GMAT Question of the Day: Daily via email | Daily via Instagram New to GMAT Club? Watch this Video

It is currently 03 Aug 2020, 07:53

Close

GMAT Club Daily Prep

Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track
Your Progress

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Not interested in getting valuable practice questions and articles delivered to your email? No problem, unsubscribe here.

Close

Request Expert Reply

Confirm Cancel

The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  
Author Message
TAGS:

Hide Tags

Find Similar Topics 
Senior PS Moderator
User avatar
D
Status: It always seems impossible until it's done.
Joined: 16 Sep 2016
Posts: 718
GMAT 1: 740 Q50 V40
GMAT 2: 770 Q51 V42
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post Updated on: 01 Jun 2020, 23:14
1
1
Question 1
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 188 sessions

88% (03:32) correct 12% (03:30) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 242 sessions

90% (00:47) correct 10% (01:29) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 244 sessions

89% (00:48) correct 11% (01:09) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 249 sessions

41% (01:02) correct 59% (01:12) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00
A
B
C
D
E

based on 232 sessions

53% (01:47) correct 47% (01:48) wrong

HideShow timer Statistics

New Project RC Butler 2019 - Practice 2 RC Passages Everyday
Passage # 182, Date : 02-Jul-2019
This post is a part of New Project RC Butler 2019. Click here for Details


The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental impact of oil well drilling in North America has tended to lag behind the actual drilling of oil wells. Most attempts to regulate the industry have relied on hindsight: the need for regulation becomes apparent only after undesirable events occur. The problems associated with oil wells’ potential contamination of groundwater—fresh water within the earth that supplies wells and springs—provide a case in point.

When commercial drilling for oil began in North America in the mid-nineteenth century, regulations reflected the industry’s concern for the purity of the wells’ oil. In 1893, for example, regulations were enacted specifying well construction requirements to protect oil and gas reserves from contamination by fresh water. Thousands of wells were drilled in such a way as to protect the oil, but no thought was given to the possibility that the groundwater itself might need protection until many drinking-water wells near the oil well sites began to produce unpotable, oil contaminated water.

The reason for this contamination was that groundwater is usually found in porous and permeable geologic formations near the earth’s surface, whereas petroleum and unpotable saline water reservoirs are generally found in similar formations but at greater depths. Drilling a well creates a conduit connecting all the formations that it has penetrated. Consequently, without appropriate safeguards, wells that penetrate both groundwater and oil or saline water formations inevitably contaminate the groundwater. Initial attempts to prevent this contamination consisted of sealing off the groundwater formations with some form of protective barrier to prevent the oil flowing up the well from entering or mixing with the natural groundwater reservoir. This method, which is still in use today, initially involved using hollow trees to seal off the groundwater formations; now, however, large metal pipe casings, set in place with cement, are used.

Regulations currently govern the kinds of casing and cement that can be used in these practices; however, the hazards of insufficient knowledge persist. For example, the long-term stability of this way of protecting groundwater is unknown. The protective barrier may fail due to corrosion of the casing by certain fluids flowing up the well, or because of dissolution of the cement by these fluids. The effects of groundwater bacteria, traffic vibrations, and changing groundwater chemistry are likewise unassessed. Further, there is no guarantee that wells drilled in compliance with existing regulations will not expose a need for research in additional areas: on the west coast of North America, a major disaster recently occurred because a well’s location was based on a poor understanding of the area’s subsurface geology. Because the well was drilled in a channel accessing the ocean, not only was the area’s groundwater completely contaminated, but widespread coastal contamination also occurred, prompting international concern over oil exploration and initiating further attempts to refine regulations.

1. Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?

(A) Although now recognized as undesirable, occasional groundwater contamination by oil and unpotable saline water is considered to be inevitable wherever drilling for oil occurs.
(B) Widespread coastal contamination caused by oil well drilling in North America has prompted international concern over oil exploration.
(C) Hindsight has been the only reliable means available to regulation writers responsible for devising adequate safeguard regulations to prevent environmental contamination associated with oil well drilling.
(D) The risk of environmental contamination associated with oil well drilling continues to exist because safeguard regulations are often based on hindsight and less-than-sufficient scientific information.
(E) Groundwater contamination associated with oil well drilling is due in part to regulations designed to protect the oil from contamination by groundwater and not the groundwater from contamination by oil.


