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# The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the

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The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 01:24
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The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.
(A) as well as duties of management committees
(B) as well as the duties that the management committees have
(C) and that the management committees have duties
(D) outlining the duties of management committees
(E) and what the duties of management committees will be
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 07:29
MonSama wrote:
The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.
(A) as well as duties of management committees
(B) as well as the duties that the management committees have
(C) and that the management committees have duties
(D) outlining the duties of management committees
(E) and what the duties of management committees will be

The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.
On reading the clause, we can compare the intent of the two clauses. The three questions.
E.
Hope That helps.
P.S. Do mention the source
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Last edited by Marcab on 26 Nov 2012, 02:40, edited 1 time in total.

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 07:38
@Marcab This is a question in Kaplan 800

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 07:46
MonSama wrote:
@Marcab This is a question in Kaplan 800

This was easy if compared to what I have heard about the book.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 11:29
Marcab wrote:
MonSama wrote:
@Marcab This is a question in Kaplan 800

This was easy if compared to what I have heard about the book.

I think it's a myth rather than fact

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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25 Nov 2012, 21:14
The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.
(A) as well as duties of management committeesshould be the duties
(B) as well as the duties that the management committees havehave - should be more like should have or will be
(C) and that the management committees have dutiesit should specify what duties they have not that they have them
(D) outlining the duties of management committeesoutlining - wrong tense
(E) and what the duties of management committees will beCorrect

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 00:08
Marcab nice explanation but can you pls detail the principle involved and help me in eliminating D.

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 01:01
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Archit143 wrote:
Marcab nice explanation but can you pls detail the principle involved and help me in eliminating D.

Hii Archit.
I will mention some laws that I always follow when dealing with modifier problems.
1) Modifiers such as the one crossed above bears no significance in the sentence i.e. it is given the least priority. These type of modifiers are called Non-Essential modifiers.Consider an example: Abraham Lincoln, who was a black president of US, was murdered. In this sentence, does being black bears any significance to the sentence. No! you just don't have to consider this. In order to remove the complexity of the sentences that include modifiers, you can safely cross of the modifier. No worries.
let me give you few more examples:
i)The car, which is painted black, is a product of the sister company of Volks Wagon.
ii) Steve Jobs, who founded Apple inc, died in 2012.

BUT you can't do this with Essential modifiers. NO CRISS-CROSS in Essential Modifiers.
Essential Modifiers are those which are necessary for the sentence and are given equal importance.
Consider:
i) The car that has been painted black is a product of the sister company of Volks Wagon.
I hope you get the difference.

2) Don't put two long modifiers before or after a noun.

3) Modifiers can't modify across "and", "but" etc.

4) "Being" on GMAT is not always Incorrect, but make sure that "being" is not placed at the start of the modifier.

5) Placing a noun after a comma, followed by a modifier of that noun, is a great way to describe an idea from the preceding clause. This structure is known as Absolute Phrase.

6) Keep the modifiers as close as possible to the words they modify.

Hope That helps.

Let me know if anything remains unclear.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 01:50
Regarding D, do notice one point. The "comma" is followed by an verb-ing.
Whenever this happens, it implies:
i) The clause after comma is the result of the preceding clause.

Now in D, ask yourself is "outlining the duties of management committees" the effect of the preceding clause "whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm".

Still if you are not certain, let me know. I will try my best.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 02:24
Hey Marcab,

Dont you think the non-essential modifier here is incomplete?
Whether requires or ...I was trying to locate the extension for Whether and that's how question kept me thinking
Your thoughts? Can you help me understand the meaning here

The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 02:41
BangOn wrote:
Hey Marcab,

Dont you think the non-essential modifier here is incomplete?
Whether requires or ...I was trying to locate the extension for Whether and that's how question kept me thinking
Your thoughts? Can you help me understand the meaning here

The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.

The whole question involves around the intent, not the modifier.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 02:50
Marcab wrote:
BangOn wrote:
Hey Marcab,

Dont you think the non-essential modifier here is incomplete?
Whether requires or ...I was trying to locate the extension for Whether and that's how question kept me thinking
Your thoughts? Can you help me understand the meaning here

The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.

The whole question involves around the intent, not the modifier.

