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That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o

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That the application of new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia's coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.

Which of the following can be properly concluded from the statement about coal output per miner in the passage?


(A) If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.

(B) Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall ouput in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.

(C) If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was.

(D) If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine's overall output has declined or remained constant.

(E) In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years.

Originally posted by buckkitty on 21 Dec 2006, 20:16.
Last edited by Bunuel on 24 Jan 2019, 05:39, edited 2 times in total.
Edited the question.
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Dec 2006, 20:36
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Five Years ago,

Coal output per miner(x) = Total Coal Quantity(x)/Total no. of miners(x)

Today,

Coal output per miner(today)=2*Coal output per miner(x)
=2*Total Coal Quantity(x)/Total no. of miners(x)

Equating,

Total coal quantity(today)/Total no.of miners(today)=2*Total Coal Quantity(x)/Total no. of miners(x)

If Total no.of miners(today)= Total no.of miners(x), then
Total coal quantity(today) = 2*Total Coal Quantity(x)

This is the same as A->If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.

So, my pick is A.
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New post 21 Dec 2006, 20:29
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I prefer A.


A. Very straight forward logic.

B. You can't deduce this, reversely based on the logic.

C. The question is not talking about NEW mines.

D and E are irrelevant.
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2010, 09:39
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dwivedys wrote:
RGM wrote:
I'm with A. B and D discuss individual coal mines and what their impact would be if those variables changed - out of scope. E discusses costs - out of scope. C - just because a new mine opened does not mean there would be greater productivity as a whole. The new mine could very well be a wasted venture, and could drag down output per miner.


Dear RGM - It's a great analysis you've shown - only if you could also tell how did you so definitively conclude that because B and D were discussing INDIVIDUAL coal mines hence they were out of scope?


I considered them as out of scope just because the premise does not say anything about the individual coal mines.

B states - "Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall output in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner." One case might be that a particular mine decided to increase manpower to increase yield. If this is the case, then there is no increase in output per miner. The premise did not say that the number of workers remained constant for all individual mines.

D states - "If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine’s overall output has declined or remained constant." This is like the reverse of B. If the premise said that the number of workers remained constant for all individual mines, we can conclude that if the output per miner decreased, the overall output decreased for that mine.

Some may not agree with my reasoning, but that's how it seemed to me at the time.
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New post 22 Dec 2006, 09:10
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Production = average output * no. of miners

Therefore, if no. of miners is constant, then:

2*production = 2*average output * no. of miners

Answer = A
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New post 21 Nov 2013, 20:34
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Good One;
The passage states that;
Tech leds to increased production leads to 2x coal/ miner than five years ago; no new mines opened.
A. If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.
I guess this exactly concludes the statement that no. of miners are constant hence the technology is effective to increase the proaction / miner to double in five years.

B. Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall ouput in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.- Reverse logic trap; if A is increased and B is unit of A ; so B increased.

C. If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was. Irrelevant comparison

D. If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine's overall output has declined or remained constant. Reverse logic trap; if A is not increased and A has no. of B then B is not increased

E. In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years. Distraction The price is not discussed in the passage. Sort of out of scope option.


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Explanations with answers please. OA to follow.[/quote]
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 28 Mar 2019, 02:41
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Rajeet123 wrote:
I was confused between A and B, and chose B. Can you explain why not B?

mallya12 wrote:
I understand option A but how do we eliminate answer choice B

From the passage, we know that "coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago." Let's apply this information to the answer choices in question:

Quote:
(B) Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall ouput in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.

Notice that the evidence in the passage gives an increase in the overall coal output per miner in Tribnia. If we know that the overall rate doubled, can we conclude that any individual mine that achieved in increase in output also increased its output per miner?

In short -- no, we cannot conclude that. It is possible that some mines hired a bunch of additional miners, and even if their output increased, their output per miner stayed the same (or even decreased). The overall rate of coal output per miner must average out to be double the overall rate of five years ago, but we cannot conclude that any individual mine increased its rate of coal output per miner. (B) is out.

Now look at (A):
Quote:
(A) If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.

Again, the key piece of information in the passage to apply here is that "coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago." If each miner is, on average, producing double the amount of coal now that each miner produced five years ago, and if the number of miners has remained the same, then the total coal production must have doubled as well.

Think of it this way: Five years ago, 100 miners produced 100 tons of coal per day (is this a reasonable amount of coal? I have no idea). Now, there are still 100 miners, but their productivity has doubled. What is their total output? It is, of course, double what it was before -- so, 200 tons. Because the rate has doubled and the amount of workers has remained constant, the overall output must have doubled as well. (A) is our answer.

I hope that helps!
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 27 Mar 2010, 09:45
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That the application of new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia’s coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.

Which of the following can be properly concluded from the statement about coal output per miner in the passage?
A. If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia’s total coal production has doubled in that period of time.
B. Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall output in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.
C. If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was.
D. If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine’s overall output has declined or remained constant.
E. In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years.


Pls. explain...
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Apr 2010, 01:41
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Tough one.

Selected D first but A looks the correct one.
Even I thiught for A but I dont know why I moved away from it and marked D.
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New post 12 Aug 2011, 12:34
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bibha wrote:
can someone explain why C is wrong?


I will give you a simple analogy, try and relate that to the problem at hand

I got wet, even though it dint rain.

Now think what it concludes
1. I got wet due to something else, other than rain ( I DID NOT GET WET DUE TO RAIN )
OR
2. If it rained I would have got wet -- can you really conclude this ? Will this happen 100% of times that WHEVENER it rains you will get wet ?

My example doesnt even talk about raining, can we still conclude something which is not given in the text ?