2. The passage states which one of the following about underground oil reservoirs?

(A) They are usually located in areas whose subsurface geology is poorly understood.
(B) They are generally less common in coastal regions.
(C) They are usually located in geologic formations similar to those in which gas is found.
(D) They are often contaminated by fresh or saline water.
(E) They are generally found at greater depths than groundwater formations.


3. The author’s attitude regarding oil well drilling regulations can most accurately be described as

(A) cynical that future regulatory reform will occur without international concern
(B) satisfied that existing regulations are adequate to prevent unwarranted tradeoffs between resource collection and environmental protection
(C) concerned that regulatory reform will not progress until significant undesirable events occur
(D) optimistic that current scientific research will spur regulatory reform
(E) confident that regulations will eventually be based on accurate geologic understandings


4. The author uses the phrase “the hazards of insufficient knowledge” primarily in order to refer to the risks resulting from

(A) a lack of understanding regarding the dangers to human health posed by groundwater contamination
(B) a failure to comprehend the possible consequences of drilling in complex geologic systems
(C) poorly tested methods for verifying the safety of newly developed technologies
(D) an inadequate appreciation for the difficulties of enacting and enforcing environmental regulations
(E) a rudimentary understanding of the materials used in manufacturing metal pipe casings


5. Based on the information in the passage, if a prospective oil well drilled near a large city encounters a large groundwater formation and a small saline water formation, but no oil, which one of the following statements is most likely to be true?

(A) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the well did not strike oil and hence will not be put in operation.
(B) Danger to human health due to groundwater contamination is unlikely because large cities generally have more than one source of drinking water.
(C) Groundwater contamination is likely unless the well is plugged and abandoned.
(D) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the groundwater formation’s large size will safely dilute any saline water that enters it.
(E) The risk of groundwater contamination can be reduced if casing is set properly and monitored routinely for breakdown.



  • Source: LSAT Official PrepTest 43 (June 2004)
  • Difficulty Level: 600

_________________
Regards,
Gladi



“Do. Or do not. There is no try.” - Yoda (The Empire Strikes Back)

Originally posted by Gladiator59 on 04 Feb 2019, 23:48.
Last edited by Bunuel on 01 Jun 2020, 23:14, edited 4 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (1060).
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
avatar
P
Joined: 31 Jan 2019
Posts: 400
Location: Switzerland
Concentration: General Management
GPA: 3.9
Re: The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 16 Nov 2019, 01:45
2
1
Hi everyone,
Solved this one in 13 minutes.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


P1

Paragraph one states that the environmental impacts related to oil wells are related to a certain attitude. The attitude is that regulations are put in place after something undesirable occurs. So no prevention. An example that would support the case is the one related to groundwater.

Brief summary: Oil wells' environmental impacts are related with lack of regulations (E.G. groundwater)

P2

Paragraph 2 gives us information about a specific focus that has been put on oil's purity. There were laws (1893) that, when enacted, prevented the oil from contamination related to fresh water. However there was no concern for the purity of water related to the drinking water's wells; at least not until that water became not potable.

Brief summary: while regulations focused on oil's purity, they neglected drinking water's contamination from oil

P3

We are given that oil and drinking water are present in2 different areas: the water is close to the surface while the oil ( and saline reservoirs) are more downwards.
In addition we know that when performing the drilling these two areas are connected and can contaminate each others if no proper barriers are used.
The author lastly states that in the past wooden barriers were used, but now metal barriers are in place

Brief summary: how drinking water and oil areas connect and a method to separate them.

P4

Paragraph 4 says that there are some regulations related the barriers but there are not enough information to establish a long term durability of such barriers.
The barrier might fail or corrode because of the presence of fluids getting in touch with it. Furthermore there is not enough research in many areas. Evidence supporting the latter statement is given by an accident which occurred close to the ocean where the groundwater and the coastal water were contaminated because not enough research was done on the geology of the surface.

Brief summary: Regulations are in place but lack of information is dangerous


Main Point

The main point is to evaluate the current situation related to oil wells


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



1. Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?

