Check GMAT Club Decision Tracker for the Latest School Decision Releases https://gmatclub.com/AppTrack

 It is currently 28 May 2017, 15:25

### GMAT Club Daily Prep

#### Thank you for using the timer - this advanced tool can estimate your performance and suggest more practice questions. We have subscribed you to Daily Prep Questions via email.

Customized
for You

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

Track

every week, we’ll send you an estimated GMAT score based on your performance

Practice
Pays

we will pick new questions that match your level based on your Timer History

# Events & Promotions

###### Events & Promotions in June
Open Detailed Calendar

# The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be

Author Message
TAGS:

### Hide Tags

Manager
Joined: 11 Apr 2009
Posts: 164
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 101 [3] , given: 5

The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

17 May 2010, 11:01
3
KUDOS
12
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Question 1
00:00

Question Stats:

58% (02:54) correct 42% (01:41) wrong based on 53

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 2
00:00

Question Stats:

40% (01:32) correct 60% (00:31) wrong based on 47

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 3
00:00

Question Stats:

39% (01:08) correct 61% (00:23) wrong based on 46

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 4
00:00

Question Stats:

41% (01:17) correct 59% (00:14) wrong based on 49

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 5
00:00

Question Stats:

24% (01:47) correct 76% (00:26) wrong based on 42

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 6
00:00

Question Stats:

50% (01:17) correct 50% (00:32) wrong based on 40

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 7
00:00

Question Stats:

27% (01:25) correct 73% (00:11) wrong based on 37

### HideShow timer Statistics

Question 8
00:00

Question Stats:

29% (01:28) correct 71% (00:52) wrong based on 38

### HideShow timer Statistics

The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be regarded as typical of immunological responses. Antibodies are proteins synthesized by specialized cells called plasma cells, which are formed by lymphocytes (cells from the lymph system) when an antigen, a substance foreign to the organism’s body, comes in contact with lymphocytes. Two important manifestations of antigen-antibody immunity are lysis, the rapid physical rupture of antigenic cells and the liberation of their contents into the surrounding medium, and phagocytosis, a process in which antigenic particles are engulfed by and very often digested by macrophages and polymorphs. The process of lysis is executed by a complex and unstable blood constituent known as complement, which will not work unless it is activated by a specific antibody; the process of phagocytosis is greatly facilitated when the particles to be engulfed are coated by a specific antibody directed against them.

The reluctance to—abandon this hypothesis, however well it explains specific processes, impeded new research, and for many years antigens and antibodies dominated the thoughts of immunologists so completely that those immunologists overlooked certain difficulties. Perhaps the primary difficulty with the antigen-antibody explanation is the informational problem of how an antigen is recognized and how a structure exactly complementary to it is then synthesized. When molecular biologists discovered, moreover, that such information cannot flow from protein to protein, but only from nucleic acid to protein, the theory that an antigen itself provided the mold that directed the synthesis of an antibody had to be seriously qualified. The attempts at qualification and the information provided by research in molecular biology led scientists to realize that a second immunological reaction is mediated through the lymphocytes that are hostile to and bring about the destruction of the antigen. This type of immunological response is called cell-mediated immunity.

Recent research in cell-mediated immunity has been concerned not only with the development of new and better vaccines, but also with the problem of transplanting tissues and organs from one organism to another, for although circulating antibodies play a part in the rejection of transplanted tissues, the primary role is played by cell-mediated reactions. During cell-mediated responses, receptor sites on specific lymphocytes and surface antigens on the foreign tissue cells form a complex that binds the lymphocytes to the tissue. Such lymphocytes do not give rise to antibody-producing plasma cells but themselves bring about the death of the foreign-tissue cells, probably by secreting a variety of substances, some of which are toxic to the tissue cells and some of which stimulate increased phagocytic activity by white blood cells of the macrophage type. Cell-mediated immunity also accounts for the destruction of intracellular parasites.
1. The author is primarily concerned with
(A) proving that immunological reactions do not involve antibodies
(B) establishing that most immunological reactions involve antigens
(C) criticizing scientists who will not change their theories regarding immunology
(D) analyzing the importance of cells in fighting disease
(E) explaining two different kinds of immunological reactions

