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The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]

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The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post Updated on: 08 Oct 2019, 01:34
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The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists] exhibit numerous cutmarks, and they were often broken for the extraction of marrow. The implication is that the Klasies people consumed a wide range of game, from small, greyhound-size antelope like the Cape grysbok to more imposing quarry like buffalo and eland, as well as seals and penguins. The number and location of stone tool cutmarks and the rarity of carnivore tooth marks indicate that the people were not restricted to scavenging from lions or hyenas, and they often gained first access to the intact carcasses of even large mammals like buffalo and eland.

But the bones also show that the people tended to avoid confrontations with the more common—and more dangerous—buffalo to pursue a more docile but less common antelope, the eland. Both buffalo and eland are very large animals, but buffalo stand and resist potential predators, while eland panic and flee at signs of danger. The Klasies people did hunt buffalo, and a broken tip from a stone point is still imbedded in a neck vertebra of an extinct “giant” long-horned buffalo. The people focused, however, on the less threatening young or old members in buffalo herds.

The stone points found at Klasies could have been used to arm thrusting spears, but there is nothing to suggest that the people had projectiles that could be launched from a distance, and they may thus have limited their personal risk by concentrating on eland herds that could be chased to exhaustion or driven into traps. The numerous eland bones in the Klasies layers represent roughly the same proportion of prime-age adults that would occur in a living herd. This pattern suggests the animals were not victims of accidents or endemic diseases, which tend to selectively remove the very young and the old, but rather that they suffered a catastrophe that affected individuals of all ages equally. The deposits preserve no evidence of a great flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease, and from an eland perspective, the catastrophe was probably the human ability to drive whole herds over nearby cliffs.
1. The main argument advanced by the author of this passage is

(A) It was easier for the Klasies people to hunt eland than buffalo.
(B) The Klasies were unique among prehistoric people in that they consumed large land animals, such as buffalo, as well as smaller mammals from the sea.
(C) The Klasies people were at least partially responsible for the catastrophic extinction of the prehistoric antelope called the eland.
(D) Because the Klasies people lacked the use of projectile weapons and were therefore unable to hunt buffalo successfully, they diversified their diet to include smaller prey.
(E) The prehistoric Klasies people had a diverse diet and advanced hunting skills and were probably not restricted to scavenging.

2. What signs indicate to the anthropologists that Klasies people were not restricted to scavenging?

(A) The number and location of stone tool cutmarks and the absence of carnivore teeth marks in the animal bones.
(B) The fact that the animals consumed were not the victims of accidents or disease as would be expected from natural deaths.
(C) The presence of a stone spear tip in the neck of a giant long-horned buffalo.
(D) The variety of different species whose bones were found in the Klasies camp, such as penguins, seals, and antelope.
(E) The lack of any evidence of a catastrophic event such as a flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease.

3. According to the author’s theory, why did the Klasies people focus on eland instead of buffalo?

(A) The eland were more numerous than the buffalo.
(B) The eland would stand and fight while the buffalo would usually panic and flee.
(C) The buffalo would stand and fight while the eland would usually panic and flee.
(D) The eland were more easily obtained from other animals through scavenging.
(E) The eland were easily killed using the projectiles that the Klasies favored when hunting.

4. Which of the following game animals is NOT listed in the passage as a probable part of the Klasies diet?

(A) penguins
(B) hyenas
(C) seals
(D) giant long-horned buffalo
(E) small, greyhound-sized antelope

5. Which of the following evidence does the author present to support the assertion that the catastrophe the eland suffered was caused by human beings?

(A) The presence of bones from prime-age animals found in the Klasies site.
(B) The broken tip of a stone point embedded in the neck of an eland skeleton.
(C) The lack of any carnivore tooth marks on the eland bones at the Klasies site.
(D) The number and location of tool marks found on the bones of a variety of animals at the Klasies site.
(E) The lack of any signs of a flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease.


Originally posted by rohan2345 on 08 May 2017, 05:16.
Last edited by SajjadAhmad on 08 Oct 2019, 01:34, edited 5 times in total.
Updated - Complete topic (847).
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Mar 2019, 08:04
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mallya12 wrote:
Question 1 option C vs E .Someone please explain.

Quote:
The deposits preserve no evidence of a great flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease, and from an eland perspective, the catastrophe was probably the human ability to drive whole herds over nearby cliffs.

mallya12 Please see the above, according to this humans were fully responsible for the extinction as opposed to choice C.hence, choice C is wrong.

On the other hand, option E encapsulates the whole main point of the passage.

Hope this helps!