Pre-thinking

Main point question

Refer to main point and summaries above


(A) Although now recognized as undesirable, occasional groundwater contamination by oil and unpotable saline water is considered to be inevitable wherever drilling for oil occurs.
Too extreme

(B) Widespread coastal contamination caused by oil well drilling in North America has prompted international concern over oil exploration.
Partial scope related to last paragraph

(C) Hindsight has been the only reliable means available to regulation writers responsible for devising adequate safeguard regulations to prevent environmental contamination associated with oil well drilling.
hindsight is the problem at hand per the author

(D) The risk of environmental contamination associated with oil well drilling continues to exist because safeguard regulations are often based on hindsight and less-than-sufficient scientific information.
In line with pre-thinking

(E) Groundwater contamination associated with oil well drilling is due in part to regulations designed to protect the oil from contamination by groundwater and not the groundwater from contamination by oil.
partial scope related to second paragraph

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


2. The passage states which one of the following about underground oil reservoirs?

Pre-thinking

Detail question

In paragraph 3 we are given the location of both underground oil reservoirs and ground water.

"The reason for this contamination was that groundwater is usually found in porous and permeable geologic formations near the earth’s surface, whereas petroleum and unpotable saline water reservoirs are generally found in similar formations but at greater depths. "


(A) They are usually located in areas whose subsurface geology is poorly understood.
out of context

(B) They are generally less common in coastal regions.
never mentioned

(C) They are usually located in geologic formations similar to those in which gas is found.
never mentioned

(D) They are often contaminated by fresh or saline water.
never mentioned

(E) They are generally found at greater depths than groundwater formations.
In line with pre-thinking


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


3. The author’s attitude regarding oil well drilling regulations can most accurately be described as

Pre-thinking

Author's attitude question

The author clearly thinks that the current regulations are not sufficient and that more research should be done


(A) cynical that future regulatory reform will occur without international concern
not in line with pre-thinking

(B) satisfied that existing regulations are adequate to prevent unwarranted tradeoffs between resource collection and environmental protection
not in line with pre-thinking

(C) concerned that regulatory reform will not progress until significant undesirable events occur
in line with pre-thinking

(D) optimistic that current scientific research will spur regulatory reform
not in line with pre-thinking

(E) confident that regulations will eventually be based on accurate geologic understandings
not in line with pre-thinking

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


4. The author uses the phrase “the hazards of insufficient knowledge” primarily in order to refer to the risks resulting from

Pre-thinking

Purpose question

the risk associated with insufficient knowledge relates to the long term stability of the wells


(A) a lack of understanding regarding the dangers to human health posed by groundwater contamination
not in line with pre-thinking

(B) a failure to comprehend the possible consequences of drilling in complex geologic systems
in line with pre-thinking

(C) poorly tested methods for verifying the safety of newly developed technologies
not in line with pre-thinking

(D) an inadequate appreciation for the difficulties of enacting and enforcing environmental regulations
not in line with pre-thinking

(E) a rudimentary understanding of the materials used in manufacturing metal pipe casings
We don't know whether the people who drill have a good or bad understanding of the materials they use. The problem is that they don't know whether in the futures such materials will fail or corrode due to the fluids


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


5. Based on the information in the passage, if a prospective oil well drilled near a large city encounters a large groundwater formation and a small saline water formation, but no oil, which one of the following statements is most likely to be true?

Pre-thinking

Inference question

let's keep in mind that there are unassisted consequences like:

"The effects of groundwater bacteria, traffic vibrations, and changing groundwater chemistry are likewise unassessed."


(A) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the well did not strike oil and hence will not be put in operation.
Given that we know that there are unassisted consequences we can't affirm this with 100% surety

(B) Danger to human health due to groundwater contamination is unlikely because large cities generally have more than one source of drinking water.
irrelevant

(C) Groundwater contamination is likely unless the well is plugged and abandoned.
non sensical

(D) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the groundwater formation’s large size will safely dilute any saline water that enters it.
cannot be inferred

(E) The risk of groundwater contamination can be reduced if casing is set properly and monitored routinely for breakdown.
It makes sense

