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# The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use

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CEO
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09 May 2008, 01:59
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73% (01:38) correct 27% (00:51) wrong based on 2642 sessions

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The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA
If you have any questions
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09 May 2008, 06:29
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Still thinking..
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain
chemical preservatives, or
synthesized stuff...
(D Wins)

Last edited by mymba99 on 09 May 2008, 06:33, edited 1 time in total.
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09 May 2008, 06:31
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bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything

I went with D here.
I believe "or" is correct. If you use "and", the food can be "neutral" if it has one of those three. I don't believe this is the intended meaning.
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09 May 2008, 13:01
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foods that do not contain X, Y, or Z. Eliminates C & E. Between B & D. My pick is B is for concision. I am not sure if D is gramatically incorrect.

bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything
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09 May 2008, 13:22
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yavasani wrote:
Guys, why is B wrong ?

Hi Yavasani,

B is wrong because "foods" does not agree with "has" in number. we need "have" here.
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10 May 2008, 01:43
OA is D
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30 Dec 2008, 05:40
Between D and E, I choose D.
"or" correctly implies "some of potentially many", whereas
"and" implies only absence of listed items make food "natural"
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01 Nov 2009, 10:59
Guys, between B and D, the only difference is anything and nothing.
Why is anything better than nothing??

Thanks.
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03 Jan 2011, 10:26
D is parallel -------- X,Y,or Z
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15 May 2011, 08:06
D is quite clear. no other options contend here.
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13 Jul 2011, 19:02
bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been -- awkward

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything

Between A and D, anything is the proper usage than nothing. So D.
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14 Jul 2011, 15:54
+1 D

We need "or", not "and". The three items have not to be together. C and E out.
"Nothing" is not logical. The negation is already mentioned in "do not contain". With "nothing", we have a positive statement. (-)(-) = (+)
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31 Jul 2011, 11:48
Between A and D how does D win?

In short, how does double negative work here?

I can understand that it would be correct if the sentence is

The commission....foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or synthesized materials.

However, how does the not in 'foods that do NOT CONTAIN' act on 'or anything thet has been synthesized"?

'Or anything that has been synthesized' is not 'not contained' in the foods.
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08 Mar 2012, 09:39
I have chosen the answer D in this case:

A. The use of the word "nothing" is incorrect. It seems to create a double negative, but we are suggesting that we don't want ingredients that have been synthesized, not the reverse.

B. It is confusing to me what the last "that" refers to. Also, if the last "that" refers to foods, then it should be "have been" and not "has been."

C. The use of the word "or" is correct because any of the 3 elements present in food would mean that the food is not natural. By using the word "and" we are saying that all 3 are required before the food is not natural. Also, "nothing" creates a double negative similar to answer choice A.

D. The use of the word "or" is correct in this case and the meaning of this answer choice makes sense.

E. "And" is used incorrectly here.
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21 Sep 2012, 22:15
metallicafan wrote:
+1 D

We need "or", not "and". The three items have not to be together. C and E out.
"Nothing" is not logical. The negation is already mentioned in "do not contain". With "nothing", we have a positive statement. (-)(-) = (+)

Hi,

That helps. One doubt:
Had E option been "or anything synthesized", would E be better than D (= or anything that has been synthesized) for concision?

thanks
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04 Jan 2014, 07:58
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bsd_lover wrote:
The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word natural to foods that do not contain color or flavor additives, chemical preservatives, or nothing that has been synthesized.

A. or nothing that has been

B. or that has been

C. and nothing that is

D. or anything that has been

E. and anything

A) incorrectly uses "nothing", which makes the sentence a double negative given that the underline is preceded by "foods that do NOT contain".

B) "or that has been" improperly focuses on synthesized foods, which is not the intended meaning of the author. The intended meaning is that the CONTENTS of food should not be X, Y and Z..

C) Again with the double negative, WRONG

D) "anything" focuses on contents of food and not food in itself. Thus this is better than B (and correct). Also, notice that anything does not create an error with double negatives. CORRECT

E) Uses the word "anything" correctly but, just like B, focuses on foods and NOT contents of foods. Thus, wrong.

Also, (I didn't think of this when I answered, but I do now!) the initial and/or split is paramount; "and" breaks the parallelism of the sentence, "or" upholds it. So right off the bat you should eliminate all options that do not start with "or".

Alternatively, "and" creates an additional unwanted trait of food contents (that are added to the previously stated contents), which is not the intent of the author. The author doesn't mean to say that "foods that do NOT contain perservatives AND anything synthesized", rather "anything synthesized" needs to be its own "entity", thus and is wrong and or is correct.
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20 May 2014, 08:41

D is correct answer - I get it. It sounds right too. Not awkward ...etc.
But meaning and grammar based analysis - I was only able to remove B. What about other choices - What are the incorrect?
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20 May 2014, 11:26
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vingmat001 wrote:

D is correct answer - I get it. It sounds right too. Not awkward ...etc.
But meaning and grammar based analysis - I was only able to remove B. What about other choices - What are the incorrect?

Hi vingmat001,

Why wait for the experts when we can solve it on our own.

Let’s first understand the structure and meaning of the sentence.

The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word ‘natural’ to foods
o that do not contain
 color or flavor additives, (item-1)
 chemical preservatives (item-2)
 or nothing that has been synthesized. (item-3)

MEANING

• So, the sentence tells us that a certain commission has restricted the advertisers to use the word ‘natural’ for some specific type of foods.
o These are the foods that do not contain
2. Chemical preservatives
3. Or anything that has been synthesized

Now, let’s move on to the options:

OPTION A

The given sentence has only one error. It says that the natural foods do not contain nothing that has been synthesized. The double negative (do not contain and nothing) invert the intended meaning of the sentence. So, this is incorrect.

1. People should not eat nothing that has high level of cholesterol.

2. People should not eat anything that has high level of cholesterol.

Which one of the above is correct? The second one. First one has double negatives that distort the meaning.

OPTION B

This option changes the sentence structure by removing ‘nothing’.

The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use of the word ‘natural’ to foods
o that do not contain
 chemical preservatives
o or that has been synthesized.

1. Now, the third item of the list is not parallel to the other two. In fact there is no third item in the list. There is no connector to connect the two items of the list ‘color or flavor additives’ and ‘chemical preservatives’.

2. This option makes the two clauses starting with ‘that’ parallel to each other. Now, the meaning becomes that natural foods are the ones that have been synthesized. This is illogical since synthesized foods can’t be natural.

OPTION C

1. This option has the same error as option A has. (nothing)

2. It also replaces the connector ‘or’ with ‘and’. This changes the meaning of the original sentence. Initially it meant that natural foods are the foods that do not have any of the three items listed in the list.

Now, it means that natural foods are the foods that don’t have all the listed items in them i.e. a food that contains one or two of the listed items can be a natural food.

OPTION D

This option corrects the only error from the original sentence.

OPTION E

This option has the same error as error no. 2 in option C.

Hope this helps!
Manyu
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28 May 2014, 12:07
Thanks Manyu!

Also found awesome e-GMAT explanation!

markers-in-parallelism-139076.html
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01 Aug 2014, 21:17
yavasani wrote:
Guys, why is B wrong ?

Hi Yavasani,

B is wrong because "foods" does not agree with "has" in number. we need "have" here.

i think this explanation is incorrect. " has been synthesized"modifies foods, so this use distorts the meaning.
Re: The commission has directed advertisers to restrict the use   [#permalink] 01 Aug 2014, 21:17

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