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The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain

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Read the Question in the post below and mark the Correct Answer

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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jul 2017, 08:08
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they ( COMPANIES ) find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing. - This was the main reason I kept B correct. Where is the argument discussing about regions and not companies ? .
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.


Hi, Can you please clarify my doubt.
I opted B for the above mentioned reasons.
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain  [#permalink]

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New post 31 Dec 2018, 07:09
egmat wrote:
Hi,

Here is the detailed solution:

The question asks us to find an option statement which is most strongly suggested by the passage. Therefore, the question is very similar to an inference question.

Facts of the case:
• Decline in manufacturing sets off a chain reaction.
• Decline in manufacturing -> Non-maintenance of Process-engineering expertise -> Difficulty in conducting research on next generation process technologies -> Inability to develop new products.

Prethinking:

The passage talks about a sequential cause-effect relationship in the form: A->B->C->D.

In this case, an inference of the form X->Y can be built from the information given, where X can be any event which precedes Y in the above chain reaction.

Analysis of Answer choices:

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate. – Correct choice.We don’t know for sure what a decline in “advanced process engineering” could lead to, since the passage talks about “process engineering” in general. However, a declining manufacturing activity will necessarily lead to inability to develop new products or innovate. Therefore, this statement is supported by the information given in the passage.

B. To develop new products a company must never cut down its manufacturing. –The passage talks about manufacturing in a region, not a company, which may be spread over multiple regions. Thus, this option is incorrect.

C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region – While a decrease in manufacturing activity leads to decrease in innovation, we cannot infer what effect an increase in manufacturing activity will have. Thus, incorrect.

D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. – Without the word “frequently”, this option could have been attractive. Note that “frequent” change of processes as a prerequisite to develop new products cannot be inferred from the passage. Thus, incorrect.

E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. – Again, like option D, we cannot infer about the effect of increasing manufacturing activity. Thus, Incorrect.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev


In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.

I eliminated option A because of the following reasons
1) talks about long term
we cannot take a long step in conclusion questions
2) talks about deteriorating infrastructure
we cannot go beyond the scope of manufacturing and related process which are listed
3)WILL likely.
we cannot predict the future based on a cause and effect

egmat
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Jun 2019, 04:40
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.

Hi egmat,
I am skeptical about the said answer choice-A.

OptionA:
    In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
'A' states that the ability to innovate will reduce/lose.

Argument states:
    The decline in manufacturing sets off a chain reaction.
    The decline in manufacturing ---> Non-maintenance of Process-engineering expertise ---> Difficulty in conducting research on next-generation process technologies ---> Inability to develop new products.

The argument states that they can no longer develop new products.
    Meaning: They CANNOT develop new products. They can NO longer innovate.
    However, It does NOT mean that they will NECESSARILY lose the ability to innovate.
    They CAN still maintain the same ability with which they were already innovating products.
      Ex: Let's say, Apple is developing new products with an innovation level of 90/100. - I'm quantifying innovation to ease the communication.
      Now, because of the exodus of highly skilled technocrats, Apple will NOT be able to develop new products, i.e., raise the innovation level beyond 90.
      However, Apple can still develop products at the current level of 90. - I agree the innovation level would not cross 90.
      Why should the ability to innovate necessarily reduce?

Analogy
    Let's say - The argument states: the stock price of Uber will not increase in the coming quarter.
    To infer, Just because the price won't increase ----------> It should fall, seems more likely an inference mistake of the two possible outcomes:
    The stock price can either stay the same or decrease.

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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain   [#permalink] 07 Jun 2019, 04:40

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