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While political discourse and the media in the United States have focused on the rise of job outsourcing, few have mentioned the sharp fall of talent “insourcing,” or the drop in enrollment of foreign-born graduate students since 2001, and its dire results. The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come. The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures. What distinguishes the decline of talent insourcing from the rise of job outsourcing is that the former can be easily rectified by a policy change of the United States government.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?

A. What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America?
B. How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing?
C. Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America?
D. What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students?
E. What effect would a government policy have on the number of foreign graduate students?
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
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Re: While political discourse and the media in the United States have focu [#permalink]

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New post 14 Oct 2009, 12:47
hogann wrote:
While political discourse and the media in the United States have focused on the rise of job outsourcing, few have mentioned the sharp fall of talent “insourcing,” or the drop in enrollment of foreign-born graduate students since 2001, and its dire results. The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come. The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures. What distinguishes the decline of talent insourcing from the rise of job outsourcing is that the former can be easily rectified by a policy change of the United States government.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?

A. What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America?
B. How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing?
C. Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America?
D. What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students?
E. What effect would a government policy have on the number of foreign graduate students?

Please justify your decision - OA to come


I would go with D. I am not sure of my answer or reasoning but this is how I look at this.

If we get the answer to D, one of the claims "... and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures" will be resolved. If the opportunities are great then the claim can be evaluated to be wrong. And if the opportunities are short, then the claim would be true.

All other choices don't really seem to be disturbing the conclusion in any way. But, I am not sure about the answer. What is the OA and OE?
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Re: While political discourse and the media in the United States have focu [#permalink]

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New post 25 Nov 2011, 18:16
D is the winner here.

A simple use of Variance test can ascertain it to be the correct choice:

D) What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students?
Ans 1: American grad students have NO opportunity to interact with non-student foreigners => Strengthen the argument that " American grad students will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures"

Ans 2: (polar opposite of Ans 1) American grad students will have LOT OF opportunity to interact with non-student foreigners => Weaken the argument.

Since the polar opposite answers result in polar opposite results (Strengthen Vs Weaken) the Question is the most relevant one to evaluate the argument.

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Re: While political discourse and the media in the United States have focu [#permalink]

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New post 13 Dec 2011, 01:16
manalq8 wrote:
While political discourse and the media in the United States have focused on the rise of job outsourcing, few have mentioned the sharp fall of talent “insourcing,” or the drop in enrollment of foreign-born graduate students since 2001, and its dire results.

The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come.

The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures.

What distinguishes the decline of talent insourcing from the rise of job outsourcing is that the former can be easily rectified by a policy change of the United States government.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?

A)What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America? => not affect the premise of conclusion

B)How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing? => 'HOW' cannot affect the reason why outsourcing increase and "incoursing" decrease

C)Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America? => "number" cannot affect to overall percentage

D)What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students? => This is maybe the alternative source for American student learn from foreign culture. Answer this question, we will get the conclusion more strengthened or weakened.

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New post 07 Apr 2012, 10:20
Look for answer choice which relates to this sentence in given passage "they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures. "

Answer is D.
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New post 07 Apr 2012, 20:24
The question asks for "the impact of decreased insourcing in America " which in the given passage, the authors related to cultural knowledge learned from foreign students.

C doesn't talk about that.
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New post 14 Apr 2012, 17:19
D.
Decreased insourcing leads to less exposure of american students to foreign students. D addresses the idea of how grad students will get this opportunity.
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Re: While political discourse and the media in the United States have focu [#permalink]

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New post 14 Apr 2012, 23:50
hogann wrote:
While political discourse and the media in the United States have focused on the rise of job outsourcing, few have mentioned the sharp fall of talent “insourcing,” or the drop in enrollment of foreign-born graduate students since 2001, and its dire results. The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come. The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures. What distinguishes the decline of talent insourcing from the rise of job outsourcing is that the former can be easily rectified by a policy change of the United States government.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?

A. What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America?
B. How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing?
C. Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America?
D. What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students?
E. What effect would a government policy have on the number of foreign graduate students?

Please justify your decision - OA to come



Overview:

IN-SOURCING is ignored.
students can learn from foregin culture because of in-sourced students.

to support authors claim "they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures."

