2011, 00:19
tuanquang269 wrote:
Quote:
First of all "appear as" vs "are visible as". I made the mistake of eliminating are visible as because I thought it was wordier than "appear as" as well had passive voice. Is that too weak of an argument to eliminate them?

First, you state that "are visible as" had passive voice is wrong. Because this sentence we need using passive voice because we do not know who will sighted. Choice A, B, D, and E all use passive voice. Of course, "are visible" is not passive voice.

Second, "appear as" used to express performing something or showing up as. So, using "appear as" will change the meaning that the sunspots will perform or show up as dark spots. This meaning is non-sense.

I will give some example with "appear as + NOUN" ("appear as + not NOUN" is wrong)

RIGHT: Dave Gilmore is currently APPEARING AS Widow Twanky in the Arts Theatre's production of "Puss in Boots".
RIGHT: Imperfections APPEAR AS tiny cracks

Quote:
secondly, in the answer choice (E), which is wrong, the answer explanation mentions that the sentence is akward because it uses "which" instead of "but" for the following clause. I thought the real reason it was wrong is because "which" is a relative pronoun, which modifies the noun immediately before it. Therefore it would modify "surface" incorrectly. Am i wrong there?

"which" is not use wrong relative pronoun. "on the Sun's surface" play a role of mission critical modifier that will modify the spots. Definitely, you cannot put "which" between "spots" and "on the Sun's surface", this will change the placement. The problem in choice E is about the meaning.

I will give an example about the critical modifier:

I will choose the method of surgery THAT can save the cancer patient.

THAT in this case modify METHOD, not SURGERY. We will not what method is. So, using "of surgery" will make the meaning clearer.

Hope that helps

P/S: Mission critical modifier is tough topic (including me)

http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mis ... 10633.html

thanks so much for the help, i'm looking at the mission critical modifier. I've been through most of the MGMAT sentence correction guide. why is there no mention of this? the only mention of "which" is that it MUST modify the noun immediately preceding it. There are some advanced sections i haven't covered, perhaps it is there?

Also I still am not convinced of the passive voice. I believe that all the answer choices starting with "are visible" are passive voice. Because we could easily attach an object performing the "seeing" ie "are visible by observers". Whereas "appear as" not only does not have the "to be" verb form, but if you were to attach an object with a preposition like above, ie "[sunspots] appear as darkspots to observers" it still seems to me the "sunspots" are the action doer.

Also, the "appear as" vs "are visible as" is confusing to me.

"imperfections appear as tiny cracks" seems exactly the same as "sunspots appear as darkspots". sunspots don't appear as sunspots as you would probably imagine them to be bright, instead they appear as darkspots, lacking light. i saw this somewhere:

2. [for something] to be seen or occur in a particular form or with particular characteristics. The tumors appear as shadows on the X-ray. The first signs of the disease appear as a fever and a rash.

I admit too, when i first went through the problem i eliminated all the "appear as" because it seemed different in meaning. But when I read the OG explanation it mentioned nothing about the meaning of appear as vs are visible as.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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15 Dec 2011, 09:44
pinchharmonic wrote:
thanks so much for the help, i'm looking at the mission critical modifier. I've been through most of the MGMAT sentence correction guide. why is there no mention of this? the only mention of "which" is that it MUST modify the noun immediately preceding it. There are some advanced sections i haven't covered, perhaps it is there?

Maybe, you missed the section MODIFIER ADVANCE in the MGMAT SC. In that section, MGMAT only mention the mission critical modifier of THAT. However, I get some problem when practice with OG. So, I use the google to clarify my confusion.

pinchharmonic wrote:
Also I still am not convinced of the passive voice. I believe that all the answer choices starting with "are visible" are passive voice. Because we could easily attach an object performing the "seeing" ie "are visible by observers". Whereas "appear as" not only does not have the "to be" verb form, but if you were to attach an object with a preposition like above, ie "[sunspots] appear as darkspots to observers" it still seems to me the "sunspots" are the action doer.

Again, I'm pretty sure that "are visible" is not passive voice. You can say "I am visible to you", but cannot say "I am visible by you". How you can make me visible. When you get the problem with determining the voice whether passive or active. You should put the question: "Who actually does the action?"

In this sentence, the observers cannot make sunspot visible. They only can see the sunspot.

Quote:
Also, the "appear as" vs "are visible as" is confusing to me.

"imperfections appear as tiny cracks" seems exactly the same as "sunspots appear as darkspots". sunspots don't appear as sunspots as you would probably imagine them to be bright, instead they appear as darkspots, lacking light. i saw this somewhere:

2. [for something] to be seen or occur in a particular form or with particular characteristics. The tumors appear as shadows on the X-ray. The first signs of the disease appear as a fever and a rash.