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


It is a good day to be alive!
Verbal Forum Moderator
User avatar
V
Status: Greatness begins beyond your comfort zone
Joined: 08 Dec 2013
Posts: 2445
Location: India
Concentration: General Management, Strategy
Schools: Kelley '20, ISB '19
GPA: 3.2
WE: Information Technology (Consulting)
GMAT ToolKit User Reviews Badge
Re: The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 06 Jul 2019, 21:57
1
All correct in 9 mins 45 seconds, including almost 5 mins to read
Para 1- Regulation of oil well drilling in NA; Most attempts to regulate the industry have relied on hindsight
Para 2- history- 19th Century priority- protect the purity of oil; no thought about protecting groundwater from contamination
Para 3- Why contamination occurs? Initial method to prevent it
Para 4- the hazards of insufficient knowledge


1. Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?
(D) The risk of environmental contamination associated with oil well drilling continues to exist because safeguard regulations are often based on hindsight and less-than-sufficient scientific information.- Correct

2. The passage states which one of the following about underground oil reservoirs?
(E) They are generally found at greater depths than groundwater formations.
groundwater is usually found in porous and permeable geologic formations near the earth’s surface, whereas petroleum and unpotable saline water reservoirs are generally found in similar formations but at greater depths.


3. The author’s attitude regarding oil well drilling regulations can most accurately be described as
(C) concerned that regulatory reform will not progress until significant undesirable events occur

Most attempts to regulate the industry have relied on hindsight: the need for regulation becomes apparent only after undesirable events occur.
The author also describes " the hazards of insufficient knowledge persist" in the last para

4. The author uses the phrase “the hazards of insufficient knowledge” primarily in order to refer to the risks resulting from

(A) a lack of understanding regarding the dangers to human health posed by groundwater contamination- incorrect- the dangers to human health is too specific and as such is not discussed
(B) a failure to comprehend the possible consequences of drilling in complex geologic systems- Correct
(C) poorly tested methods for verifying the safety of newly developed technologies- incorrect- no newly developed technologies and their verification are discussed
(D) an inadequate appreciation for the difficulties of enacting and enforcing environmental regulations- incorrect
(E) a rudimentary understanding of the materials used in manufacturing metal pipe casings- incorrect, too specific


5. Based on the information in the passage, if a prospective oil well drilled near a large city encounters a large groundwater formation and a small saline water formation, but no oil, which one of the following statements is most likely to be true?

(A) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the well did not strike oil and hence will not be put in operation.- incorrect, drilling to discover oil was done and contamination by saline water is still possible
(B) Danger to human health due to groundwater contamination is unlikely because large cities generally have more than one source of drinking water.- incorrect
(C) Groundwater contamination is likely unless the well is plugged and abandoned.- incorrect; if abandoned without proper safety regulations, the groundwater reservoir might get contaminated
(D) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the groundwater formation’s large size will safely dilute any saline water that enters it.- incorrect- we do not how much saline water is sufficient to contaminate a given amount of groundwater; even a miniscule amount of saline water can contaminate large groundwater reservoir
(E) The risk of groundwater contamination can be reduced if casing is set properly and monitored routinely for breakdown.- Correct
_________________
When everything seems to be going against you, remember that the airplane takes off against the wind, not with it. - Henry Ford
The Moment You Think About Giving Up, Think Of The Reason Why You Held On So Long
Intern
Intern
avatar
B
Joined: 28 Apr 2019
Posts: 7
Re: The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 21 May 2020, 06:13
Skywalker18 wrote:
All correct in 9 mins 45 seconds, including almost 5 mins to read
Para 1- Regulation of oil well drilling in NA; Most attempts to regulate the industry have relied on hindsight
Para 2- history- 19th Century priority- protect the purity of oil; no thought about protecting groundwater from contamination
Para 3- Why contamination occurs? Initial method to prevent it
Para 4- the hazards of insufficient knowledge


1. Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?
(D) The risk of environmental contamination associated with oil well drilling continues to exist because safeguard regulations are often based on hindsight and less-than-sufficient scientific information.- Correct

2. The passage states which one of the following about underground oil reservoirs?
(E) They are generally found at greater depths than groundwater formations.
groundwater is usually found in porous and permeable geologic formations near the earth’s surface, whereas petroleum and unpotable saline water reservoirs are generally found in similar formations but at greater depths.