1. Opportunity to learn is the question...this does not answer..INSUFFICIENT
2. Out of scope .. INSUFFICIENT
3. There would be some number, but it is about learning opportunity.. INSUFFICIENT
4. This directly questions whether we have any other means to learn about foreign cultures..SUFFICIENT
5. MAY not be SUFFICIENT
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The most important thing in this argument is finding the conclusion.

The conclusion of this argument = The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the counctry will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs

Choice D clearly shows whether the American students can learn the culture and perspective from foreigners who come to US in other roles beside students such as traveler, businessmen, etc will impact American students in other ways.
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What a great problem. For all our international friends on these forums, come to America to study!

Okay, so the problem...

One thing we should be very careful of on CR is accurately interpreting the question. Make sure you don't rush through the question! Here it is:

"The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?"

One possible mistake I see is mistaking this question as asking about the author's claim regarding government policy changes on insourcing, in which case the answer would be E.

Instead, the author's claim about the impact of decreased insourcing is the concern here. He basically makes two claims to that effect:

- The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology.
- The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures.

So let's see how well each of these options will help us to evaluate either of those claims.

A. What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America? - Doesn't address impact of decline in insourcing.

B. How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing? - Let's come back to this later if necessary.

C. Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America? Doesn't address impact of decline in insourcing. (Instead, this addresses the source of the problem.)

D. What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students? Yes! The author makes a very explicit claim that as a result of decreased international enrollment, American students "will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures." The answer to the question in choice D will either confirm or deny that claim.

E. What effect would a government policy have on the number of foreign graduate students? Doesn't address impact of decline in insourcing.

Clearly D is the way to go.

Hope this helps.
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New post 08 Nov 2012, 03:33
Guys I do have a doubt regarding C.
If my answer to C is that there is a decline of 50,000 foreign born graduates in American colleges, then it strengthens the argument but if my answer to the question is just 10, i.e there is a decline of 10 foreign born graduates, then there may not be any effect on American students learning.
Please let me know if I am missing something.
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Marcab wrote:
Guys I do have a doubt regarding C.
If my answer to C is that there is a decline of 50,000 foreign born graduates in American colleges, then it strengthens the argument but if my answer to the question is just 10, i.e there is a decline of 10 foreign born graduates, then there may not be any effect on American students learning.
Please let me know if I am missing something.

Yes, a portion of question :-D
Question says: " sharp fall of talent “insourcing,” or the drop in enrollment of foreign-born graduate students since 2001, and its dire results."
So there is a sharp fall in number of international students, and this is taken for granted while evaluating answer choices. C doesnt remain a candidate with this.

as shown by others, D it is.
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OA soon. What is your opinion on the question quality & format?


I have some issues with the wording of the question. For example, the question asks: "The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?" But the author does not make just one claim. The author makes several claims; the author says the decrease will "hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology", that it will have "serious consequences for years to come", and that it will "negatively affect the global outlook and experience of ... American students". So which claim is the question even talking about?

There's a lot of noise in the question, but if you strip away the superfluous language, and focus on the claim about the global outlook of American students, the question tells us:

"The decrease... will ... negatively affect the global outlook ... of ... American students; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures."

But it's possible that American students can learn about other cultures in other ways - perhaps by interacting with non-students who are 'members of other cultures'. If that were true, then the decrease in insourcing may not have quite the impact the author suggests. So D is the answer.
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mohnish104 wrote:
The answer is D right... Can somebody please post the OA???


The OA is indeed D. I found the OE as well along with the OA.

The author claims that the "decrease in such insourcing will hurt America's competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come." In addition, the author claims that the decline in insourcing will "negatively affect the global outlook and experience of American students" because they will "not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures." We are asked to find a question whose answer would provide information useful to evaluating the claims of the argument.

(A) The focus of the argument is not on the financial costs of insourcing.

(B) The focus of the argument is not on how insourcing can compensate for outsourcing.

(C) The focus of the argument is not on the specific numbers of foreign-born students, but on the decline in their number instead.

(D) CORRECT. The argument assumes that the students will not have contact with foreigners through channels other than school. This choice asks whether the students have such contact elsewhere. If the answer to this question is "yes", the author's claims carry less weight.

(E) A government policy might have an effect on insourcing, but it would not necessarily have an effect on the specific claims of the argument.

