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# The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2012, 22:20
Marcab wrote:
For #5)
I can give you numerous examples here, because this is the topic I gave most of time.

i)Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal, which holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than all the North American Great Lakes combined.

@Marcab

I'm not able to get one thing...

i ) Sound can travel through water for enormous distances modifies "its" possessive pronoun which in-turn refers to "sound"?
ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal modifies "which" relative pronoun refers back to "Siberia's Lake Baikal " ?

My queries :
1) Actually here modifiers are Independent clause right? modifiers express only partial idea right?
2) Here these pronouns refer back to modifiers right?

I know i'm missing something in this... but i couldn't figure it out....

messed up with these sentence sorry
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2012, 23:29
shanmugamgsn wrote:
Marcab wrote:
For #5)
I can give you numerous examples here, because this is the topic I gave most of time.

i)Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal, which holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than all the North American Great Lakes combined.

@Marcab

I'm not able to get one thing...

i ) Sound can travel through water for enormous distances modifies "its" possessive pronoun which in-turn refers to "sound"? YES
ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal modifies "which" relative pronoun refers back to "Siberia's Lake Baikal " ? YES

My queries :
1) Actually here modifiers are Independent clause right? modifiers express only partial idea right?
2) Here these pronouns refer back to modifiers right?

I know i'm missing something in this... but i couldn't figure it out....

messed up with these sentence sorry

Hii Shan.
Query #1-) Independent clauses can co-exist with the help of conjunction words. If there is no conjunction word, they entire sentence is flawed.
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.. The green shaded is the NOT the independent clause.

Consider the sentence: Mahatma Gandhi is regarded as the Father of Nation, he was shot dead.
Here the two clauses are independent and since there is no conjunction word, so these two clauses can't be put together.

Same for the second sentence.

These are Absolute Phrases and these refer back to the ENTIRE IDEA, not just the Subject of the main clause.
For these phrases, I developed a technique to identify whether its an Absolute phrase or not.
Consider the example:
"Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.".
Break the sentence into two parts.
i) Sound can travel through water for enormous distances,
ii) its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.".

After the first part is over, RAISE A QUESTION \(HOW?\) If the just next clause answers your question, then the just next clause is the Absolute Phrase.
try this technique in the two sentences, which I gave in #5.
If you find difficulty in understanding it, let me know. I will try my best.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2012, 00:42
Marcab wrote:
i)Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal, which holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than all the North American Great Lakes combined.

Thanks Marcab.
Really hand tool...

But I'm afraid still i didnt get the point...

I'm got first sentence
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances HOW? (by its acoustic energy preventing from dissipating blah blah....)
its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.
Here this HOW explains action of sound (preventing)

For second sentence i couldn't make it up
More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal, HOW??
Here this how doesn't explain an action of Siberia Lake Baikal

Also can a Independent clause act as modifier?
Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

Red is Independent Clause modifies Green Subordinate clause.
(i was thinking in reverse)

I know this
Types of Modifier :
Words, Phrase, Clauses

But i thot modifier clauses are dependent clauses only....
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2012, 01:06
Visit: the-technique-to-nail-the-absolute-phrase-questions-143219.html

This will clear all your doubts.
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Re: The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the [#permalink]

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01 Dec 2012, 02:25
One aspect that I would like add to this tposic is that, this topic is essentially a test of structural parallelism, which has been sidelined in the discussions. The text wants to present three factors of a specification in indirect interrogative manner with three interrogatives such as how, whether and what. Obviously when they are part of a list parallelism, the last one has to be coordinated with a fanboy such as ‘and’. Thus you will find the use of the additive phrase ‘as well as breaks the //ism and leads to the implication that the first is just an addendum of the con d and essentially only two factors remain. Due to this altered intent A and B are out. C also misses the //ism by missing the what. In D, the third factor is modifier than a factor. E, finally, reflects the true intention and is the chocie.

Of course, all roads lead to Rome and this is yet another route apart from the others mentioned in the discussion.
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05 Oct 2013, 00:49
4. The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be
elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock
issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.
(A) as well as duties of management committees
(B) as well as the duties that the management committees have
(C) and that the management committees have duties
(D) and the management committees have duties too
(E) and what the duties of management committees will be

Answer key tells me E, why is B wrong?

Last edited by nguyendinhtuong on 27 May 2017, 03:28, edited 1 time in total.
Merged topic. Please search before posting question.
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05 Oct 2013, 01:11
2
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Quantumdigitz wrote:
Answer key tells me E, why is B wrong?

The sentence contains 3 questions that should be parallel in construction:
1. how the directors of the corporation are to be elected
2. whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm
3. what the duties of management committees will be

As you can see, this thing is satisfied only in E. In (B) the third fragment of the sentence "the duties that the management committees have" is not parallel with the previous two questions (how and whether).

Two things I would like to mention:
1. Search properly before posting a question. This same question has been discussed nicely in the following thread:
the-bylaws-of-a-corporation-specify-how-the-directors-of-the-143011.html

2. Underline the sentence that needs to be corrected. It makes everybody's life simple
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Re: The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2015, 06:51
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