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

2. The author argues that the antigen-antibody explanation of immunity “had to seriously qualified” (line 37) because
(A) antibodies were found to activate unstable components in the blood
(B) antigens are not exactly complementary to antibodies
(C) lymphocytes have the ability to bind to the surface of antigens
(D) antibodies are synthesized from protein whereas antigens are made from nucleic acid
(E) antigens have no apparent mechanism to direct the formation of an antibody

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

3. The author most probably believes that the antigen-antibody theory of immunological reaction.
(A) is wrong
(B) was accepted without evidence
(C) is unverifiable
(D) is a partial explanation
(E) has been a divisive issue among scientists

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

4. The author mentions all of the following as being involved in antigen-antibody immunological reactions EXCEPT the
(A) synthesis of a protein
(B) activation of complement in the bloodstream
(C) destruction of antibodies
(D) entrapment of antigens by macrophages
(E) formation of a substance with a structure complementary to that of an antigen

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

5. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about cell-mediated immunological reactions?
I. Do lymphocytes form antibodies during cell-mediated immunological reactions?
II. Why are lymphocytes more hostile to antigens during cell-mediated immunological reactions than are other cell groups?
III. Are cell-mediated reactions more pronounced after transplants than they are after parasites have invaded the organism?
(A) I only
(B) I and II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

6. The passage suggests that scientists might not have developed the theory of cell-mediated immunological reactions if
(A) proteins existed in specific group types
(B) proteins could have been shown to direct the synthesis of other proteins
(C) antigens were always destroyed by proteins
(D) antibodies were composed only of protein
(E) antibodies were the body’s primary means of resisting disease

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

7. According to the passage, antibody-antigen and cell-mediated immunological reactions both involve which of the following processes?
I. The destruction of antigens
II. The creation of antibodies
III. The destruction of intracellular parasites
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

8. The author supports the theory of cell-mediated reactions primarily by
(A) pointing out a contradiction in the assumption leading to the antigen-antibody theory
(B) explaining how cell mediation accounts for phenomena that the antigen-antibody theory cannot account for
(C) revealing new data that scientists arguing for the antigen-antibody theory have continued to ignore
(D) showing that the antigen-antibody theory fails to account for the breakup of antigens
(E) demonstrating that cell mediation explains lysis and phagocytosis more fully than the antigen-antibody theory does

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #7 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #8 OA
If you have any questions
New!
Senior Manager
Joined: 23 May 2010
Posts: 429
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 118 [0], given: 112

### Show Tags

07 Jun 2010, 08:32
gmatprep09 wrote:
Hi,

What do you guys think of this passage. I found this pretty confusing. Is there a strategy to tackle these kind of passages and questions? If possible, can you include your reasoning for each question? Thanks

[Reveal] Spoiler:
1. E; 2. E; 3. D; 4. C; 5. A; 6. B; 7. A; 8. B.

1 E 04:36 correct
2 E 02:56 correct
3 B 01:14 incorrect
4 A 00:27 incorrect
5 A 00:17 correct
6 d 02:57 incorrect
7 e 00:30 incorrect
8 D 04:18 incorrect

what a heartbreaker it is ....
on a serious note if i look back the passage and read the answer options again , I could have got 4 , 7,8 correct ..need to learn to stay focussed in passages like these...but a toughie..i it comes in exam it will take away lot of time ....for sure..
Manager
Joined: 06 Mar 2010
Posts: 106
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 5 [0], given: 11

### Show Tags

03 Jul 2010, 03:12
Good passage, dont want such to appear on an exam day.
By the way, what is the source of such a passage?
Senior Manager
Joined: 07 Nov 2009
Posts: 305
Followers: 9

Kudos [?]: 592 [0], given: 20

### Show Tags

09 Jul 2010, 23:50
1. E; 2. E; 3. A; 4. B; 5. A; 6. B; 7. A; 8. B.

Tough one ... Got 2 wrong ....
I did the whole passage in close to 12 mins .. I need to scale up my reading speed
Intern
Joined: 29 May 2011
Posts: 1
Followers: 0