Hope this helps!! :-D
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the question asks you for a consideration that will help in evaluating the author's "claim regarding the IMPACT of decreased insourcing". there are 2 such claims:
1: decreased insourcing compromises america's competitiveness in research and technology;
2: decreased insourcing is detrimental to the global outlook of american students because they won't be exposed to foreigners.

choice (e), while relevant to the last sentence of the passage, will do nothing to establish or undermine the integrity of the above 2 claims. choice (d), on the other hand, has a direct bearing on the integrity of claim number 2.

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New post 14 Sep 2014, 14:34
Quote:
What say for B)

Does it includes external information?? and this is irrelevant for this question???


The questions stem says, "The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased in-sourcing in America?

To evaluate this claim, answer choice does no good. Whether the in-sourcing will help in addressing the problems of out-sourcing is not the question's intent. Hence, out of scope.
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New post 06 Dec 2015, 14:21
hogann wrote:
While political discourse and the media in the United States have focused on the rise of job outsourcing, few have mentioned the sharp fall of talent “insourcing,” or the drop in enrollment of foreign-born graduate students since 2001, and its dire results. The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come. The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures. What distinguishes the decline of talent insourcing from the rise of job outsourcing is that the former can be easily rectified by a policy change of the United States government.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?

A. What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America?
B. How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing?
C. Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America?
D. What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students?
E. What effect would a government policy have on the number of foreign graduate students?

Please justify your decision - OA to come


I think this question is tricky because there are really two different claims made about the impact of decreased insourcing. One is that "The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come." and the other is "The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures."

The answer must address either claim so I believe the most relevant question is D.
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New post 31 Dec 2015, 00:29
Sash143 wrote:
While political discourse and the media in the United States have focused on the rise of job outsourcing, few have mentioned the sharp fall of talent “insourcing,” or the drop in enrollment of foreign-born graduate students since 2001, and its dire results. The decrease in such insourcing will hurt America’s competitiveness in basic research and applied technology, with serious consequences for years to come. The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures. What distinguishes the decline of talent insourcing from the rise of job outsourcing is that the former can be easily rectified by a policy change of the United States government.

The answer to which of the following questions would be most useful in evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America?

A) What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America?
B) How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing?
C) Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America?
D) What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students?
E) What effect would a government policy have on the number of foreign graduate students?


Premise: Decrease in insourcing of foreign students
Conclusion: American students will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of foreign cultures

To evaluate this conclusion, we need to find the statement that directly affects it.
Only option D talks about it.

If there are other opportunities for interacting with foreigners, then the american students should not worry much about the learning of cultures from the students.
If there are not much opportunities, then the american students should worry about it.
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Re: While political discourse and the media in the United States have focu [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2016, 06:47
What confused me is that the question has to do with the impact of the premise on an intermediate conclusion, not the main conclusion.

As I see it, the intermediate conclusion contained two points:
The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country:
(1) will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs;
(2) they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures.

Now looking at the answers:

A. What is the cost to reverse the trend of insourcing in America?
B. How does insourcing replace domestic jobs lost from outsourcing?

--> Both are off-topic.

C. Since 2001, what has been the decrease in the number of foreign-born students in America?
E. What effect would a government policy have on the number of foreign graduate students?

--> Both have to do with the number of 'insourcing', not its impact on the intermediate conclusion.

D. What opportunities do American graduate students have to interact regularly with foreigners who are not students?
-> Only D addressed that impact of the premise on the intermediate conclusion. Not only that, this connection is only with the second part of the intermediate conclusion, not the first part.
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New post 12 Feb 2017, 23:29
Hi,

The question is concerned about "evaluating the author’s claim regarding the impact of decreased insourcing in America"
Therefore, the key premise here as per the question's language is :

"The de-internationalization of graduate programs across the country will also negatively affect the global outlook and experience of the American students remaining in those programs; they will not have the opportunity to learn about foreign cultures directly from members of those cultures."

The rest of the argument basically becomes additional information.

Only answer D helps in finding a way around.
For option C : knowing the decrease of the foreign-born students wouldn't help with this query.
Option E does come close, however D approaches the question more directly than E.

Please correct me if any of this reasoning is faulty.
Re: While political discourse and the media in the United States have focu   [#permalink] 12 Feb 2017, 23:29

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