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# The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for

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The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for  [#permalink]

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11 Jun 2012, 21:52
3
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Difficulty:

45% (medium)

Question Stats:

57% (00:50) correct 43% (00:51) wrong based on 355 sessions

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The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those which they experienced as children.

A. similar to those which they experienced as children.
B. similar to those that they experienced as a child.
C. similar to those that they experienced as children.
D. such as those, which they experienced as a child.
E. such as those that they experienced as children.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for viole  [#permalink]

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12 Jun 2012, 01:15
3
3
macjas wrote:
The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those which they experienced as children.

A. similar to those which they experienced as children.
B. similar to those that they experienced as a child.
C. similar to those that they experienced as children.
D. such as those, which they experienced as a child.
E. such as those that they experienced as children.

As against the more popular "like vs such as" comparison, this test idiomatic usage of "similar to vs such as". Remember that "such as" is always used for inclusion or meaning "for example". Illustration: Jacob likes many flavors of ice cream such as chocolate, vanilla and strawberry. This implies that Jacob like ice creams; he definitely likes chocolate, vanilla and strawberry flavors among others.

In the given sentence, we are talking about humiliations that violent criminals subject on victims. Criminologists are saying that just like they experiences humiliations when they were children, they would like to subject these now on other victims.The type of humiliations are not talked about to draw a parallel between those that the criminals were subjected to, to the ones that they cause now. So we reject choices D and E.

Choice B has a singular-plural mismatch between "they" and "as a child". Reject B.

Between A and C it is "which" vs "that". Though the difference is subtle, you should understand that "that" is a restrictive clause that changes the meaning of a sentence. But using "which", a non-restrictive clause, does not change the meaning of a sentence. In this case, the humiliations received by criminals in their childhood is important and adds to the meaning of the sentence, especially connecting to the humiliations that they cause now. Hence "that" is appropriate choice making option (C) as correct.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for viole  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 08:48
1
I doubt whether this question will stand the rigor of GMAT. Because in my opinion, GMAT avers that it would not decide a topic on the choice of which or that alone, the concept being controversial,

Look at the following choice

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
(A) which kept
(B) that keeps
(C) which has kept
(D) that has been keeping
(E) having kept

OE

Verb form; Rhetorical construction The use of the past tense (kept) is incorrect because a current situation is discussed; the present tense (keeps) is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. In (A) and (C), which introduces a restrictive clause. Some writers follow the convention that which can only be used for nonrestrictive clauses, but insistence on this rule is controversial, and both (A) and (C) can be rejected on other grounds.

A Kept is the wrong tense.

B Correct. The verb keeps indicates a current situation and is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. The sentence is clear and concise.

C Mistaken shift in tense: In this sentence the present tense expresses a timeless general principle; in contrast, has kept indicates a more definite context and time period and suggests that the heat-exchange network
may no longer have this effect.

D Has been keeping is the wrong tense.

E Having is awkward and imprecise; kept is the wrong tense.

The given topic on violence is tested solely on the use of which or that and therefore may not cross the doors of GMAT
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for viole  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 09:03
1
daagh wrote:
I doubt whether this question will stand the rigor of GMAT. Because in my opinion, GMAT avers that it would not decide a topic on the choice of which or that alone, the concept being controversial,

Look at the following choice

Carnivorous mammals can endure what would otherwise be lethal levels of body heat because they have a heat-exchange network which kept the brain from getting too hot.
(A) which kept
(B) that keeps
(C) which has kept
(D) that has been keeping
(E) having kept

OE

Verb form; Rhetorical construction The use of the past tense (kept) is incorrect because a current situation is discussed; the present tense (keeps) is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. In (A) and (C), which introduces a restrictive clause. Some writers follow the convention that which can only be used for nonrestrictive clauses, but insistence on this rule is controversial, and both (A) and (C) can be rejected on other grounds.

A Kept is the wrong tense.

B Correct. The verb keeps indicates a current situation and is consistent with the other verbs in the sentence. The sentence is clear and concise.

