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# The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc

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The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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Updated on: 22 Aug 2017, 15:57
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The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

(A) years as a result of the removal of
(B) years as a result of removing
(C) years, resulting from the removing of
(D) years, which is result of removing
(E) years, which is a result of the removal of

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Originally posted by sondenso on 17 May 2008, 02:06.
Last edited by hazelnut on 22 Aug 2017, 15:57, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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18 May 2008, 08:22
9
4
sondenso wrote:
68. The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

A. years as a result of the removal of
B. years as a result of removing
C. years, resulting from the removing of
D. years, which is result of removing
E. years, which is a result of the removal of

Yea, this is A for me too.
Sondenso, you really got to be careful about this type of parallelism.

While "clearing" can be a verb or a noun, "removing" can only be a verb.
"the clearing" indicates that "clearing" is acting as a noun. You need the noun form - removal - to make the sentence parallel.

GMAT likes to hallucinate you in parallelism...try this problem from the OG:

The decision by one of the nation's largest banks to admit to 3 billion dollars in potential losses on foreign loans could mean less lending by commercial banks to developing countries and increasing the pressure on multi government lenders to supply the funds.
A. increasing the pressure
B. the increasing pressure
C. increased pressure
D. the pressure increased
E. the pressure increasing
##### General Discussion
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The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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26 Aug 2017, 05:56
6
1
As a result of A and B, where A and B should be parallel.

A: The removal of (noun phrase; the removal is a noun phrase)
B: The clearing of (noun phrase; the clearing is a noun phrase)

A noun phrase is parallel with another noun phrase. However if only 'clearing' was mentioned (without the article 'The') then 'clearing of' would have been a participial phrase. Participial phrases are NOT parallel with noun phrases.

B. years as a result of removing - removing is a participial phrase.

D. years, which is result of removing
In correct use of which. Which refers to years here and removing again is a participial phrase.

E. years, which is a result of the removal of
Again incorrect use of which.

Between A and C, the use of 'as a result' sounds better than 'resulting'
'resulting from the removing of the' sounds awkward.

You can eliminate option C because the ING verb after the comma must make sense with the subject of the preceding clause.
"The cottontail rabbit population" "resulting from the removing" does not make sense. So C is out.

Since A does a better job with parallelism and is less awkward A seems fine.

A conjunction such as and must serve to connect PARALLEL FORMS.

A gerund is a VERBing that serves as a NOUN.

Like other types of nouns, a gerund can be modified by a prepositional phrase.
Like other verb forms, a gerund can take a direct object.
VERBing + PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE and VERBing + DIRECT OBJECT are not parallel forms.

B: removing the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands
Here, the phrases in bold are not parallel forms.
removing the native fox population = VERBing + DIRECT OBJECT.
the clearing of surrounding woods = VERBing + PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE.
These constructions are not parallel.
Eliminate B.

A: the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woods
Here, the phrases in bold are parallel forms.

Each is a prepositional phrase serving to modify the preceding noun.

the removal of the native fox population = NOUN + PREPOSITIONAL MODIFIER.
the clearing of surrounding woodlands = NOUN + PREPOSITIONAL MODIFIER.
These constructions are parallel.

A is better simply because is parallel to the next part:
"years as a result of the removal of" and "clearing of".

Correct answer is option A.
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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15 Jan 2016, 13:45
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The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

A. years as a result of the removal of --> Correct. Action noun is parallel to the complex gerund.
B. years as a result of removing --> Simple gerund phrases are NEVER PARALLEL to complex gerund phrases (see MGMAT SC Guide)
C. years, resulting from the removing of --> Subject cottontail rabbit doesn't make sense with ING-Modifier (resulting) - the rabbit doesn't result from anything, rather the "increase" would be the right subject for the preceding clause.
D. years, which is result of removing --> Which cannot modify a clause
E. years, which is a result of the removal of --> Which cannot modify a clause
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 21:34
3
Analysis for option C:

years, resulting from the removing of-----ok---look at this---resulting from the removing of----just speak this two three times in your mind and you will find it is highly awkward....i mean "from the removing of"

Dude as i said before this question is more of understanding of language than any grammar rule....you have to develop the knack of understanding such things which can be developed by reading lot of english stuff may be online like mckinsey reports NY times....i hope it helps...please do revert in case you need more light on this one...i would be more than glad to assist....

Good Luck!
cheers!
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2015, 08:43
3
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shelrod007 wrote:
Kindly help me since i am still confused with C .

C does not sound right i know but i need a definite reason to eliminate C as an answer.

"The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent"..

Usage of verb-ing modifier after the clause ...
a) Describe the clause
Sentence talks about the cotton rabbit population to be increased and how this was done was due to removal of the fox population ..

b) Presents the result of the clause
Here it does not present any result of the clause ...

A] The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years {Result} as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands (Cause}

C] The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years {Cause} , resulting from the removing of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands {Result}

C is logically incorrect since it reverses the intended cause-effect relationship
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 09:19
2
A because of parallelism b/w removal and the clearing here the clearing is a complex gerund and removal an action noun.

-- In general only a action noun or a complex gerund can be parallel to an action noun.
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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17 May 2008, 09:48
1
nothing wrong with A..

with the removal of... with the clearing.. is || and clear
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 03:07
1
6
fozzzy wrote:
D and E are str8 out... Can someone explain A,B and C

I picked A but want to know why the other options are incorrect. Thanks!

