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# Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety

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Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 11:26
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64% (01:09) correct 36% (01:17) wrong based on 872 sessions

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Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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19 Jun 2016, 20:56
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(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits. -- out of context

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years. -- precentage cannot be related to number here.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles. -- out of scope

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. -- out of context

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland.

correct . if we negate this option, as the no. of accidents reduced so no. of people hospitalised reduced but not the effect of regulations.
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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20 Jun 2016, 00:36
Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits. -- regulation is about airbags and seat belts. So, no to this.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years. Not related to conclusion.

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles. Not relevant

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. -- wins

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland. No
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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13 Aug 2016, 22:51
Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles. Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined. Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

it's not the regulations that hade made automobiles safer for drivers and passanagers who are involved in accidents. => it's not the regulations but some other factors such has road has improved, driving exam more rigid, driver more careful or car better functioning.

or automobiles not safer for drivers and passanagers => this could happen if they immediately die on the spot so overnight patient will be lower in that case.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits.
negate :- The citizens of Vorland don't obey all national and local speed limits. Even then if patients has reduced, that means safety regulations is actually helping.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years.

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years.
There has been an increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. More speed => more accidents. Accidents should happen more but still if patients less that means conclusion stands corrected.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland :- if there is an decrease in accidents itself, that can explain lesser annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents. Aligned with prethinking 1) CORRECT
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2016, 04:18
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Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety regulations requiring airbags and better seat belts in all new automobiles.

Since then, the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has steadily declined.

Clearly, the regulations have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

Which of the following is an assumption on which the argument depends?

we can filter out options A, D and C for going out of scope regarding speed limits.

(A) The citizens of Vorland generally obey all national and local speed limits. ......OFS

(C) The safety improvements required by the regulations have not significantly affect the price of new automobiles. .......OFS

(D) There has been no increase in speed limits on Vorland's major highways over the past ten years. .........OFS

Tight competition is between B and E. Both talk about accidents.

(B) Of the patients treated at hospitals in Vorland, the percentage treated being treated for injuries sustained in automobile accidents has decreased in the past ten years. ............key word is percentage here. %reduction can never ensure the reduction of the annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized overnight or longer for injuries sustained in automobile accidents. Both the the percentage treated being treated for injuries and annual number of drivers and passengers hospitalized can reduce and still the regulations may not have made Vorland's automobiles safer for drivers and passengers who are involved in accidents.

(E) Over the past ten years, there has not been a steady decline in the annual number of drivers and passengers involved in automobile accidents in Vorland................Here we have no ambiguity and is the correct choice.
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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30 Oct 2016, 09:38
Is E the official answer???
Can someone plz confirm...

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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2016, 02:02
varun2014 wrote:
Is E the official answer???
Can someone plz confirm...

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yes it is the official answer (OA).
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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02 Nov 2016, 05:37
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Here is what the argument states -

the annual number of people hospitalized overnight or longer for automobile injuries --> Regulations have made automobiles safer.

Note that there is a jump in the argument from 'the annual number' (on the LHS) to 'safer' (on the RHS).

This ratio = (No.of people involved in automobile accidents NOT hospitalized overnight or longer) / (Total no. of people involved in automobile accidents) is a measure of safety.
The higher the ratio, the safer automobiles have become.

Let us look at the answer options -

A - this option weakens the argument. If they obey all national and local speed limits, then probably the reductions in the number of people hospitalized is due to these speed limits and not due to regulations on airbags and seat belts.
Also, note that we are concerned only with regulations on airbags and seat belts. Whether people follow all or some of these regulations is not relevant to the argument.
This option does not make it clear when the people started following these speed limits?
If they started following more than 10 years ago, it strengthens the argument. If they started following less than 10 years ago, it weakens the argument. Since, the option goes either way, it is incorrect.

B - Since this option talks about percentages, it is better to write the percentage down to get a clear picture.

this ratio - (Number of people treated for automobile accidents)/ (total number of people treated at hospitals) - has reduced.
This does not mean that the numerator has reduced.
It can very well mean that the numerator has increased, but the denominator has increased much more. In this case my conclusion that 'regulations have made automobiles more safe' would be weakened.

C - Not relevant. We do not know how price ties to safety.

D - let us negate this statement. We get - 'There has been an increase in speed limits'. Negating option D strengthens the argument.
Suggests that even with an increase in speed limits, the annual number of people hospitalized has reduced. So, clearly regulations on seatbelts and airbags have done a good job to make automobiles safer.

E - Correct answer. Let us look back at the safety ratio -
(No.of people involved in automobile accidents NOT hospitalized overnight or longer) / (Total no. of people involved in automobile accidents)

What if this ratio increased because the denominator decreased and not because of a reduction in the number of people involved in automobile accidents who were hospitalized overnight or longer? This exposes a flaw in the argument.
Negating this flaw leads us to the assumption.
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Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2018, 08:22
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P1: New safety rules, air bags and better seat belts in all cars.
P2: Annual # of overnight or longer hospitalized injuries decreased
C: New regulations made cars safer for ppl involved in accidents
Assumption
Number of accidents is not less than before -> If less then the number of hospitalized injures decreased could be due to other factor
There can be other assumptions. We need to pay attention to those answers that either Support the conclusion by introducing some other facts that help strengthen the conclusion or Defend the conclusion from possible attack by other contradicting/weakening facts that can undermine the conclusion.
1) Ppl generally obey all speed limits -> this affects only the number of accidents and we don’t know whether most of the accidents happened because of people not obeying speed limits -> IRRELEVANT
2) Overall percentage of patients involved in automobile accidents has decreased in the last 10 years -> This includes all cases, including those overnight or longer cases. We care about a specific case. -> Hence INCORRECT
3) Price of cars is IRRELEVANT
4) We DON’T know how speed limit affects the severity of the accidents. IRRELEVANT
5) If number of accidents declined -> number of hospitalized injures could also decrease proportionally and this could hurt the argument. This assumption negates such possibility. CORRECT
Re: Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety &nbs [#permalink] 19 Aug 2018, 08:22
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# Ten years ago , the country of Vorland adopted new automobile safety

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