I admit too, when i first went through the problem i eliminated all the "appear as" because it seemed different in meaning. But when I read the OG explanation it mentioned nothing about the meaning of appear as vs are visible as.

Very nice searching. You correct me. Thank you very very much. I admit I'm wrong the difference between "appear as" and "visible as" . Both phrase would be okay. The only problem here is the "although..." part, based on the meaning.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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07 Mar 2012, 21:39
3
I have chosen A for this question:

A. The two verbs are parallel here. "Are visible" tells us that this fact is true in the current time and is parallel to "have never been sighted" that suggests we have still not been able to see these sunspots on the poles or equator of the sun. Although the tenses are different, it is still parallel because of the meaning of the sentence. The use of "are" gives us correct subject verb agreement.

B. The last part of this answer choice makes no sense. "Sighed on the surface of the sun then sun's..." is definitely not correct.

C. I had 2 issues with this answer choice. Firstly, the simple past tense of the verb "sighted" suggests that this fact occurred in the past and is not valid in the current time frame, so we are left wondering if this is true or not in the present time. I believe the intention of the sentence is that we have not been able to see these sunspots on the poles or equators in the past and that fact continues today. Therefore, simple past tense usage is incorrect. Also, I was confused by the use of the word "although" because it starts off a subordinate clause, but this clause does not have a subject.

D. The subordinate clause set off by the word although does not have a subject.

E. Which seems to modify sun's surface.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 10:26
1
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

"don't lose contradiction meaning" - B and E out
"sight at" not "on"- A,B,E out
"which" can't refer to surface - E out
"although" requires complete S+A + "having been" means action before another action or after finishing one action something new started - D out.
"action verb" > "stationary be + adj/active noun" - A,B out

The best option should be "although the spots have never been sighted at"
POE gives C.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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02 Apr 2013, 13:22
2
2
Quote:
Though the OA is A, can anyone please explain how active voice and passive voice are parallel in choice A. since "and" indicate parallelism and both parts preceding and following "and" should be parallel in structure and logic..."are visible ---active voice and have never been ---passive"..plz correct me if i m wrong.

Pretty interesting query. The doubt in this question really is - can active voice be parallel to passive voice?
I will explain this using a different question and then will look forward to you applying this logic to the question in this thread.

Another Official Sentence

Dressed as a man and using the name Robert Shurtleff, Deborah Sampson, the first woman to draw a soldier’s pension, joined the Continental Army in 1782 at the age of 22, was injured three times, and was discharged in 1783 because she had become too ill to serve.

Doubt raised
Although the above sentence is correct, 'joined' , ' was injured' , and 'was discharged' do not seem parallel to me.

Doubt Clarification

Active voice can be parallel to passive voice.

In this sentence we have three actions related to Deborah:
1) Deborah joined
2) Deborah was injured
3) Deborah was discharged

Thus here, active verbs are parallel to passive verbs. Logically, the above is the only way we can express these. If we were to make everything in active voice, then we will lose the preciseness and effectiveness of the sentence: “Deborah joined the army; enemies injured her; army discharged her...”. This is highly complex and not effective at all.

Thus, active verbs can very well be parallel to passive verbs when the context requires!

Now say we have a sentence:
Mouse ran up the clock, and water spout was climbed by the spider.

This sentence is not parallel since the two clauses do not have logically parallel subjects because of use of different voice. It should be made parallel as follows:
Mouse ran up the clock, and spider climbed the water spout.

Here is one more sentence:
Mary cooked elaborate dinner, which was indulged by all the guests.
This sentence is correct as is: First part is active voice and second part - which clause is in passive construction.

Thus, it really depends on the context of the sentence if active voice can be made parallel to passive voice. The end goal is to communicate the idea in the most effective manner.

I hope this helps. Now apply the same logic to the Sunspots question.

Thanks,
Payal
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2013, 08:05
2
The correct parallel structure in the original sentence emphasizes the contrast between where sunspots are found {are visible... Sun) and where they are not {have never been sighted... equator). Sunspots is the subject of the sentence; are is the verb of the first part of the contrast, and have been sighted is the verb of the second. (The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past participle sighted) Both parts of the sentence conclude with phrases indicating location.The contrast itself is indicated by the conjunction but.

A Correct. This sentence clearly and correctly draws a contrast between where sunspots are found and where they are not.
B The modifying clause that never... Sun distorts the meaning of the sentence; also,without punctuation, the phrase on the surface of the Sun the Suns poles or equator is ungrammatical and makes no sense.
C Although typically introduces a subordinate clause, which has a subject and a verb,but here there is no subject and "sighted' is not a complete verb.
D Although usually introduces a subordinate clause,but there is no subject of the clause and having been sighted is not a complete verb phrase.
E This phrasing makes the sentence somewhat awkward and unclear.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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16 Feb 2014, 13:03
skim wrote:
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equater.

