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# The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a

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Verbal Expert
Joined: 14 Dec 2013
Posts: 3201
Location: Germany
Schools: HHL Leipzig
GMAT 1: 780 Q50 V47
WE: Corporate Finance (Pharmaceuticals and Biotech)
Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2016, 22:12
shonakshi wrote:
I am not clear about the use of scaled of and scaled with

"Scale of " is used to compare the sizes of two objects (generally a copy with the original).

This drawing has been made in a scale of 1 to 10..... implies 1 cm on the drawing is equivalent to 10 cm real distance.

Another usage could be as follows:

How would you rate my answer on a scale of 1 to 10? .... implies you have to evaluate my answer with a max / min possible values of 1/10.

However in the subject question, the word " scale" is used in a different way - to convey the meaning "size". Therefore "scale of" is not correct.
(The preposition "with" has no bearing with the word "scale" whatsoever.)
Intern
Joined: 23 Sep 2016
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2016, 18:52
Hi there, quick question regarding the nonessential modifiers. Are we allowed to have more than one in a sentence like in this case. And, can they be prepositions (with...of...?) Thanks!
Manhattan Prep Instructor
Joined: 22 Mar 2011
Posts: 1248
Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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31 Oct 2016, 21:29
The final modifier doesn't modify "rooms" for three reasons: 1) it doesn't touch either noun ("each" is not a noun here), 2) we have two modifiers on top of one another, so we have to read for meaning, and 3) the intervening modifier is set off with commas, making it an aside that we can skip over structurally.

Also, notice that none of the answers do anything to make the meaning clearer. In fact, C-E seem to make the rooms connected. So we can't use this issue to narrow things down very well. Besides, if the rooms were connected, that wouldn't stop the sentence from working.
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2016, 10:16
Smileyface123 wrote:
Hi there, quick question regarding the nonessential modifiers. Are we allowed to have more than one in a sentence like in this case. And, can they be prepositions (with...of...?) Thanks!

Dear Smileyface123,

I'm happy to respond.

The short answer is: YES. Yes, we can have 2 or 3 or maybe even 4 non-essential prepositional phrase modifiers in a row. At some point, the flow of the sentence becomes unclear if there are too many, but we won't see that case on the GMAT. Also, notice that prepositional phrases are short, usually 2-3 words. Other noun modifiers (participial phrases, modifying clauses, etc.) are much longer, but if those are non-essential, there would likely be not more than one interrupting the flow of the sentence and most often these are set off by commas, as were the pair of prepositional phrases in this sentence.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

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GMAT 1: 690 Q50 V32
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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10 Mar 2017, 17:06
mikemcgarry wrote:
Could anyone please post the official answer for the question? Why is C incorrect? What is connected by roads?

I'm happy to respond. First of all, the OA is posted for this question already. When you see this:
Attachment:
OA Spoiler Bar.JPG

the gray spoiler bar at the bottom of a question at the head of a post: that's precisely where the OA is. You simply click on "[Reveal]" and you can view the OA.

Now, why is (C) incorrect? Well, first of all, the word "of" is idiomatically incorrect, and this is part of what makes (C), (D), and (E) incorrect. This sentence, by itself, is correct:
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale.
If we want to indicate more detail, we add detail to the settlements, not to the word "scale" itself.
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
Perfectly correct. The "with" phrases are modifying "settlements."
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
In this version, the "of" phrase illogically modifies "scale", telling us (??) what kind of scale?? This makes no sense. The choices that use "of" here are incorrect.

Even if choice (C) had the correct word "with" instead of "of", the ending is still awkward, wordy, and not direct.
Version (B) = ... 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, connected by a complex regional system of roads.
Version (C) = ... 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms, each that had been connected by a complex regional system of roads
Use of the past perfect tense is illogical --- had been. Also, this is a wordy and awkward way to express this idea. Also, (C) subtly changes the meaning. In choices (A) & (B), it's clear that the "structures" were "connected by ... roads." Choice (C) changes the meaning, illogically suggesting that each room has its own road!! Thus, if there were a structure with 600 rooms, this structure would have 600 road coming into it? The ancient Anasazi were not building complex highway interchange ramps!! That is 100% illogical, as well as a very different meaning from what is expressed clearly in the prompt.

For all these reasons, (C) is irredeemably incorrect.

Does all this make sense?
Mike

Hi GMAT exports,

I am confused about the sentence structure of this question. If the modifiers, "of up to 600 rooms each" and "connected by a complex regional system of roads" both modify "structure", why there is no conjunction word "and". Should the absence of "and" be a parallelism error for choice B? Can someone please let me know if "and" is always required in a list?
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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13 Mar 2017, 11:13
Hi GMAT exports,

I am confused about the sentence structure of this question. If the modifiers, "of up to 600 rooms each" and "connected by a complex regional system of roads" both modify "structure", why there is no conjunction word "and". Should the absence of "and" be a parallelism error for choice B? Can someone please let me know if "and" is always required in a list?

I'm happy to respond.

Here is version (B), the OA:
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, connected by a complex regional system of roads.
This is 100% correct as is.

A list is a series of discrete elements. For a list structure, the elements are in parallel and of course we typically would have "and" or "or" joining the elements. That is not what is happening in this sentence. This sentence did not attempt to create a list and do the job poorly. Instead, it was doing something else.

There are several other patterns in language beside listing. One pattern is the parenthetical remark. A parenthetical remark, sometimes called an "aside," is an extra piece of information that the speaker throws in. It typically disrupts the flow of the sentence, and often is set off on each side either by commas or by dashes (em-dashes).

In this sentence, the parenthetical remark is "of up to 600 rooms each." Notice that we could remove this remark and the sentence would still be perfectly fine. The author could have chosen to write this as the following:
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures—of up to 600 rooms each—connected by a complex regional system of roads.
That version sets the parenthetical remark off in em-dashes. This version is not as good: we set off a parenthetical remark in em-dashes when it's logically further from the sentence, a real interruption to the flow of thought. Here, the parenthetical remark is still very much on topic, so setting it off between a pair of commas is fine.

This is NOT parallelism. This is a different way of positioning a pair of complex modifiers.

My friend, there's no complete list anywhere of all the ways that language can be used. It's impossible to get to SC mastery by learning some mythical "complete set" of rules. You have to learn the "feel" of the language, and the only way to develop that is to cultivate a habit of reading. See:
How to Improve Your GMAT Verbal Score

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Mike McGarry
Magoosh Test Prep

Education is not the filling of a pail, but the lighting of a fire. — William Butler Yeats (1865 – 1939)

Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a   [#permalink] 13 Mar 2017, 11:13

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