3. The author’s attitude regarding oil well drilling regulations can most accurately be described as
(C) concerned that regulatory reform will not progress until significant undesirable events occur

Most attempts to regulate the industry have relied on hindsight: the need for regulation becomes apparent only after undesirable events occur.
The author also describes " the hazards of insufficient knowledge persist" in the last para

4. The author uses the phrase “the hazards of insufficient knowledge” primarily in order to refer to the risks resulting from

(A) a lack of understanding regarding the dangers to human health posed by groundwater contamination- incorrect- the dangers to human health is too specific and as such is not discussed
(B) a failure to comprehend the possible consequences of drilling in complex geologic systems- Correct
(C) poorly tested methods for verifying the safety of newly developed technologies- incorrect- no newly developed technologies and their verification are discussed
(D) an inadequate appreciation for the difficulties of enacting and enforcing environmental regulations- incorrect
(E) a rudimentary understanding of the materials used in manufacturing metal pipe casings- incorrect, too specific


5. Based on the information in the passage, if a prospective oil well drilled near a large city encounters a large groundwater formation and a small saline water formation, but no oil, which one of the following statements is most likely to be true?

(A) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the well did not strike oil and hence will not be put in operation.- incorrect, drilling to discover oil was done and contamination by saline water is still possible
(B) Danger to human health due to groundwater contamination is unlikely because large cities generally have more than one source of drinking water.- incorrect
(C) Groundwater contamination is likely unless the well is plugged and abandoned.- incorrect; if abandoned without proper safety regulations, the groundwater reservoir might get contaminated
(D) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the groundwater formation’s large size will safely dilute any saline water that enters it.- incorrect- we do not how much saline water is sufficient to contaminate a given amount of groundwater; even a miniscule amount of saline water can contaminate large groundwater reservoir
(E) The risk of groundwater contamination can be reduced if casing is set properly and monitored routinely for breakdown.- Correct



Skywalker18 - Can you pls clarify why E is correct. The author has stressed on the fact that current knowledge is not sufficient for good Casing then how can say E as mostly be the true case. Instead, we can choose C because if there is now oil and well is plugged then the chance of contamination is actually were less. (As mentioned in the passage Ground Water is above the Saline Water/Oil so if we plug it without drawing any oil then groundwater will not get contaminated.
Senior Manager
Senior Manager
User avatar
D
Status: Studying GMAT
Joined: 04 Sep 2017
Posts: 292
Location: United States (UT)
Concentration: Technology, Leadership
GPA: 3.6
WE: Sales (Computer Software)
Re: The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 01 Jun 2020, 20:51
KumarMohan wrote:
Skywalker18 wrote:
5. Based on the information in the passage, if a prospective oil well drilled near a large city encounters a large groundwater formation and a small saline water formation, but no oil, which one of the following statements is most likely to be true?

(A) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the well did not strike oil and hence will not be put in operation.- incorrect, drilling to discover oil was done and contamination by saline water is still possible
(B) Danger to human health due to groundwater contamination is unlikely because large cities generally have more than one source of drinking water.- incorrect
(C) Groundwater contamination is likely unless the well is plugged and abandoned.- incorrect; if abandoned without proper safety regulations, the groundwater reservoir might get contaminated
(D) Groundwater contamination is unlikely because the groundwater formation’s large size will safely dilute any saline water that enters it.- incorrect- we do not how much saline water is sufficient to contaminate a given amount of groundwater; even a miniscule amount of saline water can contaminate large groundwater reservoir
(E) The risk of groundwater contamination can be reduced if casing is set properly and monitored routinely for breakdown.- Correct



Skywalker18 - Can you pls clarify why E is correct. The author has stressed on the fact that current knowledge is not sufficient for good Casing then how can say E as mostly be the true case. Instead, we can choose C because if there is now oil and well is plugged then the chance of contamination is actually were less. (As mentioned in the passage Ground Water is above the Saline Water/Oil so if we plug it without drawing any oil then groundwater will not get contaminated.