I think the question needs correction. Especially in modifier.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 02:55
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BangOn wrote:
Marcab wrote:
BangOn wrote:
Hey Marcab,

Dont you think the non-essential modifier here is incomplete?
Whether requires or ...I was trying to locate the extension for Whether and that's how question kept me thinking
Your thoughts? Can you help me understand the meaning here

The bylaws of a corporation specify how the directors of the corporation are to be elected, whether the existing stockholders will have first right to buy any new stock issued by the firm, as well as duties of management committees.

The whole question involves around the intent, not the modifier.

I think the question needs correction. Especially in modifier.

Hii BangOn.
The question seems okay, but I made the mistake earlier. There is no issue of modifiers here. The entire question is about intent.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 02:57
Marcab wrote:

Hii BangOn.
The question seems okay, but I made the mistake earlier. There is no issue of modifiers here. The entire question is about intent.

Ohh My my. I see the intent now.
Thanks Marcab.
Wonderful question.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 03:47
Good One Marcab
Can you give an example for 3rd point mentioned in your explanation, which deals with and , but.

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 04:27
Archit143 wrote:
Good One Marcab
Can you give an example for 3rd point mentioned in your explanation, which deals with and , but.

Clause X, modifier, Clause Y.
What do you think the modifier will modify, is it clause X or clause Y. To eliminate this ambiguity "but", "and" etc can be used as separators and act as "walls" to prevent the clause to be modified by the modifier, eliminating ambiguity.

i) Clause X, "and" modifier, clause Y---> In this Case the modifier will modify clause Y
ii) clause X, modifier, "and" clause Y----> In this case the modifier will modify clause X.

Hope that helps.
Siddhartha
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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26 Nov 2012, 11:55
Marcab wrote:
Archit143 wrote:
Marcab nice explanation but can you pls detail the principle involved and help me in eliminating D.

Hii Archit.
I will mention some laws that I always follow when dealing with modifier problems.
1) Modifiers such as the one crossed above bears no significance in the sentence i.e. it is given the least priority. These type of modifiers are called Non-Essential modifiers.Consider an example: Abraham Lincoln, who was a black president of US, was murdered. In this sentence, does being black bears any significance to the sentence. No! you just don't have to consider this. In order to remove the complexity of the sentences that include modifiers, you can safely cross of the modifier. No worries.
let me give you few more examples:
i)The car, which is painted black, is a product of the sister company of Volks Wagon.
ii) Steve Jobs, who founded Apple inc, died in 2012.

BUT you can't do this with Essential modifiers. NO CRISS-CROSS in Essential Modifiers.
Essential Modifiers are those which are necessary for the sentence and are given equal importance.
Consider:
i) The car that has been painted black is a product of the sister company of Volks Wagon.
I hope you get the difference.

2) Don't put two long modifiers before or after a noun.

3) Modifiers can't modify across "and", "but" etc.

4) "Being" on GMAT is not always Incorrect, but make sure that "being" is not placed at the start of the modifier.

5) Placing a noun after a comma, followed by a modifier of that noun, is a great way to describe an idea from the preceding clause. This structure is known as Absolute Phrase.

6) Keep the modifiers as close as possible to the words they modify.

Hope That helps.

Let me know if anything remains unclear.

A very good writeup. Strongly appreciated!!! Can you provide some simple examples of 3,4,and 5 ?

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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2012, 00:19
For #3)
Galileo did not invent the telescope, but on hearing, in 1609, that such an optical instrument had been made, he quickly built his own device from an organ pipe and spectacle lenses. In this example, "on hearing" cannot modify "Galileo did not invent the telescope" but can modify "in 1609, that bla bla" This one is correct.

Even though, Galileo did not invent the telescope, on hearing, in 1609, that such an optical instrument had been made, he quickly built his own device from an organ pipe and spectacle lenses.
In this, there is an ambiguity. What is the modifier "on hearing" referring to???? This one is incorrect.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2012, 00:24
For #4)

I really can't come up with an example, but I remember my post. You can refer it to clear your doubt.
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Re: According to the Bylaws [#permalink]

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27 Nov 2012, 00:29
For #5)
I can give you numerous examples here, because this is the topic I gave most of time.

i)Sound can travel through water for enormous distances, its acoustic energy prevented from dissipating by boundaries in the ocean created by water layers of different temperatures and densities.

ii) More than 300 rivers drain into Siberia's Lake Baikal, which holds 20 percent of the world's fresh water, more than all the North American Great Lakes combined.
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Re: According to the Bylaws   [#permalink] 27 Nov 2012, 00:29

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