The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

A. years as a result of the removal of
B. years as a result of removing
C. years, resulting from the removing of

First I would talk about C. You can eliminate it because the ING verb after the comma must make sense with the subject of the preceding clause.
"The cottontail rabbit population" "resulting from the removing" does not make sense. So C is out.

Between A and B, A is better simply because is parallel to the next part:
"years as a result of the removal of" and "clearing of".
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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09 Dec 2014, 06:59
1
Great Discussion here
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The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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30 Nov 2017, 22:39
1
The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

(A) years as a result of the removal of - Correct
(B) years as a result of removing - parallelism - the "the" in front of clearing indicates that it's a noun form. (there's no such word as clearage, or clearation, or whatever, so this is the best noun form you're going to get here.)
to be parallel to the clearing, you need another dedicated noun form. here, that's the removal.
(C) years, resulting from the removing of - Subject cottontail rabbit doesn't make sense with ING-Modifier (resulting) - the rabbit doesn't result from anything, rather the "increase" would be the right subject for the preceding clause.
(D) years, which is result of removing - incorrect usage of which
(E) years, which is a result of the removal of - incorrect usage of which

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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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19 Sep 2019, 14:06
1
Ajiteshmathur wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
Can you help me understand this one. The parallelism isn't clear to me here.

Quote:
(A) The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

Let's strip out some of the modifiers in choice (A):

"The cottontail rabbit population has increased unchecked as a result of (1) the removal of the native fox population and (2) the clearing of the surrounding woodlands."

Taking it one step further, we basically have: "The population has increased as a result of (1) the removal.. and (2) the clearing..." And that makes perfect sense: both "the removal" and "the clearing" are nouns, and they're the two reasons why the population has increased. Since both nouns perform the same function, we have perfectly solid parallelism here.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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07 Oct 2019, 09:05
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Ajiteshmathur wrote:
Hi GMATNinja,
Can you help me understand this one. The parallelism isn't clear to me here.

I'm assuming you're asking about the parallelism in the OA. The important thing to remember is that parallelism isn't about two parts of a sentence appearing identical, but rather about two elements playing the same grammatical role. If I describe someone as "tired and hungry," it's true that I don't have "VERB-ed and VERB-ed," but I don't need to, as "tired" and "hungry" are both adjectives, and so have the same function in the sentence. If they have the same function, they're considered parallel.

Now take another look at the OA: "The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands."

In this case we have two noun phrases that are causes of the increased rabbit population: 1) the removal of the native fox population and 2) the clearing of surrounding woodlands. It's fine that "the removal" and "the clearing" don't appear identical, because they're both nouns and are playing the same grammatical role.

I hope that helps!
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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30 Jul 2013, 01:26
D and E are str8 out... Can someone explain A,B and C

I picked A but want to know why the other options are incorrect. Thanks!
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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14 Jul 2014, 07:00
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The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

A. years as a result of the removal of -- parallel with the clearing. (correct)

B. years as a result of removing -- removing (gerund noun) -||- the clearing

C. years, resulting from the removing of -- if it had been resulting into then I would have at least given a thought to check its validity
Its is violating the rules of usage of ing modifier (event cause ---> resulting into something) in C causality is reversed. we cant use it to define reverse flow.

D. years, which is result of removing -- which modifying years
E. years, which is a result of the removal of -- same as D.
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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02 Jan 2015, 07:35
Kindly help me since i am still confused with C .

C does not sound right i know but i need a definite reason to eliminate C as an answer.

"The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent"..

Usage of verb-ing modifier after the clause ...
a) Describe the clause
Sentence talks about the cotton rabbit population to be increased and how this was done was due to removal of the fox population ..

b) Presents the result of the clause
Here it does not present any result of the clause ...
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2017, 09:07
The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has increased unchecked in recent years as a result of the removal of the native fox population and the clearing of surrounding woodlands.

A. years as a result of the removal of
B. years as a result of removing
C. years, resulting from the removing of
D. years, which is result of removing
E. years, which is a result of the removal of

We need a comparison between nouns. Hence Choice A is correct.
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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20 Mar 2019, 20:36
egmat
In option C we have resulting after comma . Ing modifier after comma tells or explains how aspect too. I understand that in choice C from the removing of is not very clear and concise. however, if choice c is written like this "years,resulting from the removal of" , would this be correct ?
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Re: The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2019, 20:27
doing can be
a pure noun, such as 'clearing
a gerund, which has some feature of noun and verb
a participle, which has some features of adjective and verb.
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The cottontail rabbit population in Orange County, California, has inc  [#permalink]

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31 Jul 2019, 22:58
vishuvashishth That version still wouldn't work, because there's no reasonable noun for "resulting" to refer to. The tricky thing with comma + -ing modifiers is that they typically modify the preceding action or clause (they are adverbial modifiers), but we need a fitting noun to be performing that action. If I am showing the result OF the action, that's easier:

The Fed raised the prime rate, resulting in a decrease in spending.

In that case, "resulting" describes a result of the entire previous clause. The Fed didn't result in something; the action it took did. However, if we want to say "resulting from X," this needs to refer to a specific noun that resulted from X. It would be hard to achieve that in the present sentence. We could say "The increase in the rabbit population, resulting from the removal of X and the clearing of Y . . . " but we'd still need a main verb for the sentence. So far, the subject is "increase" and the rest is all modifiers. We'd need more content to make this a workable sentence, and that would be quite different from the answers on offer above.
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