Kudos [?]: 0 [0], given: 0

### Show Tags

30 May 2011, 20:49
Got 2 wrong in 10 minutes ..... & when i looked back at choices .... they would have been correct if given more time to passage.
Manager
Status: Still Struggling
Joined: 03 Nov 2010
Posts: 137
Location: India
GMAT Date: 10-15-2011
GPA: 3.71
WE: Information Technology (Computer Software)
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 93 [0], given: 8

### Show Tags

30 May 2011, 22:35
3 wrong in approx 15 mins..
i would be doomed in exam....

Guys, any idea what should be the ideal time dedicated to this kind of passgae with 8 questions?
_________________

Knewton Free Test 10/03 - 710 (49/37)
Princeton Free Test 10/08 - 610 (44/31)
Kaplan Test 1- 10/10 - 630
Veritas Prep- 10/11 - 630 (42/37)
MGMAT 1 - 10/12 - 680 (45/34)

Senior Manager
Joined: 11 Apr 2011
Posts: 266
Followers: 32

Kudos [?]: 510 [0], given: 13

### Show Tags

31 May 2011, 07:32
From what I have heard the GMAT RC passage does not involve more than 3 to 5 questions max per passage.
_________________

Powerscore CR Bible Full Chapter Notes | Easily Extend Vocabulary List with Google Dictionary

Please kudo me if you found my post useful. Thanks!!!

Manager
Joined: 04 Sep 2010
Posts: 78
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 13 [0], given: 11

### Show Tags

03 Jun 2011, 00:00
Good passage
3 incorrect , 15 minutes; Clearly this area needs improvement
Director
Joined: 21 Dec 2010
Posts: 628
Followers: 18

Kudos [?]: 241 [0], given: 51

### Show Tags

03 Jun 2011, 03:34
got 7 out of 8 right , but the timing was 14:44 mins , this was not difficult but i had no paper and pen.
i went for B in question no.5 and that question took time because it was an except question , wasted almost 1:30 mim in q.5 and got it wrong.

can anyone clarify why the answer is A and not B in q 5 ?
_________________

What is of supreme importance in war is to attack the enemy's strategy.

Senior Manager
Joined: 12 Mar 2010
Posts: 360
Concentration: Marketing, Entrepreneurship
GMAT 1: 680 Q49 V34
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 194 [0], given: 87

### Show Tags

16 Jul 2011, 21:41
Could somebody explain me why is the answer to Question 1 " author's primary concern" is E and not D?
Moderator
Joined: 01 Sep 2010
Posts: 3183
Followers: 860

Kudos [?]: 7327 [0], given: 1065

### Show Tags

22 Aug 2011, 02:45
half right half wrong in 10 minutes.

for this passage what is the ideal time pace ??'
_________________
Manager
Joined: 08 Aug 2011
Posts: 196
GPA: 3.5
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 14 [0], given: 51

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

08 Jan 2012, 23:31
Got 5 correct in 9:30 mins.Very tough!
Senior Manager
Joined: 13 Mar 2012
Posts: 359
Concentration: Operations, Strategy
Followers: 2

Kudos [?]: 175 [0], given: 31

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

27 Mar 2012, 18:12
Last question incorrect around 14 minutes
_________________

Practice Practice and practice...!!

If there's a loophole in my analysis--> suggest measures to make it airtight.

Manager
Joined: 06 Jun 2011
Posts: 148
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 66 [0], given: 15

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

28 Mar 2012, 23:00
16 mins

5 right.
It was tough I would say
Manager
Status: Bunuel's fan!
Joined: 08 Jul 2011
Posts: 231
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 47 [0], given: 55

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

04 Jun 2012, 01:19
This paragraph is quite confusing. It took me 13 mins and I still got 4 wrong. Definitely 700 level.
Moderator
Joined: 02 Jul 2012
Posts: 1223
Location: India
Concentration: Strategy
GMAT 1: 740 Q49 V42
GPA: 3.8
WE: Engineering (Energy and Utilities)
Followers: 124

Kudos [?]: 1489 [0], given: 116

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

07 Mar 2014, 04:33
Bumping for review and further discussion*.

*New project from GMAT Club!!! Check HERE
_________________

Did you find this post helpful?... Please let me know through the Kudos button.