(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on

This is Q14 of the OG 12th ed. (Q9 of the OG 11th ed) However:

1. I don't understand the OE of option (C), in that "sighted is not a complete verb".

2. I don't understand the OE of the top paragraph which states "The adjective visible is a complement and is parallel to the past particle sighted"

Would appreciate any form of explanation. Thanks

Hi e-gmat,

Please can you answer my queries below regarding the above OG question.

1. When compared to sighted at equator, sighted on equator sounds good and I feel we must say sighted on equator and not sighted at equator as equator is not a place like an area in a city. Please can you let me now if my understanding above is correct and can I eliminate an option based solely on this one?

2. Consider the sentence, Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. Can I assume sighted is a verb - ed modifier which modifies the previous noun Dark Spots? or the presence of although would restrict sighted as a verb-ed modifier?

3. Consider the below two sentences:
a. Sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but have never been sighted on equator. (X but Y)
b. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. (X although Y).

In sentence (a) can I say the parallelism rules allow the sunspots to be the subject in both X and Y clauses? If the answer is yes for the above question I assume then the same holds true for (b) also. Is my understanding correct?

While attempting this question I felt the construction X but Y is not appropriate (for I think X, but Y is the correct form) and hence eliminated option A and selected C thinking that the "sighted" is acting as verb-ed modifier for dark spots. However, I was wrong. Please could you elaborate your answer for my 3 queries above?
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2014, 06:09
msln2008 wrote:

Hi e-gmat,

Please can you answer my queries below regarding the above OG question.

1. When compared to sighted at equator, sighted on equator sounds good and I feel we must say sighted on equator and not sighted at equator as equator is not a place like an area in a city. Please can you let me now if my understanding above is correct and can I eliminate an option based solely on this one?

2. Consider the sentence, Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. Can I assume sighted is a verb - ed modifier which modifies the previous noun Dark Spots? or the presence of although would restrict sighted as a verb-ed modifier?

3. Consider the below two sentences:
a. Sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but have never been sighted on equator. (X but Y)
b. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. (X although Y).

In sentence (a) can I say the parallelism rules allow the sunspots to be the subject in both X and Y clauses? If the answer is yes for the above question I assume then the same holds true for (b) also. Is my understanding correct?

While attempting this question I felt the construction X but Y is not appropriate (for I think X, but Y is the correct form) and hence eliminated option A and selected C thinking that the "sighted" is acting as verb-ed modifier for dark spots. However, I was wrong. Please could you elaborate your answer for my 3 queries above?

Hi there,

1. I would say this is a question of usage rather than of application of logic. The sentence says that sunspots have been sighted on the surface of the sun but not on the poles or equator. So, I would pick 'sighted on' based on the context of the sentence rather than the meaning that you've applied.

For questions 2 and 3, the only correct use of 'although' that I've seen in such a context in official questions is when the meaning is completely unambiguous. For example, in the sentence "Although small, the conference room suits our needs," it is clear that "small" can refer only to the conference room. In a context in which it's possible for the modifier to refer to more than one item, it makes more sense to replace the modifier with a verb that is parallel to the verb in the previous clause, so that the meaning is absolutely clear.

I hope this helps.

Regards,
Meghna
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2014, 11:37
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on the Sun’s poles or equator.
POE:
(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on -- HOLD ON
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun -- Changing meaning suggesting sun spots never have been sighted on the surface of sun.
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at -- although sighted : ed modifier modifying dark spots instead of sun spots.
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at -- having been sighted : ing modifier placed after comma unable to modify Sunspots and it having ing modifier is 99% wrong on gmat.
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on --- which modifier error modifying immediate noun surface.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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27 Feb 2014, 12:01
1
My 2 cents :
msln2008 wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

Please can you answer my queries below regarding the above OG question.

1. When compared to sighted at equator, sighted on equator sounds good and I feel we must say sighted on equator and not sighted at equator as equator is not a place like an area in a city. Please can you let me now if my understanding above is correct and can I eliminate an option based solely on this one?

2. Consider the sentence, Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. Can I assume sighted is a verb - ed modifier which modifies the previous noun Dark Spots? or the presence of although would restrict sighted as a verb-ed modifier?
Ans: It is very common to get confused with presence of a modifier in subordinate conjunction marker. Even I also struggled initially to understand that we can place modifiers in this way e.g Although sighted at equator, sunspots are blah blah clause; thus, Always check whether it is a clause or a modifier introduced with subordinate conjunction or any transition word. You correctly identified that its an ed modifier not a verb. GOOD !!