C Mistaken shift in tense: In this sentence the present tense expresses a timeless general principle; in contrast, has kept indicates a more definite context and time period and suggests that the heat-exchange network
may no longer have this effect.

D Has been keeping is the wrong tense.

E Having is awkward and imprecise; kept is the wrong tense.

The given topic on violence is tested solely on the use of which or that and therefore may not cross the doors of GMAT

This is good to know! The OE has it down to meaning between C & E: such as (providing an example) : : similar to (comparison)
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for viole  [#permalink]

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13 Jun 2012, 10:00
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2013, 04:06
1
Here is the official explanation from Kaplan.

Answer C Choices between "that" and "which" are difficult for many students, but the rule is actually very clear and definitive. Specifically, if the expression further restricts or further identifies the particular objects in question, "that" is always correct. If the expression is merely descriptive of the object being modified without further restricting or identifying it, "which" is the proper word.

In this case, the expression further defines the similar humiliations to which we are referring. Therefore, “that” is required and only choices (B), (C) and (E) can possibly be right. Choice (B) can be eliminated because it associates the plural pronoun "they" which corresponds to the antecedent "violent criminals", with the singular "a child." Choice (E) can be eliminated because "such as" is used to introduce examples of a general concept. Here, "similar to" properly reflects our meaning, so choice (C) is the correct answer.

Hope it helps.
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for viole  [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2013, 12:08
daagh wrote:
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both

Daagh, if possible, would you clarify GMAT's stance on Which Vs That? choices A & C are almost the same. what are the chances that a question as this would come up in the test, and how do I choose between them?
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for viole  [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2013, 03:14
2
SaraLotfy wrote:
daagh wrote:
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both

Daagh, if possible, would you clarify GMAT's stance on Which Vs That? choices A & C are almost the same. what are the chances that a question as this would come up in the test, and how do I choose between them?

Use which when the information after which can be omitted, and you can do without it:
The big house on the street, which is red, is owned by the Smiths. (there is one big house, and it happens to be red)

Use that when the description after "that" is needed for clarification:
The big house on the street that is red, is owned by the Smiths. (we have many big houses on the street, the red one is the Smiths')

So in this sentence, if we used which, we could as well skip what's after the which like so:
The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations. (we don't know what humiliations, maybe general? who knows)

The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those that they experienced as children. (we specify that we only care about the humiliations experienced as children).

P.S That sentence sounds dodgy but that's what it is!
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for viole  [#permalink]

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11 Nov 2013, 14:15
3
Skag55 wrote:
SaraLotfy wrote:
daagh wrote:
Yes; I agree this brings about the nuance of using the comparison marker similar to vs example marker such as. Good topic and good explantion by Edvento Kudos to both

Daagh, if possible, would you clarify GMAT's stance on Which Vs That? choices A & C are almost the same. what are the chances that a question as this would come up in the test, and how do I choose between them?

Use which when the information after which can be omitted, and you can do without it:
The big house on the street, which is red, is owned by the Smiths. (there is one big house, and it happens to be red)

Use that when the description after "that" is needed for clarification:
The big house on the street that is red, is owned by the Smiths. (we have many big houses on the street, the red one is the Smiths')

So in this sentence, if we used which, we could as well skip what's after the which like so:
The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations. (we don't know what humiliations, maybe general? who knows)

The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for violent criminals to subject a victim to humiliations similar to those that they experienced as children. (we specify that we only care about the humiliations experienced as children).

P.S That sentence sounds dodgy but that's what it is!

All about the modifiers with 'that' and 'which' and Their exceptions
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/mis ... 10633.html
http://magoosh.com/gmat/2012/that-vs-which-on-the-gmat/
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/tha ... 17577.html
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/tha ... t5730.html
http://www.gmathacks.com/sentence-corre ... which.html
http://e-gmat.com/blogs/?p=575
noun-noun-modifiers-the-most-versatile-modifier-137292.html
Enjoy!
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Re: The criminologist reported that it is not uncommon for  [#permalink]

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21 Dec 2017, 15:19
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Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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