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# The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely

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The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 03:42
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The Official Guide for GMAT Review 2017

[b]Practice Question
Question No.: 750
Page: 699

The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

A. include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is
B. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and
C. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being
D. includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is
E. includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by hazelnut on 03 May 2017, 18:08, edited 5 times in total.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 04:05
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The fault that i find with the sentence is "grow to be". The fault is corrected by choices B and D. D is the most appropriate construction.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 11:41
Only B and D makes sense.
I pick D (it just sounds correct)

Can any gurus explain the grammatical error in B
Thanks
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2004, 17:08
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I think I may be wrong, but in B, shouldn't "growing as big as 30 feet long" simply be "growing as big as 30 feet" (the long is redundant).
The same error crops up in D.
In C, there is a shift in tense.
The "it" in E is not needed.

So, I am going to go w/ A.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2005, 13:42
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I pick B (parallel relative pronoun)
Since we have two relative pronoun which modify "the killer whale"
1.which can grow to be 30 feet long---->growing as big as 30 feet long
2.which is famous for its aggressive hunting pods. ---famous for its agressive hunting pods.

A. the killer whale, (relative pronoun)which can grow to be 30 feet long and (verb)is

C. include the animal known as the killer whale, (relative pronoun)growing up to 30 feet long and being(which is being--passive relative)---Active not parallel passive

D. include the animal known as the killer whale, (relative pronoun)which can grow as big as 30 feet long and (verb)is

E. include the animal known as the killer whale, (relative pronoun) which can grow to be 30 feet long and clause it is
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2011, 08:05
The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale , which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

A . include the animal known as the killer whale , which can grow to be 30 feet long and is.

B . include the animal known as the killer whale , growing as big as 30 feet long and

C . include the animal known as the killer whale , growing up to 30 feet long and being.

D . includes the animal known as killer whale , which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is

E . includes the animal known as the killer whale , which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is.

Guys , I don't understand the explanation given by OG for option B and C .

B . Changing the verb to participial "growing" introduces ambiguity , because it could refer back to the subject of the sentence . (32 species)

C . The participial "growing" might refer to the 32 species; the introduction of being is unnecessarily wordy and adds nothing in terms of meaning .

Now , to the best of my knowledge , Participial phrase can act as an adjective , in which case it has to be adjacent to the noun it modifies or it can modify the preceding clause acting as sub-ordinate verb as in the following sentence.

Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer , bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully since raised transplants from Norway began in 1975.

Here , the phrase in the bold explains the consequences of the main clause acting as adverb.

Now , How can the participial phrase in B and C describe the 32 species when it not adjacent to this phrase
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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04 Jan 2011, 15:42
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A very good question to clarify the features of participial phrase modifiers. The rule is that, when participial phrases are set off by commas (other than at the beginning of a sentence), they can act as adjectives modifying almost any noun in the previous clause, most often the subject of the previous clause.

In your example, "Five fledgling sea eagles left their nests in western Scotland this summer, bringing to 34 the number of wild birds successfully since raised transplants from Norway began in 1975," we could see the "bringing..." clause as adverbial, modifying the verb "left" as its effect, OR as an adjective, in fact modifying the "eagles" -- either of which makes perfect sense. It would be awkward, however, modifying the nearest noun, "summer." This is why it would be incorrect, in this example, to replace "bringing" with "which brings," as "which" by rule MUST modify the noun or noun idea immediately preceding it.

Usually, this means that participial modifiers are more flexible and therefore more likely to be correct in SC. However, in this wonderful example from the OG, the "grow" clause is definitely supposed to modify the noun right before it, "whale," and so the relative clause beginning with "which" is appropriate. "Growing," on the other hand, could modify the entire preceding clause (that is, the verb "are related" or the verb "include") or, most likely, the subject of the previous clause, that is, the 32 species. Although it is not placed adjacent to the word "species," it is placed adjacent to the clause of which "species" is the subject. Since either of those would be illogical, (B) and (C) introduce an unnecessary ambiguity into the sentence, although I'll point out that neither one is technically wrong, since a participial phrase here could, theoretically, modify "whales" as well. It's just inferior to the relative clause modification option given in (A).

