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The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore

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The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2014, 23:08
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The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore of the Japanese island Ryukyu is smaller than the average size that washes up on the Western coast of Australia. Giant squid have recently been found washed up on the shores of Ryukyu as well as the Western coast of Australia. It can be concluded that the average size of the giant squids on the shore Ryukyu must be less than that of giant squids washed up on the shores of Western Australia.

The argument above can be attacked on the grounds that it does which of the following?

A. It fails to distinguish between giant squids and more diminutive variants.
B. It assumes that a general pattern is likely to hold true in a specific case.
C. It discounts the possibility that the largest giant squid was found on the shores of Ryukyu.
D. It mistakenly asserts that one instance holds true for all cases.
E. It does not discuss the size of the giant squid compared to other squids

please explain the answer, why it correct ??
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Re: The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore  [#permalink]

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New post 01 Aug 2014, 23:44
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The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore of the Japanese island Ryukyu is smaller than the average size that washes up on the Western coast of Australia. Giant squid have recently been found washed up on the shores of Ryukyu as well as the Western coast of Australia. It can be concluded that the average size of the giant squids on the shore Ryukyu must be less than that of giant squids washed up on the shores of Western Australia.

The argument above can be attacked on the grounds that it does which of the following?


A. It fails to distinguish between giant squids and more diminutive variants.
B. It assumes that a general pattern is likely to hold true in a specific case.
C. It discounts the possibility that the largest giant squid was found on the shores of Ryukyu.
D. It mistakenly asserts that one instance holds true for all cases.
E. It does not discuss the size of the giant squid compared to other squids


This is a weaken type question and we have to weaken or invalidate the assumption. So lets lets see the question and break it to its constituents parts:

The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore of the Japanese
island Ryukyu is smaller than the average size that washes up on the
Western coast of Australia.
This whole is FACT


Giant squid have recently been found washed up on the shores of Ryukyu
as well as the Western coast of Australia.
This whole is an additional second fact


It can be concluded that the average size of the giant squids on the shore Ryukyu
must be less than that of giant squids washed up on the shores of Western Australia.
This one is conclusion

Now the two facts are independent are independent and does not support or negate the conclusion directly.

However, the author concludes the argument saying because of above mentioned reasons, the size of
giant squid will vary.

Now pre-thinking says that the author assumes that there will be size variation in the same species along with the above mentioned all species.

Its' same as saying: " The currency of India is Rupees and is of Generally lesser face value compared with United States Rupees. Although few restaurants and spas accept both
Rupee and US$. Therefore, the value of Dollar must be lower in India than elsewhere.

Now as we know the value of Dollar is same all over the world and the acceptance of Dollar in India has nothing to do with the lowing of its face value. So in the case of
giant squid , in which the average size will be same across the world.

So now we know our answer will contain that bridges or question this discrepancy.

Now lets analyse the answers using pre-thinking and POE:

A. It fails to distinguish between giant squids and more diminutive variants. ( It nowhere mentioned the compared the size of Giant Squid to that of other species: iSWAT answer choice : iSWAT: incorrect Similarly worded attractive terminology)

B. It assumes that a general pattern is likely to hold true in a specific case.( Bingo same as our pre-thinking, The author is assuming this very specific assumption: an analogy
is already explained in terms of Indian Rupee and United Stated Dollar)

C. It discounts the possibility that the largest giant squid was found on the shores of Ryukyu.( Out of Context)

D. It mistakenly asserts that one instance holds true for all cases. ( The author generalises his finding, no where he's making a particular case)

E. It does not discuss the size of the giant squid compared to other squids (Out of scope, no need to compare other squids)



HOPE THIS HELPS :fyi
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Re: The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2018, 18:13
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Official Explanation
Answer: (B)



The argument assumes that what holds true for marine animals in general holds true for giant squids. In other words, it takes a general rule and applies it to a specific case. Just because larger sea creatures in general tend to wash ashore in Australia than in Japan does not mean that the giant squids washed ashore in Australia are larger, on average, than those washed ashore in Japan. This points best to (B).

(A) is wrong because even if the argument had focused on the different sizes of squid (diminutive variants = small squids), it still makes the mistaken assumption that what holds true in general holds true in the case of the giant squid.

(C) is tempting. The argument, however, focuses on the average size of life washed ashore in Japan vs. Australia. Even if the largest giant squid ever seen was found off the shores of Japan, the average size of squids in Japan could still be smaller than that found in Australia. Think of it this way: the average size of squid could be 32 ft long in Japan and 34 ft long in Australia. It doesn't matter that a 44-foot squid--the longest ever--was found in Japan. The problem with the argument is that nothing definitive can be said about the average size of squid in Australia and Japan based on the general observation that aquatic life washed ashore tends to be larger in Australia.

(D), while tempting, reverses the order of things. The paragraph itself takes a general case (sea life in Japan vs. sea life in Australia) and applies it to a specific case (giant squids in Japan vs. those in Australia). The paragraph does not take a specific case and generalize from that case - this is what (D) implies.

(E) is similar to (A) in that it focuses on the difference in size of squids, a fact that doesn't affect the argument. The argument is only focused on giant squids and what you can say about their size based on a general observation on aquatic life washed ashore in either Japan or Australia.
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The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Aug 2018, 19:40
The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore of the Japanese island Ryukyu is smaller than the average size that washes up on the Western coast of Australia. Giant squid have recently been found washed up on the shores of Ryukyu as well as the Western coast of Australia. It can be concluded that the average size of the giant squids on the shore Ryukyu must be less than that of giant squids washed up on the shores of Western Australia.

Type - weaken
Boil it down - It can be concluded that the average size of the giant squids on the shore Ryukyu must be less than that of giant squids washed up on the shores of Western Australia.
Pre-thinking - Average size of marine life will depend on the weighted average size of different marine organisms. -- General pattern
Giant squids are just one of the many marine organisms -- specific case of a marine organism

A. It fails to distinguish between giant squids and more diminutive variants. -- Incorrect
B. It assumes that a general pattern is likely to hold true in a specific case. - Correct
C. It discounts the possibility that the largest giant squid was found on the shores of Ryukyu. - Incorrect - we are talking about average sizes here
D. It mistakenly asserts that one instance holds true for all cases. -Incorrect - this is opposite of the argument
E. It does not discuss the size of the giant squid compared to other squids - Incorrect

Answer B
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The average size of marine life that washes up on the shore &nbs [#permalink] 07 Aug 2018, 19:40
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