Hi KumarMohan,

Check out these two sentences from the 3rd paragraph:

Skywalker18 wrote:
Consequently, without appropriate safeguards, wells that penetrate both groundwater and oil or saline water formations inevitably contaminate the groundwater. Initial attempts to prevent this contamination consisted of sealing off the groundwater formations with some form of protective barrier to prevent the oil flowing up the well from entering or mixing with the natural groundwater reservoir.

Notice it says if the wells penetrate both groundwater and oil OR saline water.

#5 asks us what will happen if we drill into groundwater and saline water.

The passage clearly tells us that the groundwater will be contaminated. So we can eliminate A, B, and D.

Between C and E:
Skywalker18 wrote:
(C) Groundwater contamination is likely unless the well is plugged and abandoned.

The passage never mentions "plugging" wells nor "abandoning."

Don't think too hard. Just look to the passage and work with what you have.
Skywalker18 wrote:
(E) The risk of groundwater contamination can be reduced if casing is set properly and monitored routinely for breakdown.

The last sentence of the 3rd paragraph mentions that large metal pipe casings are used to prevent contamination. Therefore E is much better than C

Hope this helps.
_________________
Would I rather be feared or loved? Easy. Both. I want people to be afraid of how much they love me.

How to sort questions by Topic, Difficulty, and Source:
https://gmatclub.com/forum/search.php?view=search_tags

"Genuine learning is impossible without curiosity." - Naval
Director
Director
avatar
G
Joined: 05 Jan 2019
Posts: 557
Re: The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i  [#permalink]

Show Tags

New post 04 Jun 2020, 02:24
1. Which one of the following most accurately states the main point of the passage?

(D) The risk of environmental contamination associated with oil well drilling continues to exist because safeguard regulations are often based on hindsight and less-than-sufficient scientific information. - In the first line of the last passage, we have "...hazards of insufficient knowledge still persists". The whole passage is centered on the idea of highlighting the fact that environmental contamination is still a threat for the reasons presented in the passage. hence, (D) is the right answer choice here.

2. The passage states which one of the following about underground oil reservoirs?


In the first line of the third paragraph, we have "Ground water.....near earth's surface, whereas petroleum...found at greater depths"

This is what we have in (E)

(E) They are generally found at greater depths than groundwater formations.
Hence, (E) is the right answer choice here.

3. The author’s attitude regarding oil well drilling regulations can most accurately be described as


Towards the middle of the first paragraph, we have "Most attempts to regulate the industry have relied on hindsight: the need for regulation becomes apparent only after undesirable events occur." This is most accurately represented in (C).

(C) concerned that regulatory reform will not progress until significant undesirable events occur

Hence, (C) is the right answer choice to this question.

4. The author uses the phrase “the hazards of insufficient knowledge” primarily in order to refer to the risks resulting from


The entire last paragraph is constructed to explain the phrase “the hazards of insufficient knowledge”
In the last paragraph, we have "Long term stability...unknown"; "the effects of groundwater bacteria...unassessed" and "no guarantee that existing regulations will not require further research" As you can see, the last paragraph talks about the consequences of what happens when oil drilling continues. (B) encompasses this idea accurately.

(B) a failure to comprehend the possible consequences of drilling in complex geologic systems

Hence, (B) is the right answer choice.

5. Based on the information in the passage, if a prospective oil well drilled near a large city encounters a large groundwater formation and a small saline water formation, but no oil, which one of the following statements is most likely to be true?


Towards the middle of the third paragraph, we have "wells that penetrate both groundwater and oil or saline water formations inevitably contaminate the groundwater.". So, if the prospective oil well encounters a large groundwater formation and a small saline water formation, then the contamination of groundwater is inevitable.

As suggested by the third paragraph, one way to stop such a contamination is to " use large metal pipe casings, set in place with cement" (written in the last line of the third paragraph).

This is most accurately represented by (E)

(E) The risk of groundwater contamination can be reduced if casing is set properly and monitored routinely for breakdown.

Hence, (E) is the right answer choice.
GMAT Club Bot
Re: The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i   [#permalink] 04 Jun 2020, 02:24

The accumulation of scientific knowledge regarding the environmental i

  new topic post reply Question banks Downloads My Bookmarks Reviews Important topics  





Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group | Emoji artwork provided by EmojiOne