In addition, it's worth noting that "growing" and "which can grow" have decidedly different meanings, so (B) and (C) introduce this problem, as well.

For a clear example of the participial phrase at the end of a sentence modifying the subject of a preceding clause, consider this:
"The Colossus of Rhodes was one of the great feats of classical civilization and one of the famous Seven Wonders of the World, standing over 100 feet high and constructed in the early 3rd Century B.C.E."

Lo, there are even 2 such clauses!
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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08 Jan 2011, 01:01
Here is another one which i didn't understand.

Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991 , and dated at 34 million years old , made it the earliest known mammal of the greater Antilles Islands.

A. sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991 , and dated at 34 million years old , made it earliest known mammal of.

B. sloth , that they found in Puerto Rico in 1991 , has been dated at 34 million years old , thus making it the earliest mammal known.

C. sloth that was found in Puerto Rico in 1991 , was dated at 34 million years old , making this the earliest known mammal of

D . sloth , found in Puerto Rico in 1991 , have been dated at 34 million years old , making the sloth the earliest known mammal on

E . sloth which , found in Puerto Rico in 1991 , was dated at 34 million years old , made the sloth the earliest known mammal of.

Now here is what OG has to say to discard option A .

Because sloth is the object of preposition and not the subject of the sentence , there is no reasonable antecedent for the pronoun it ; in this construction , the subject of the made is fossils , but it makes no sense to say that the fossil made it the earliest known mammal.

Now I thought that only a mere presence of a known can make it eligible to be the antecedent of a pronoun , but I am not the aware of the rule suggested by the OG in the above explanation . Someone please explain.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 17:06
The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

"The 32 species" is the subject here. 'that make up the dolphin family' is just extra infor about subject. So ignore it.
The subject is plural, so we will look for ans choices with 'include'
Take D and E out.

Among A, B and C

(A) include the animal known as the killer whale,which can grow to be 30 feet long and is >> Correct

(B) include the animal known as the killer whale,growing as big as 30 feet long and >> 'Growing' and 'is famous' are not parallel.

(C) include the animal known as the killer whale,growing up to 30 feet long and being >> wrong use

Quote:
The one thing that struck me most about this question was the fact that the subject is "32 species that make up the dolphin family". How do you figure if such a large phrase is the subject?

Its a very simple S-V question. They have already done half work for you. Look at the sentence carefully.

The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact

The 'are' in sentence already tell you that the subject is plural.

If you have question about HOW to identify subject in a sentence, then you might want to go through grammar basics. Aristotle SC grail has clear and concise chapter on grammar basics.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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19 Jul 2013, 09:12
fozzzy wrote:
The options are incorrect for this question

In D and E its includes not include.

C D and E are out because of errors

Now between A and B

B is incorrect because Growing is modifying 32 species? Is this right This distorts the meaning of the sentence

And in option A it is the killer whale that can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods

No, that not what happens in B.

Remember: COMMA + ING modifier the whole preceding clause.
With just an exception: ", including" Example "... her books, including Harry Potter."

With that said

The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact
B. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and (...)

growing modifies the whole preceding clause, not the killer wale nor the 32 species. Modify the preceding clause mean two thing:
1)present the results of an action

If you want to modify a single noun "the killer whale" you cannot use COMMA + ING, but you have to use a noun modifier (such as "which").

Hope everything is clear
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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05 Jan 2014, 09:56
marine wrote:
The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

A. include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is
B. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and
C. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being
D. include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is
E. include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

EDIT: I notice that this problem is not correctly stated. D/E are introduced with "includes", not include, in the correct OG problem (problem #67). A lot more people would be correct on this one, had they known to eliminate D/E right off the bat.

B) "the animal..., (verb-ing) "as big as" is just wrong. You shouldn't have a present participle in this case, and "as big as" is not the correct expression. B gone

C) Again, verb-ing is wrong both for growing and being. C gone

D) "as big as" is an awkward expression in general, but other than that this sentence looks nice. Keep as a contender.

E) "can grow to be" is not the correct expression, also "it" is superfluous, eliminate E.