Thanks To The Almighty - My GMAT Debrief

GMAT Reading Comprehension: 7 Most Common Passage Types

Intern
Joined: 26 May 2014
Posts: 21
Concentration: Marketing, Finance
WE: Design (Manufacturing)
Followers: 1

Kudos [?]: 26 [2] , given: 204

The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Sep 2014, 03:07
2
KUDOS
gmatprep09 wrote:
The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be regarded as typical of immunological responses. Antibodies are proteins synthesized by specialized cells called plasma cells, which are formed by lymphocytes (cells from the lymph system) when an antigen, a substance foreign to the organism’s body, comes in contact with lymphocytes. Two important manifestations of antigen-antibody immunity are lysis, the rapid physical rupture of antigenic cells and the liberation of their contents into the surrounding medium, and phagocytosis, a process in which antigenic particles are engulfed by and very often digested by macrophages and polymorphs. The process of lysis is executed by a complex and unstable blood constituent known as complement, which will not work unless it is activated by a specific antibody; the process of phagocytosis is greatly facilitated when the particles to be engulfed are coated by a specific antibody directed against them.

The reluctance to—abandon this hypothesis, however well it explains specific processes, impeded new research, and for many years antigens and antibodies dominated the thoughts of immunologists so completely that those immunologists overlooked certain difficulties. Perhaps the primary difficulty with the antigen-antibody explanation is the informational problem of how an antigen is recognized and how a structure exactly complementary to it is then synthesized. When molecular biologists discovered, moreover, that such information cannot flow from protein to protein, but only from nucleic acid to protein, the theory that an antigen itself provided the mold that directed the synthesis of an antibody had to be seriously qualified. The attempts at qualification and the information provided by research in molecular biology led scientists to realize that a second immunological reaction is mediated through the lymphocytes that are hostile to and bring about the destruction of the antigen. This type of immunological response is called cell-mediated immunity.

Recent research in cell-mediated immunity has been concerned not only with the development of new and better vaccines, but also with the problem of transplanting tissues and organs from one organism to another, for although circulating antibodies play a part in the rejection of transplanted tissues, the primary role is played by cell-mediated reactions. During cell-mediated responses, receptor sites on specific lymphocytes and surface antigens on the foreign tissue cells form a complex that binds the lymphocytes to the tissue. Such lymphocytes do not give rise to antibody-producing plasma cells but themselves bring about the death of the foreign-tissue cells, probably by secreting a variety of substances, some of which are toxic to the tissue cells and some of which stimulate increased phagocytic activity by white blood cells of the macrophage type. Cell-mediated immunity also accounts for the destruction of intracellular parasites.
1. The author is primarily concerned with
(A) proving that immunological reactions do not involve antibodies
(B) establishing that most immunological reactions involve antigens
(C) criticizing scientists who will not change their theories regarding immunology
(D) analyzing the importance of cells in fighting disease
(E) explaining two different kinds of immunological reactions
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

2. The author argues that the antigen-antibody explanation of immunity “had to seriously qualified” (line 37) because
(A) antibodies were found to activate unstable components in the blood
(B) antigens are not exactly complementary to antibodies
(C) lymphocytes have the ability to bind to the surface of antigens
(D) antibodies are synthesized from protein whereas antigens are made from nucleic acid
(E) antigens have no apparent mechanism to direct the formation of an antibody
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

3. The author most probably believes that the antigen-antibody theory of immunological reaction.
(A) is wrong
(B) was accepted without evidence
(C) is unverifiable
(D) is a partial explanation
(E) has been a divisive issue among scientists
[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

4. The author mentions all of the following as being involved in antigen-antibody immunological reactions EXCEPT the
(A) synthesis of a protein
(B) activation of complement in the bloodstream
(C) destruction of antibodies
(D) entrapment of antigens by macrophages
(E) formation of a substance with a structure complementary to that of an antigen
[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