Thanks
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 20 Jan 2020, 01:25
1
1. The main argument advanced by the author of this passage is

On first reading, the passage seems to be talking about the diet and hunting habits of the Klasies people and more specifically, their preference to hunt eland rather than buffalo.

(A) It was easier for the Klasies people to hunt eland than buffalo. This is a possibility. The passage does spend large parts talking about how hunting eland was the preferred option and why. However, the passage also talks about other animals that were hunted such as Cape grysbok, seals etc. However, my discomfort is with the option stating that it was "easier to hunt eland than buffalo". While this is definitely stated in the passage, it doesn't appear to be the major argument being extended but only one of the details of a larger point being made. For instance, this point is completely missing from the first paragraph, which typically introduces the topic being discussed in the passage.

At this stage, we can hold on to this option.


(B) The Klasies were unique among prehistoric people in that they consumed large land animals, such as buffalo, as well as smaller mammals from the sea. Incorrect. Nowhere does the passage talk about the "uniqueness" of the Kalsies.

(C) The Klasies people were at least partially responsible for the catastrophic extinction of the prehistoric antelope called the eland. Incorrect. Nowhere does the passage talk about the "extinction" of eland.

(D) Because the Klasies people lacked the use of projectile weapons and were therefore unable to hunt buffalo successfully, they diversified their diet to include smaller prey. Incorrect. The passage clearly states that the Klasies were able to hunt buffalo, although they appear to prefer eland.

(E) The prehistoric Klasies people had a diverse diet and advanced hunting skills and were probably not restricted to scavenging. This appears to be the best answer option. The passage does talk about the diet and hunting skills. Additionally, all the details about hunting buffalo and eland can be considered to be an elaboration of the point being made about the hunting skills of the Klasies. Hence this option best summarises the larger message being put out by the passage.

2. What signs indicate to the anthropologists that Klasies people were not restricted to scavenging?

On this topic, the passage states (about the animal bones) - "The number and location of stone tool cutmarks and the rarity of carnivore tooth marks indicate that the people were not restricted to scavenging from lions or hyenas, and they often gained first access to the intact carcasses of even large mammals like buffalo and eland."

(A) The number and location of stone tool cutmarks and the absence of carnivore teeth marks in the animal bones. Correct. Consistent with above.

(B) The fact that the animals consumed were not the victims of accidents or disease as would be expected from natural deaths. Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(C) The presence of a stone spear tip in the neck of a giant long-horned buffalo. Incorrect. While this is mentioned in the passage, it is not as a reason for concluding that the Klasies were not merely scavengers.

(D) The variety of different species whose bones were found in the Klasies camp, such as penguins, seals, and antelope. Incorrect. While this is mentioned in the passage, it is not as a reason for concluding that the Klasies were not merely scavengers.

(E) The lack of any evidence of a catastrophic event such as a flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease. Incorrect. While this is mentioned in the passage, it is not as a reason for concluding that the Klasies were not merely scavengers.

3. According to the author’s theory, why did the Klasies people focus on eland instead of buffalo?

On this topic, the passage states - "But the bones also show that the people tended to avoid confrontations with the more common—and more dangerous—buffalo to pursue a more docile but less common antelope, the eland. Both buffalo and eland are very large animals, but buffalo stand and resist potential predators, while eland panic and flee at signs of danger."

(A) The eland were more numerous than the buffalo. Incorrect. Inconsistent with above..

(B) The eland would stand and fight while the buffalo would usually panic and flee. Incorrect. Inconsistent with above.

(C) The buffalo would stand and fight while the eland would usually panic and flee. Correct. Consistent with above.

(D) The eland were more easily obtained from other animals through scavenging. Incorrect. The passage does not state this.

(E) The eland were easily killed using the projectiles that the Klasies favored when hunting. Incorrect. The passage does not state this.

4. Which of the following game animals is NOT listed in the passage as a probable part of the Klasies diet?

(A) penguins Incorrect. The passage mentions penguins as part of the Klasies diet in line 6.

(B) hyenas Correct. Hyenas are not mentioned as a probable part of the Klasies diet.

(C) seals The passage mentions penguins as part of the Klasies diet in line 6.

(D) giant long-horned buffalo The passage mentions penguins as part of the Klasies diet in line 18.

(E) small, greyhound-sized antelope The passage mentions penguins as part of the Klasies diet in lines 4-5.

5. Which of the following evidence does the author present to support the assertion that the catastrophe the eland suffered was caused by human beings?