3. Consider the below two sentences:
a. Sunspots are visible as dark spots on the surface of the sun but have never been sighted on equator. (X but Y) Correct
b. Sunspots appear on the surface of the sun as dark spots although never sighted at equator. (X although Y). Grammatically right/ Meaning wise wrong
here sighted is modifying dark spots instead of Sunspots. Although is just invisible here focus on only ed modifier and ed modifier modifies preceding noun

In sentence (a) can I say the parallelism rules allow the sunspots to be the subject in both X and Y clauses? Yes
If the answer is yes for the above question I assume then the same holds true for (b) also. Is my understanding correct? No

While attempting this question I felt the construction X but Y is not appropriate (for I think X, but Y is the correct form) and hence eliminated option A and selected C thinking that the "sighted" is acting as verb-ed modifier for dark spots. However, I was wrong. Please could you elaborate your answer for my 3 queries above?

But is a coordinating conjunction; it is one of the FANBOYS
Refer sentence structure and comma : Subject verb1, and Subject verb 2 [ clause 1, and clause 2 ]
Here Subject is common for both verbs no comma required: Subject verb1 and verb2 [ only one clause subject is common]

In option C You correctly identified the ed modifier, but meaning wise it should modify sunspots not dark spots: dark spots is describing how sunspots appear.

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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2015, 12:14
1
(A) are visible as dark spots on the surface of the Sun but have never been sighted on --> CORRECT
(B) are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun --> on the surface of the sun the sun's poles or equator.. a COMMA is missng here
(C) appear on the surface of the Sun as dark spots although never sighted at --> SUBJECT is missing here, we have a subordinate clause wo. a subject and actually woa verb too
(D) appear as dark spots on the surface of the Sun, although never having been sighted at --> SUBJECT is missing here, we have a subordinate clause wo. a subject
(E) appear as dark spots on the Sun's surface, which have never been sighted on --> Which modifies the surface -it's not the entended meaning
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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28 Aug 2016, 12:16
2
Responding to a PM:

1. Can you throw some light on sighted on vs sighted at usage in terms of meaning.
"Sighted on" can be used to refer to a surface, a line or a point. "Sighted at" can be used to refer to a location. Since poles / equator can be considered points/line or location, both the usages would be alright.
2. Why although usage is incorrect here in options.
As per the OE, "although" should be used to introduce a clause.
3. Sighted or have been sighted is mentioned as not a complete verb? Why? What does it need more?
"Sighted" is not a complete verb - since the usage is in passive voice, complete forms would be "is sighted", "was sighted" etc.
" Have been sighted" is definitely a complete verb. (passive -present perfect)
4. Is there no difference in between Sunspots visible as dark spots and Sunspots appear as dark spots?
In some cases the meaning can be different:
"Appear" may mean " to become visible" (i.e., something was not visible before, but now it is):
"Visible" does not imply so:
She was visible because of her bright dress.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2016, 05:13
1
zoezhuyan wrote:
zoezhuyan wrote:
Hi experts,

I totally got the reason why eliminate D.
but I am still curious whether "having been sighted" can be an adjective ?
it might not be the point of this question but it can help me to understand "having" because I am sunk in "having" recently, I have no idea when "having" is correct, when incorrect.

and I have another question
OE wrote:
B) also, without punctuation, the phrase on the surface of the Sun the Sun’s poles or equator is ungrammatical and makes no sense.

It's hard for me to understand , genuinely want your help

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~

experts,

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~

As indicated in a response to another post of yours, here as well "having been sighted" is a perfect participle (in passive voice). The base verb is "sight". In passive it would be "to be sighted". The perfect participle is "having been sighted", which indicates a completed action of being sighted. This structure implies that the sighting has been completed.

Your second question is a statement, a correct statement - without comma, the structure makes no sense.
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Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ  [#permalink]

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23 Oct 2016, 23:15
sayantanc2k wrote:
Your second question is a statement, a correct statement - without comma, the structure makes no sense.

Hi sayantanc2k,

Does it mean add a comma as following,
Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activity, are visible as dark spots that never have been sighted on the surface of the Sun , the Sun’s poles or equator.

it confused me a lot if add comma like this,

so the part after the added comma is noun phrase, right?
in an another word, the surface of the sun is the same as the sun's poles or equator, hm.. feel strange,
that's my confusion and sorry for my implicit previous post.

thanks a lot
have a nice day
>_~
Re: Sunspots, vortices of gas associated with strong electromagnetic activ &nbs [#permalink] 23 Oct 2016, 23:15

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