5. The passage contains information that would answer which of the following questions about cell-mediated immunological reactions?
I. Do lymphocytes form antibodies during cell-mediated immunological reactions?
II. Why are lymphocytes more hostile to antigens during cell-mediated immunological reactions than are other cell groups?
III. Are cell-mediated reactions more pronounced after transplants than they are after parasites have invaded the organism?
(A) I only
(B) I and II only
(C) I and III only
(D) II and III only
(E) I, II, and III
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

6. The passage suggests that scientists might not have developed the theory of cell-mediated immunological reactions if
(A) proteins existed in specific group types
(B) proteins could have been shown to direct the synthesis of other proteins
(C) antigens were always destroyed by proteins
(D) antibodies were composed only of protein
(E) antibodies were the body’s primary means of resisting disease
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

7. According to the passage, antibody-antigen and cell-mediated immunological reactions both involve which of the following processes?
I. The destruction of antigens
II. The creation of antibodies
III. The destruction of intracellular parasites
(A) I only
(B) II only
(C) III only
(D) I and II only
(E) II and III only
[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

8. The author supports the theory of cell-mediated reactions primarily by
(A) pointing out a contradiction in the assumption leading to the antigen-antibody theory
(B) explaining how cell mediation accounts for phenomena that the antigen-antibody theory cannot account for
(C) revealing new data that scientists arguing for the antigen-antibody theory have continued to ignore
(D) showing that the antigen-antibody theory fails to account for the breakup of antigens
(E) demonstrating that cell mediation explains lysis and phagocytosis more fully than the antigen-antibody theory does
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

Eye opening biology passage...still answers were somewhat predictable..kudos for sharing
GMAT Club Legend
Joined: 01 Oct 2013
Posts: 10310
Followers: 1000

Kudos [?]: 225 [0], given: 0

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

29 Jan 2017, 20:14
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

Want to see all other topics I dig out? Follow me (click follow button on profile). You will receive a summary of all topics I bump in your profile area as well as via email.
VP
Joined: 09 Jun 2010
Posts: 1392
Followers: 5

Kudos [?]: 130 [0], given: 860

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be [#permalink]

### Show Tags

05 Feb 2017, 09:42
we read, if we focus on purpose of the details , we can realize the big idea in each paragraph and the main idea of the passage easily. we focus on details themself only when we are asked a specific questions.

focus on purpose of the details is key to understanding the passage quickly.

each of paragraph in this passage is long and full of details. but it is easy to realize the purpose of the details and the big idea in each paragraph.

a reading skill is important. the skill is we have to realize the purpose of the details when we read the details. this can be done with practice. this can be accomplished when you quickly realize the grammatical role of each phrase and of tense of verbs.

so, you need to read a lot but remember, when you read,you have to realize grammatical role of each phrase and grammatical role of tense. you must be able to confirm the grammar points in grammar books with the text you are reading. this is called by someone in this forum " see grammar in action". only by doing this way, you can remember and master the grammar point.

for example, when you read the text and you see present tense you have to realize that which role this present tense play,. this present tense show a habit, a condition, a timeless fact which is alway right, or a condition which exist indefinitely. all of cases of use of present tense are in the grammar book already. what you have to do is to confirm the cases. in doing so, you master grammar point.
_________________

visit my facebook to help me.
on facebook, my name is: thang thang thang

Re: The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be   [#permalink] 05 Feb 2017, 09:42
Similar topics Replies Last post
Similar
Topics:
1 In 1978, as public reaction to the Love Canal.... 6 29 Apr 2017, 01:33
1 Useful to use GRE RC sources to practice for GMAT RC? 2 14 Feb 2016, 05:31
1 In reaction to a rigid, overrefined classical curriculum, 7 02 Jul 2015, 04:37
2 The paradox of tolerance admonishes us that tolerance of the 7 10 Mar 2014, 11:00
1 The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be 3 03 May 2015, 21:33
Display posts from previous: Sort by

# The antigen-antibody immunological reaction used to be

 Powered by phpBB © phpBB Group and phpBB SEO Kindly note that the GMAT® test is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council®, and this site has neither been reviewed nor endorsed by GMAC®.