On this topic, the passage states - "The numerous eland bones in the Klasies layers represent roughly the same proportion of prime-age adults that would occur in a living herd. This pattern suggests the animals were not victims of accidents or endemic diseases, which tend to selectively remove the very young and the old, but rather that they suffered a catastrophe that affected individuals of all ages equally. The deposits preserve no evidence of a great flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease, and from an eland perspective, the catastrophe was probably the human ability to drive whole herds over nearby cliffs."

(A) The presence of bones from prime-age animals found in the Klasies site. Incorrect. It is not the mere presence of bones from prime-age animals, but their proportion which indicates human involvement.

(B) The broken tip of a stone point embedded in the neck of an eland skeleton. Incorrect. The broken tip of the stone point was found in the neck of a buffalo and not an eland.

(C) The lack of any carnivore tooth marks on the eland bones at the Klasies site. Incorrect. This is presented as evidence for humans not being only scavengers and not for the catastrophe suffered by the eland herd being caused by humans.

(D) The number and location of tool marks found on the bones of a variety of animals at the Klasies site. This is presented as evidence for humans consuming a wide variety of animals and not for the catastrophe suffered by the eland herd being caused by humans.

(E) The lack of any signs of a flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease. Correct. Consistent with above.

Hope this helps.
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2018, 06:03
For the last ( no 5 ) question , How can I eliminate option A ?
" The numerous
eland bones in the Klasies layers represent
roughly the same proportion of prime-age adults
that would occur in a living herd. " ( too obvious )

If it is not A then must be E .
Thanks in advance .
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2018, 13:15
soumya170293 wrote:
For the last ( no 5 ) question , How can I eliminate option A ?
" The numerous
eland bones in the Klasies layers represent
roughly the same proportion of prime-age adults
that would occur in a living herd. " ( too obvious )

If it is not A then must be E .
Thanks in advance .



because that is not talking about human , it basically shows that ( The numerous
eland bones in the Klasies layers represent
roughly the same proportion of prime-age adults
that would occur in a living herd.This pattern
suggests the animals were not victims of accidents
or endemic diseases, which tend to selectively
remove the very young and the old, but
rather that they suffered a catastrophe that
affected individuals of all ages equally
so it talks about ( individual of all ages , not about any relation with human )
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 06 Jun 2018, 18:43
2-What signs indicate to the anthropologists that Klasies people were not restricted to scavenging?

(A) The number and location of stone tool cutmarks and the absence of carnivore teeth marks in the animal bones.
(B) The fact that the animals consumed were not the victims of accidents or disease as would be expected from natural deaths.
(C) The presence of a stone spear tip in the neck of a giant long-horned buffalo.
(D) The variety of different species whose bones were found in the Klasies camp, such as penguins, seals, and antelope.
(E) The lack of any evidence of a catastrophic event such as a flood, volcanic eruption, or epidemic disease.

Option (A) says The number and location of stone tool cutmarks and the "absence" of carnivore teeth marks in the animal bones but according to the passage it's "rarity" of carnivore tooth marks. So how is option A correct? :?
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New post 01 Mar 2019, 13:45
rohan2345 wrote:
(E) The prehistoric Klasies people had a diverse diet and advanced hunting skills and were probably not restricted to scavenging.


for the first question:
1- there is no clue that Klasies people are prehistoric. (prehistoric: the period before written records)
2- eating meat from more than animal source doesn't mean diverse diet.
3- there is nothing about ADVANCED hunting SKILLS in the passage. On the contrary, the passage my suggest limited skills as the Klasies people only used only stone points, avoid aggressive animals such as lions and buffaloes, and didn't use ranged hunting tools.
4- from the passage, the Klasies people were not restricted to scavenging (NOT Probably)
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Mar 2019, 21:50
Question 1 option C vs E .Someone please explain.
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 16 May 2019, 23:00
Hi Friends,
Since option E is "The prehistoric Klasies people had a diverse diet and advanced hunting skills and were probably not restricted to scavenging" I omitted this choice & selected A since it was the next best choice, though A is a doubtful one since the main point of the passage is not to say that It was easier for the Klasies people to hunt eland than buffalo.
IMO since "advanced hunting skills" is not implied by the passage, is option E erroneous in mentioning the same? or am I missing something which implies that Klasies people had infact "advanced hunting skills"?
Need some help to resolve this.
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]  [#permalink]

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New post 19 Jan 2020, 20:02
Need to know more around question 1 and 4.

Why in question 1, B is not the right answer?
Why in question 4, D is not the correct answer?
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Re: The animal bones [found in a region of Africa by the anthropologists]   [#permalink] 19 Jan 2020, 20:02
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