A) "can grow to be" implies that there is a probability that the/a killer whale grows up to 30 feet, that makes perfect sense and is the intended meaning of the author. Also, the "is" logically flows into famous. Between A and D, A sounds much, much better so we go with A.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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04 Dec 2014, 08:48
govindsowrirajan wrote:
Should I look at this like family includes or 32 species include? Any experts there?

Hi Govind, to identify whether the subject is family or 32 species or something else, we need to look at the verb. As you have rightly figured out, include/includes is the verb here. As you would appreciate, subject is nothing but the doer of the verb.

So, to identify the subject, let's identify who/what is the doer of the verb.

In other words, who/what is the doer of include/includes.

In other words, who/what include/includes the animal known as the killer whale?

In the context of the sentence, it should be clear that the 32 species include the animal known as the killer whale.

So, the 32 species is the subject and hence, the verb include is appropriate.

On a side note, the clauses in the first part of the sentence are:

i) The 32 species are closely related to whales

ii) (The 32 species) include the animal known as the killer whale

iii) that make up the dolphin family

Through this deconstruct also, it should be evident that the 32 species include the animal known as the killer whale.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses subject identification in significant detail. If someone is interested, PM me your email-id, I can mail the corresponding section.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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11 Dec 2014, 09:02
EducationAisle wrote:
After reading the comments i really someone to shed light on this question to confirm our reasoning.

A key thing to note in B and C is the presence of the participial phrase: growing....

Participial phrases of this nature (that appear towards the end of a clause) modify the subject of the preceding clause. In this case, that subject is 32 species.

So, at the very least, there is an ambiguity, because B and C seem to suggest that the 32 species are growing; from the context of the sentence, it is clear that actually the whale can grow.

This is also a good reason why A is correct: which in A appropriately modifies whale, the nearest grammatically eligible noun.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses participial phrases, their application and examples in significant detail. If you can PM you email-id, I can send you the corresponding section.

I just got a small doubt with the explanation provided by you.

Obviously the correct ans is OA A.

But in case of B and C, growing modifies the Entire preceding clause and not the subject alone. As per my understanding, Growing as big as........ and Growing up to be..... is a verbing modifier.

[b]A verbing modifier that appears after a clause and is preceded by a comma, modifies the entire preceding clause.

In this case modification of entire preceding clause, as in options B and C is wrong.

OA A has the correct modification. Which modifies Killer Whale.

D and E can be ruled out for S-V agreement.

It would be nice of you if you can point out where my thinking is wrong. Please guide me.[/b]
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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06 Aug 2015, 07:25
A. include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is
To me, this is incorrect because of the "include"... "include" indicates a plural subject, but the way I interpret it is that the subject is the 32 species that make up the dolphin family, which should be taken as a singular aggregate. the "32 species are closely related" indicates that each one of those 32 species is related to whales, but saying "the 32 species include the killer whale" indicates that each individual species somehow includes the killer whale, as opposed to the set of 32 species (referenced as the "dolphin family") including the killer whale. (I interpret it as "the dolphin family includes the killer whale")

B. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and

C. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being

D. includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is
To me this is correct because the word "includes" reference the inclusion of a specific type into a set (the 32 species that make up the dolphin family). I'm not pleased with the "grow as big as 30 feet long", but I think the "includes" makes this more correct than any other option

E. includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is
the "it is" is poor grammar - the subject of the modifier is already clearly the killer whale, so saying "it is" is unnecessary - should be "is"
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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20 Aug 2015, 15:30
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Hi Palelemon,

I would like to add something to the usage of 'being' here. Many posts say that usage of 'being' is wrong in GMAT which isn't the case. Like you said, 'being famous' is ungrammatical. I would like to differ. Firstly, 'Being famous' isn't a clause/statement.

Lets say 'Being famous is enjoyable'. Here being is used as a noun and combined with the verb 'is', the sentence is absolutely fine.
Secondly, being can be used for continuous tenses. Eg: He is being mean.

We have official evidences in the OG as well where the correct choice contains being.

(Please refer to the discussions regarding 'being' by E-GMAT).