On the same lines
production / miner improved, even though new start ups dint come up

CONCLUSION -- production / miner DID NOT / WOULD NOT HAVE IMPROVE(D) DUE TO NEW START UPS IT IMPROVED DUE TO TECHNOLOGY

does it make sense ?
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2017, 13:05
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That the application of new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia's coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.

Which of the following can be properly concluded from the statement about coal output per miner in the passage?

Boil it down - the average coal output per miner, for ALL of tribinia, has doubled over the last 5 years.
that's it.
this means that there could be vast differences between miners; this is only a national average. in particular, it is totally possible that some miners, and some mines, are LESS productive than they were 5 years ago.

...and no new mines have opened.
however, the existing miners could have added, or laid off, miners. there is no information in the passage about the # of workers at each mine.
in fact, there could now be 100 times as many miners as there were before, at every mine.
or 1% as many as before. we have no idea at all.

A. If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.- Correct

B. Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall ouput in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner. Incorrect - you can't assume that the NATIONAL trend applies to INDIVIDUAL mines

C. If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was. - Out of scope

D. If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine's overall output has declined or remained constant. - Incorrect

E. In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years.- Irrelevant - cost of producing is not even discussed

Answer A
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 21 Aug 2019, 00:53
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buckkitty wrote:
That the application of new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia's coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.

Which of the following can be properly concluded from the statement about coal output per miner in the passage?


(A) If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.

(B) Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall ouput in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.

(C) If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was.

(D) If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine's overall output has declined or remained constant.

(E) In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years.


In Tribnia, coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.

Note that we are talking about coal output/miner = Total coal output / No of miners

This quantity will depend on how total coal output has changed and how no. of miners has changed. If it has doubled, it is possible that coal output has doubled while no of miners is same. It is possible that number of miners has become half while coal output is same. It is possible that output has become 4 times while no of miners has doubled and so on...

(A) If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.

Correct. If number of miners has remained the same, then the total output must have doubled.

(B) Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall ouput in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.

Not true. If the output increased but number of miners increased too, output per miner may not have increased.

(C) If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was.

No. It depends on the number of miners, output of rest of the mines etc.

(D) If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine's overall output has declined or remained constant.

Not true. A mine may have increased its output but increased its number of miners too. In that case, its output per miner may not have increased though its output would have increased.

(E) In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years.

Nothing known about cost of producing coal.

Answer (A)
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 22 Dec 2006, 03:32
A from me..

if workers constant, and output doubled, then clearly volume doubled...

u cant infer any other from the argument..
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New post 22 Dec 2006, 17:57
X: increase in technology applications for mines
Y: increase in mine production[coal output per miner]

The argument claims that X --> Y

we conclude that
Y --/--> X
Z --/--> Y where Z is any other variable or change

Answer (A) provides that Z, change in the number of miners, remained constant during the period. Because Y is a rate [coal output/ number of miners], then a change in the number of miners [Z] can cause a change in the coal output per miner [Y].

Thus, answer A provides that Z --/--> Y
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Jan 2007, 16:05
The stem can be abbreviated to:

2* Total Coal Production in yr a / number of miners in yr a = T.C. P. in yr (a+5) / n in yr (a+5).

A is directly related to the stem. All other options are less related or irrelevant.

buckkitty wrote:
That the application of new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia's coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.

Which of the following can be properly concluded from the statement about coal output per miner in the passage?

A. If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia's total coal production has doubled in that period of time.

B. Any individual Tribnian coal mine that achieved an increase in overall ouput in the past five years has also experienced an increase in output per miner.

C. If any new coal mines had opened in Tribnia in the past five years, then the increase in output per miner would have been even greater than it actually was.

D. If any individual Tribnian coal mine has not increased its output per miner in the past five years, then that mine's overall output has declined or remained constant.

E. In Tribnia the cost of producing a given quantity of coal has declined over the past five years.

Explanations with answers please. OA to follow.
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New post 05 Nov 2009, 03:26
If Coal output per miner in Tribnia is doubled what it was five years ago. Then productively per person has doubled.

IMO Choice A “If the number of miners working in Tribnian coal mines has remained constant in the past five years, Tribnia’s total coal production has doubled in that period of time” describes the situation.
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Apr 2010, 20:30
Quote:
new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia’s coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.


After reading this question one would think *May be the employee(miner) strength should have increased.So there is a increase in the Coal(This actually can be one of the reason for the increase in Coal production..

So to draw a conclusion(that supports ""new technology increased the productivity"" one should eliminate the alternate cause mentioned above.

I Think A does it well and concludes... Hope im correct
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 04 Apr 2010, 07:15
Good question.
A

I went by process of elimination from bottom up. If the production rate per miner has doubled in the past five years, the production per miner would be two-folds in five years. Only necessary condition is that everything else remain the same i.e. no change in number of miners or no new places are adding to the output.

D and B look suspect, but evaluating A is better and quicker and seems good enough after some analysis.
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jul 2010, 08:29
RaviChandra wrote:
Quote:
new technology can increase the productivity of existing coal mines is demonstrated by the case of Tribnia’s coal industry. Coal output per miner in Tribnia is double what it was five years ago, even though no new mines have opened.


After reading this question one would think *May be the employee(miner) strength should have increased.So there is a increase in the Coal(This actually can be one of the reason for the increase in Coal production..

So to draw a conclusion(that supports ""new technology increased the productivity"" one should eliminate the alternate cause mentioned above.

I Think A does it well and concludes... Hope im correct



Couldn't get that .. can you please explain again.


Quote:

After reading this question one would think *May be the employee(miner) strength should have increased.



I thought its because of technology :idea:
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Re: That the application of new technology can increase the productivity o   [#permalink] 08 Jul 2010, 08:29

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