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# The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d

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The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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24 Jan 2012, 20:32
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The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous debate to this day; historians have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and widespread immorality.

(A) have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and

(B) attribute it variously to causes that include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, or

(C) have variously attributed them to causes which include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and

(D) attribute them to various causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, as well as

(E) variously attribute them to causes including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Last edited by hazelnut on 17 Oct 2017, 19:14, edited 1 time in total.
Edited the question.

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2012, 05:23
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The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous debate to this day; historians have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and widespread immorality.

The decline and fall of the Roman empire is a noun phrase(one big noun). It is a singular subject. Hence, in the attributed X to...X should be singular since it refers to a singular subject. C,D,E out.
Between A and B, the variously in B changes the meaning of the sentence.
Hence, A is the correct answer.

Hope it helps.

A. have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
B. attribute it variously to causes that include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, or
C. have variously attributed them to causes which include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
D. attribute them to various causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, as well as
E. variously attribute them to causes including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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25 Jan 2012, 07:23
singular plural thing nice question got it right...
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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2012, 00:43
C, D n E WRONG PRONOUN
B MAIN VERB MISSING, AWKWARD FRAGMENT SENTENCE
so A is the winner.
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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 18:04
I agree that A is correct, but just had a question about D..Manhattan GMAT says use of "as well as" instead of "and" in such a sentence is incorrect:

" In addition, X, Y, as well as Z is not a valid way to write a list of three things; in such a list, "and" is required."

I wonder why? I thought "as well as" could replace "and" in such constructions..no?

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 19:46
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hurdle7 wrote:
I agree that A is correct, but just had a question about D..Manhattan GMAT says use of "as well as" instead of "and" in such a sentence is incorrect:

" In addition, X, Y, as well as Z is not a valid way to write a list of three things; in such a list, "and" is required."

I wonder why? I thought "as well as" could replace "and" in such constructions..no?

"as well as " essentially means "in addition/also". When you have list of two items "as well as" can be considered appropriate.

But when you have a list of three or more items, the presence of comma already signifies the multiplicity and hence we need an "and" rather than "as well as".

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 20:03

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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04 Mar 2012, 20:14
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them rules out C, D, and E.

A. have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
B. attribute it variously to causes that include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, or

Between A and B, I think there is a wrong tense usage. Attribute vs. Attributed. The correct tense is Attributed because we are using the perfect tense with the helping verb "have". Hence, answer is A.

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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05 Mar 2012, 01:49
metallicafan wrote:
calreg11 wrote:
The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous debate to this day; historians have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and widespread immorality.

A. have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and - Correct
B. attribute it variously to causes that include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, or - Present pefect is better because the sentence indicates that the debates began in the past and continues "to this day"./ "Variously" changes the meaning. / "or" changes the original meaning.
C. have variously attributed them to causes which include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and - notice that "decline and fall" is considered singular in this sentence ("remainS"); "them" is wrong.
D. attribute them to various causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, as well as - "them" is wrong.
E. variously attribute them to causes including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and - "variously" changes the meaning. "them" is wrong.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

Hope it helps.

I agree with all of the reasons stated above for choices B-E. Now, doesn't A suffer from a grammatical error too? -

What does the "it" refer to - the vigorous debate, the topic of vigorous debate or the decline and fall? In other circumstances I would probably have rejected option A on that ground. Any ideas?

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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20 Apr 2012, 19:12
I chose A.

The "it" has a clear antecedent, which is the "decline and fall." It is a singular noun phrase.

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2012, 12:35
This was a good question. I failed to notice variously. I should not be practicing these questions at work.

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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25 Apr 2012, 19:47
A... proper use of the pronoun 'it'

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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22 May 2012, 10:57
failed to realize that the decline and fall was a singular subject. nice question! keep it coming!

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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28 May 2012, 11:51
What is the difference between variety and various?

How it is used?

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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07 Jun 2012, 00:38
calreg11 wrote:
The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous debate to this day; historians have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and widespread immorality.

A. have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
B. attribute it variously to causes that include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, or
C. have variously attributed them to causes which include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
D. attribute them to various causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, as well as
E. variously attribute them to causes including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

i pick A here. the Roman Empire is singular so pronoun referent must be singular, so C , D and E are out. in B, "attributed it variously to causes" seems awkward. please correct me if my thought process is wrong

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2015, 06:50
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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2015, 07:41
I got it wrong first thinking " decline and fall of the Roman Empire" needs them and not it. Then I realized " remains a topic of " . here remains makes it singular. Just like Chips and Burger IS a high caloric snack.

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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16 Apr 2015, 08:24
calreg11 wrote:
The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous debate to this day; historians have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and widespread immorality.

A. have attributed it to a variety of causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
"debate to this day" in the first clause clearly is hinting us to use present perfect. the entities of the list are parallel and properly connected.
pronoun IT refers to the decline and fall.

B. attribute it variously to causes that include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, or
does not use present perfect
"or" does not properly connect the entities of the list
attribute variously changes the meaning

C. have variously attributed them to causes which include military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
variously attributed changes the meaning
them does not have an antecedent

D. attribute them to various causes, including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, as well as
as well as is not the proper connector
present perfect is needed.

E. variously attribute them to causes including military insurrection, ethnic conflict, and
variously attribute changes the meaning
them does not have an antecedent
present perfect is needed.

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2017, 09:11
Hello from the GMAT Club VerbalBot!

Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d [#permalink]

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05 Sep 2017, 09:11
"variously" is in wrong places.
A is more clear.
ENg of the story

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Re: The decline and fall of the Roman Empire remains a topic of vigorous d   [#permalink] 05 Sep 2017, 09:11
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