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# The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2014, 04:21
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For the sake of users who might want to attempt the question in future, would it be possible to hide the sentence "Why "were" is not required for B as the correct answer?" into the spoiler section?

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2014, 13:12
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For the sake of users who might want to attempt the question in future, would it be possible to hide the sentence "Why "were" is not required for B as the correct answer?" into the spoiler section?

Astute observation, my friend. I just put that sentence in a spoiler box.
Mike
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2014, 14:10
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Could anyone please post the official answer for the question? Why is C incorrect? What is connected by roads?
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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28 Jul 2014, 15:32
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Could anyone please post the official answer for the question? Why is C incorrect? What is connected by roads?

I'm happy to respond. First of all, the OA is posted for this question already. When you see this:
Attachment:

OA Spoiler Bar.JPG [ 9.48 KiB | Viewed 14842 times ]

the gray spoiler bar at the bottom of a question at the head of a post: that's precisely where the OA is. You simply click on "[Reveal]" and you can view the OA.

Now, why is (C) incorrect? Well, first of all, the word "of" is idiomatically incorrect, and this is part of what makes (C), (D), and (E) incorrect. This sentence, by itself, is correct:
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale.
If we want to indicate more detail, we add detail to the settlements, not to the word "scale" itself.
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
Perfectly correct. The "with" phrases are modifying "settlements."
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
In this version, the "of" phrase illogically modifies "scale", telling us (??) what kind of scale?? This makes no sense. The choices that use "of" here are incorrect.

Even if choice (C) had the correct word "with" instead of "of", the ending is still awkward, wordy, and not direct.
Version (B) = ... 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, connected by a complex regional system of roads.
Version (C) = ... 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms, each that had been connected by a complex regional system of roads
Use of the past perfect tense is illogical --- had been. Also, this is a wordy and awkward way to express this idea. Also, (C) subtly changes the meaning. In choices (A) & (B), it's clear that the "structures" were "connected by ... roads." Choice (C) changes the meaning, illogically suggesting that each room has its own road!! Thus, if there were a structure with 600 rooms, this structure would have 600 road coming into it? The ancient Anasazi were not building complex highway interchange ramps!! That is 100% illogical, as well as a very different meaning from what is expressed clearly in the prompt.

For all these reasons, (C) is irredeemably incorrect.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2014, 05:49
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mikemcgarry wrote:
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale.
If we want to indicate more detail, we add detail to the settlements, not to the word "scale" itself.
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
Perfectly correct. The "with" phrases are modifying "settlements."
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
In this version, the "of" phrase illogically modifies "scale", telling us (??) what kind of scale?? This makes no sense. The choices that use "of" here are incorrect.

Hello Mike

Can you please elaborate on how you concluded that "of" will refer to "Scale" while "with" will refer to "settlements".
if it is some detailed concept can you please share the link

Thankyou

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2014, 10:43
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niyantg wrote:
mikemcgarry wrote:
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale.
If we want to indicate more detail, we add detail to the settlements, not to the word "scale" itself.
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
Perfectly correct. The "with" phrases are modifying "settlements."
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures.
In this version, the "of" phrase illogically modifies "scale", telling us (??) what kind of scale?? This makes no sense. The choices that use "of" here are incorrect.

Hello Mike

Can you please elaborate on how you concluded that "of" will refer to "Scale" while "with" will refer to "settlements".
if it is some detailed concept can you please share the link

Thankyou

Dear niyantg,
I'm happy to respond. Actually, this concept is not detailed at all: it's so intuitive that it's hard to put into words at all.

A prepositional phrase beginning with "of" almost always modifies the word directly before it. This is true in 99% of all cases --- the only exceptions I know are sophisticated sentences with the structure: [subject]+"is"+"of"-prepositional-phrase.
The decor in this town is of an different era.
That's a bit more sophisticated than you are likely to see on the GMAT. The point is, the word "of" is almost always attached the noun immediately in front of it.

A prepositional phrase beginning with "with" is much more flexible, and can modify the verb as well as the noun. In some sense, it might be more correct to say the "with" phrase in the Anasazi sentence modifies the verb "were built" rather than any noun. That's debatable, but it certainly doesn't modify "scale."

Part of the distinction here has to do with idioms. The construction "scale of" is a typical idiom:
... built on a scale of several inches.
... seen on the scale of distant galaxies.

By contrast, "scale with" is not an idiom at all, so the "with" must be doing something else besides modifying the word "scale."

My friend, all of this is stuff you need to "hear" in order to be successful at GMAT SC. If your command of English is not good enough to hear these distinctions, you need to READ. You need to read an hour a day, every day -- that's over and above any GMAT preparations. You need to read hard, challenging material in English. If you are considering getting an MBA, you already should be reading the Wall Street Journal every day and the Economist Magazine from cover to cover every week. For more suggestions on what to read, see:
There is not magic shortcut for developing all these intuitions about English. You need to do the hard work of reading, every single day, so that over time, you start to see the patterns and get the feel of the language.

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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17 Sep 2014, 06:54
As per my understanding use of scale of incorrect here for construction, we normally use scale of 'on the scale of 10-20'

so we can directly eliminate c,d and e

A is out as it is trying to connect two clause 'and' is required , So B is correct!!
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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15 Oct 2014, 03:40
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28 Apr 2015, 10:35
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26 May 2015, 08:04
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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31 May 2015, 21:51
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Q: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.