Here the usage of being would be wrong since Being famous for its aggressive hunting pods will then have no verb and would result in a fragment. (Being famous is the noun here without a verb).
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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24 Aug 2015, 17:15
The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods.

A. include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is
B. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and
C. include the animal known as the killer whale, growing up to 30 feet long and being
D. includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow as big as 30 feet long and is
E. includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

Meaning: 1) 32 species that make up dolphin family are related to whales
2) These species include killer whales as well that grow long and are aggressive.

Structure:

The 32 species

that make up the dolphin family are closely related to whales------clause modifies 32 species

and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale, -------- Says that the 32 species include killer whales

which can grow to be 30 feet long and is famous for its aggressive hunting pods.---------------Which refers to whale.

POE

a) include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and is

1) "which" clause refers to whale---logical---correct

2) What "includes" the animal known as killer whale----------32 species--------- SV agreement correct

B.) include the animal known as the killer whale, growing as big as 30 feet long and

Growing is Verb+Ing, which should answer how or what resulted and should also make sense with the subject of the previous clause.

Previous clause: and in fact include the animal known as the killer whale

Breaking it further: 32 species include the animal known as the killer whale

Condition1: How or what resulted

It doesnot make logical sense to answer a HOW or WHAT RESULTED.

Also,

Condition 2: Should attach to the subject of the previous clause and should make sense

The subject of the previous clause is 32 Species------- which somewhat makes sense with growing but the presence of "its", later in the sentence , breaks it.

c) same as B

D and E are ruled out because of SV error--------------32 species and includes.

Hope this helps
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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08 May 2016, 14:54
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paidlukkha wrote:
Why is E wrong?

In A and B with include, it's talking about one killer whale but includes conveys killer whales are more than one, no?

Also, don't we need it in A for it to be correct?

Posted from my mobile device

The subject of the verb "include" is "species", which is plural. (The 32 species include xxxx)
E is wrong because the plural subject "species" does not match with singular verb "includes"..

The verb does not indicate whether the object is singular or plural. The object of the verb "include" could be singular or plural.

Here the object "the killer whale" is singular, one of those 32 species. "The killer whale" does not depict a single animal, but the species as a whole. Nonetheless "the killer whale" is singular - one species. Definite article "the" can be used to depict a species as a whole.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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09 May 2016, 00:04
It has to be A.

D and E are clearly eliminated as it uses 'includes' which is incorrect as it refers to 32 species and non-undelined uses are ..therefore verb has to be plural.
Now coming to modifier :- only A describes the blue whale which is correct.
Modifiers in B and C are modifying the 32 species which is incorrect as non underlined portion in clause uses 'its' which indicated the modifier has to modify 'Blue whale' not 32 species.

Thanks
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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31 May 2016, 00:45
I was able to mark the correct answer choice. Just to improve my understanding that why an answer choice is wrong, i got one doubt.

Option E

includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

Above option can be ruled out because the verb includes does not agree with plural subject.

However if the option choice is changed as below

include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

Now is the above answer choice incorrect?

Is the usage of it incorrect ?
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely [#permalink]

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01 Jun 2016, 11:26
sahilmalhotra01 wrote:
I was able to mark the correct answer choice. Just to improve my understanding that why an answer choice is wrong, i got one doubt.

Option E

includes the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

Above option can be ruled out because the verb includes does not agree with plural subject.

However if the option choice is changed as below

include the animal known as the killer whale, which can grow to be 30 feet long and it is

Now is the above answer choice incorrect?

Is the usage of it incorrect ?

Hi Sahil,

Thanks for posting your doubt here.

The reason why the modified version of Choice E is incorrect is that the list is not grammatically parallel now. The elements in the list are as follows:

1. which can grow to be 30 feet long and
2. it is

Please note that while the first entity in the list is dependent clause, the second is an independent clause. Since both the information pertain to killer whale, which should be uses as the subject of both the verbs can grow and is connected by the connector and to create the correct parallel list.

Hope this helps.
Thanks.
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Re: The 32 species that make up the dolphin family are closely   [#permalink] 01 Jun 2016, 11:26

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