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# The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo commun

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Manager
Joined: 05 Dec 2014
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GMAT 1: 690 Q48 V36
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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo commun  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2017, 22:54
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
And we know that COMMA + -ING modifier always modifies the entire previous clause.

Not always. "-ing" modifiers can modify an entire clause... or just a noun (see the explanation by egmat above). We could argue that "dating" modifies the Acoma and Hopi, or that it modifies "communities" -- but the difference between those two isn't terribly important, because those two are the same in this sentence, anyway.

I hope this helps!

Hi GMATNinja,
I understood why option A is correct.
I am having trouble to eliminate option B.
The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo communities, both of which have dated back at least a thousand years.

In one of the explanation in the forum regarding why B is wrong is as follows-
In B, "have dated" doesn't make sense. Dating in this sense is not something they have actually done. It's just a way of describing how old they are. We'd say "This legend dates back to the 12th century," not "This legend has dated back to the 12th century." (This issue also rules out C, with "has dated.")

Then, in a correct OA in Gmatprep,
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles islands.
Here, the dating also, not something the fossils do.

In another explanation,
The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo communities, both dating back at least a thousand years.

It is a general fact about the two communities mentioned in the official sentence above that these communities are at least a thousand years old, a fact that cannot be changed or will not remain true in the time to come. Hence, this fact must be written either in simple present tense verb or in the form of verb-ing modifier as we in this sentence.

When an event is written in present perfect tense, it denotes that the event may change in the future.
We say: Sun rises in the east because this fact is never going to change. If we say: Sun has risen in the east, the sentence will mean that in present the Sun is rising in the east. But in future it may not do so.

But the use of present perfect is something that started in the past and its effect is there till present. How can we say that the effect wont be in the future?
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Manager
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Location: India
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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo commun  [#permalink]

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07 Dec 2017, 23:59
DmitryFarber wrote:
E is a simple subject-verb issue. It should be each . . . dates.

In B, "have dated" doesn't make sense. Dating in this sense is not something they have actually done. It's just a way of describing how old they are. We'd say "This legend dates back to the 12th century," not "This legend has dated back to the 12th century." (This issue also rules out C, with "has dated.")

D is just not a sentence. It links a modifier to the main clause with "and," and that doesn't work.

Hi,
in a correct OA in Gmatprep,
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles islands.
Here, the dating also, not something the fossils do.
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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo commun  [#permalink]

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02 Mar 2018, 04:00
sunny91 wrote:
GMATNinja wrote:
Quote:
And we know that COMMA + -ING modifier always modifies the entire previous clause.

Not always. "-ing" modifiers can modify an entire clause... or just a noun (see the explanation by egmat above). We could argue that "dating" modifies the Acoma and Hopi, or that it modifies "communities" -- but the difference between those two isn't terribly important, because those two are the same in this sentence, anyway.

I hope this helps!

Hi GMATNinja,
I understood why option A is correct.
I am having trouble to eliminate option B.
The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo communities, both of which have dated back at least a thousand years.

In one of the explanation in the forum regarding why B is wrong is as follows-
In B, "have dated" doesn't make sense. Dating in this sense is not something they have actually done. It's just a way of describing how old they are. We'd say "This legend dates back to the 12th century," not "This legend has dated back to the 12th century." (This issue also rules out C, with "has dated.")

Then, in a correct OA in Gmatprep,
Fossils of the arm of a sloth found in Puerto Rico in 1991, have been dated at 34 million years old, made it the earliest known mammal of the Greater Antilles islands.
Here, the dating also, not something the fossils do.

In another explanation,
The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo communities, both dating back at least a thousand years.

It is a general fact about the two communities mentioned in the official sentence above that these communities are at least a thousand years old, a fact that cannot be changed or will not remain true in the time to come. Hence, this fact must be written either in simple present tense verb or in the form of verb-ing modifier as we in this sentence.

When an event is written in present perfect tense, it denotes that the event may change in the future.
We say: Sun rises in the east because this fact is never going to change. If we say: Sun has risen in the east, the sentence will mean that in present the Sun is rising in the east. But in future it may not do so.

But the use of present perfect is something that started in the past and its effect is there till present. How can we say that the effect wont be in the future?

Ron's(MGMAT) explanations- https://www.manhattanprep.com/gmat/foru ... 70-15.html

Yeah, the usage of those tenses is different for these 2 different kinds of verbs:
1/ Actions that happen at a specific point in time
2/ Actions that represent states (= that last for a certain duration)

If you imagine a timeline as a literal graph, then #1 represents actions that would be points or dots on that number line, while #2 represents states that would be linear portions on that number line.

#1: E.g., Scott graduated from high school.
This is not an ongoing state. It's something that happens at one exact moment (the moment of graduation).

#2: E.g., Scott was married (for ten years).
Ongoing for a duration of 10 years.

See below for how you use "has/have VERBed" with these.

Type 1/
If it's a point thing, then "has/have VERBed" means ...
... it happened,
... it's somehow relevant to the present.

E.g.,
People who have graduated from high school usually find employment much more easily than people who have not.
They've graduated (at any time). We don't know when"”maybe yesterday, maybe 40 years ago.
Regardless, it's relevant to the present; we're talking about their job prospects at present.

These are past events, seen through the lens of the present.
They are not 'continuing up to the present', because these verbs represent things that CANNOT 'continue'. they happen at one exact point in time, and ... that's it.

Type 2/
If it's an ongoing state verb, then "has/have VERBed" without an explicit time period means ...
... it's happened before,
... it's not happening now.

E.g.,
I have lived in Florida.
This implies that I no longer live in Florida. If I still live there now, I'll write I live in Florida.

----- BUT -----

If, for this kind of verb, "has/have VERBed" is used with a time duration, then ...
... it has happened for that duration up to now;
... it may still be happening, or it may just have ended.

E.g.,
I have lived in Florida for twenty years. (written in 2014)
This means I've lived in Florida for the last twenty years (= 1994-2014).
I might still live there.
I may be moving right now.

Dating objects (= evaluating their age) is a point action, like graduating from high school.
So, "have been dated" means that it happened sometime"”any time"”and that it's relevant to the present. Exactly what's necessary here.
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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo commun  [#permalink]

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02 Jun 2018, 07:50
COMMA + -ING modifier - gives additional about the previous clause. So, A is correct.
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Re: The Acoma and Hopi are probably the two oldest surviving Pueblo commun &nbs [#permalink] 02 Jun 2018, 07:50

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