Dissect the original sentence:
Clause: The Anasazi settlements..were built...
Sub-clause: (HOW?) with more than 75... were connected..roads.
Here, "were" is extra auxiliary verb and does not point to any subject. Therefore "were" is unnecessary.

A. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were - Incorrect as per the explanation above.
B. with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, - CORRECT. Eliminates the redundant "were". The sentence overall has just 1 verb "were built" and 1 subject "The Anasazi settlements"
C. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms, each that had been - "each.." should modify "600rooms". Use of past perfect "had been" is unwarranted, as there is no sequencing needed. This choice implies "were built" and "had been connected" happened one after the other. NO. The sentence is simply giving info on settlements. No need for sequencing.
D. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms and with each - There is a parallelism error here. The sentence now reads "The Anasazi settlements were built...and with each connected". The "settlements" were not "connected", it was the "structures" that were connected.
E. of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms each had been - This choice again does not have any verb. It is a run-on sentence.
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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13 Sep 2015, 21:21
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2016, 21:07

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, connected by a complex regional system of roads.

The idea of the sentence is to describe the scale:
1. first modifier "with more than 75 carefully engineered structures" modifies scale
2. second modifier "of up to 600 rooms each" modifies the noun "structures"
3. third modifier "connected by a complex regional system of roads" modifies the noun "structures" too.

My question is, isn't the sentence ambiguous because "connected by a complex regional system of roads" could illogically modify "600 rooms each"?
Theoretically, noun modifier modifies the noun that immediately precedes it.

Why does the third modifier "connected by a complex regional system of roads" clearly modify "structures" instead of "rooms?

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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31 Jan 2016, 15:34
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chaojie wrote:

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, connected by a complex regional system of roads.

The idea of the sentence is to describe the scale:
1. first modifier "with more than 75 carefully engineered structures" modifies scale
2. second modifier "of up to 600 rooms each" modifies the noun "structures"
3. third modifier "connected by a complex regional system of roads" modifies the noun "structures" too.

My question is, isn't the sentence ambiguous because "connected by a complex regional system of roads" could illogically modify "600 rooms each"?
Theoretically, noun modifier modifies the noun that immediately precedes it.

Why does the third modifier "connected by a complex regional system of roads" clearly modify "structures" instead of "rooms?

Thank you.

Dear chaojie,
I'm happy to respond.

The structure "of up to 600 rooms each" is set off on both ends by commas, because it is an aside, an extra comment. It would also work to set it off with two em-dashes

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structures---of up to 600 rooms each---connected by a complex regional system of roads.

The whole nature of an aside is that it's a kind of interruption in the flow of the sentence, and to understand the logical flow of the larger sentence, we have to pretend that the aside is not there.

The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale, with more than 75 carefully engineered structure connected by a complex regional system of roads.

That sentence is 100% unambiguous, and it remains so when we insert the aside. One has to remember that the aside is an extra add-on that interrupts the normal flow of the sentence.

This is an extremely sophisticated grammatical structure about which you have asked here. To get experience with these more sophisticated structures, it is essential to develop a habit of reading. See:
https://magoosh.com/gmat/2014/how-to-im ... bal-score/

Does all this make sense?
Mike
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2016, 17:28
Hi Mike,

Yes, it clearly makes sense.
Thanks a lot

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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06 Mar 2016, 19:24
Below is my explanation of this question.
"A" is not correct because the verb " were "does not has a subject.
Neither "C" nor "E" is correct because both of them use the past perfect tense " Had been". The past perfect tense links an action which was started and finished before another past action occurred. I do not think we need so.
"D" has the very awkward expression " and with each" which comes before the word "connected".
"B" , for me, does not have a single grammatical problem.

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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13 Apr 2016, 09:05
Baten80 wrote:
The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a spectacular scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were connected by a complex regional system of roads.

A. scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each, were
B. scale with more than 75 carefully engineered structures, of up to 600 rooms each,
C. scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms, each that had been
D. scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms and with each
E. scale of more than 75 carefully engineered structures of up to 600 rooms each had been

[Reveal] Spoiler:
Why "were" is not required for B as the correct answer?

And connects two sentences. Eliminate D
Each that had been after a comma seems like a runover sentence Eliminate C
E is same as C without the comma.

Plus, of up to is awkward eliminate C D E definitely.

connected is a verb-ed modifier. A is wrong. B is the answer.

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2016, 21:21
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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2016, 01:29
I am not clear about the use of scaled of and scaled with

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a [#permalink]

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02 Jul 2016, 22:12
shonakshi wrote:
I am not clear about the use of scaled of and scaled with

"Scale of " is used to compare the sizes of two objects (generally a copy with the original).

This drawing has been made in a scale of 1 to 10..... implies 1 cm on the drawing is equivalent to 10 cm real distance.

Another usage could be as follows:

How would you rate my answer on a scale of 1 to 10? .... implies you have to evaluate my answer with a max / min possible values of 1/10.

However in the subject question, the word " scale" is used in a different way - to convey the meaning "size". Therefore "scale of" is not correct.
(The preposition "with" has no bearing with the word "scale" whatsoever.)

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Re: The Anasazi settlements at Chaco Canyon were built on a   [#permalink] 02 Jul 2016, 22:12

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