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# The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain

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The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2013, 23:44
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The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2013, 23:45
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Hi,

Here is the detailed solution:

The question asks us to find an option statement which is most strongly suggested by the passage. Therefore, the question is very similar to an inference question.

Facts of the case:
• Decline in manufacturing sets off a chain reaction.
• Decline in manufacturing -> Non-maintenance of Process-engineering expertise -> Difficulty in conducting research on next generation process technologies -> Inability to develop new products.

Prethinking:

The passage talks about a sequential cause-effect relationship in the form: A->B->C->D.

In this case, an inference of the form X->Y can be built from the information given, where X can be any event which precedes Y in the above chain reaction.

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate. – Correct choice.We don’t know for sure what a decline in “advanced process engineering” could lead to, since the passage talks about “process engineering” in general. However, a declining manufacturing activity will necessarily lead to inability to develop new products or innovate. Therefore, this statement is supported by the information given in the passage.

B. To develop new products a company must never cut down its manufacturing. –The passage talks about manufacturing in a region, not a company, which may be spread over multiple regions. Thus, this option is incorrect.

C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region – While a decrease in manufacturing activity leads to decrease in innovation, we cannot infer what effect an increase in manufacturing activity will have. Thus, incorrect.

D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. – Without the word “frequently”, this option could have been attractive. Note that “frequent” change of processes as a prerequisite to develop new products cannot be inferred from the passage. Thus, incorrect.

E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. – Again, like option D, we cannot infer about the effect of increasing manufacturing activity. Thus, Incorrect.

Hope this helps

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Last edited by egmat on 01 Feb 2013, 00:38, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2013, 02:37
I see A the only possible answer.

Otherwise I'll wait explanations

Regards
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2013, 11:27
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I also vote for A

B- too strong language
C the argument never said that
D didnt like the word frequently. Again , too strong language
E the argument never compared two economies
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2013, 13:29
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In my opinion, this a conditional logic type question.

From my perspective:

The first sentence is an initial statement. Then the conditional logic comes into play:

IF Manufacturing outsourced, then Process engineering can't be maintained
MO--> not PEM

If no PEM--> not next generation process technologies
not PEM--> not NGPT

If not Next Generation Technologies--> Not new products
not NGPT--> not new products

Putting it all together you have, and must follow the arrow.

Manufacturing Outsourcing--> No/difficult Process Engineering-->No Next Generation Process Technologies--->No New Products

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
Seems Correct. Difficult Process Engineering is touched upon, and declining manufacturing activity. Both lead to No new products, which can inferred to be "innovation"
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
If new products for a company, then never lower manufacturing? We don't know this. A company could hypothetically lower it, all we know based on the question is a "region"
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
This is speculation, we just know about the decline, we don't know about the increase
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. WE know nothing about changing processes
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. No. There is nothing alluding toward that in the question.
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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28 Jan 2013, 23:27
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

decline in manufacturing initiates chain reaction
Manufacturing outsourcing -> decline process Eng expertise -> decline adv research new process tech -> new prod dev decline

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate. incorrect- passage does not talks about infrastructure for advanced process engineering
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing. correct- pass fact test
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region not necessarily true
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. not supported by the passage
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. not supported by the passage
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2013, 02:26
I vote for (B).

(A) talks about economy. But in the passage, nothing about economy is discussed in general
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2013, 02:47
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.

The conclusion is : Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

I think that D is best supported by the conclusion since changing its processes is the same as bringing new processes. Hence, a company needs to frequently change its processes in order to develop new products ..
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2013, 03:08
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I think the answer is straight A...

Options d is totally out.
B,c and E all mean the same thing...so we can eliminate all 3 on the basis if one is correcct why not the rest 2.

If we want proper reasoning for selecting A ...here it is:-
Manufacturing decline----.> Outsourcing -------> Process eng looses expertises i.e quality -----> No more innovation in r & D--------> No more innovation.....

Read the it in conjunction with A ....
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2013, 08:57
The answer seems to be A)

For those stating that the economy is not being referred. The para starts with 'declining manufacturing in the region'. Option A) is the statement that covers the all the arguments mentioned in the para.

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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2013, 00:42
Hi All,

Thank you chiming in with your solutions and explanations.

The detailed solution has been posted in the second post of this thread.

Kudos to all who put in the correct answer with correct explanations

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2013, 00:45
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

decline in manufacturing initiates chain reaction
Manufacturing outsourcing -> decline process Eng expertise -> decline adv research new process tech -> new prod dev decline

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate. incorrect- passage does not talks about infrastructure for advanced process engineering
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing. correct- pass fact test
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region not necessarily true
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes. not supported by the passage
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies. not supported by the passage

Hi,

Your reasoning is mostly correct. However, option B talks about a company while the passage just talk about "regions". Therefore, B is incorrect.

Also, refer the detailed explanations to see why A is correct.

Happy learning!

Thanks.
Chiranjeev
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2013, 00:48
Practicegmat wrote:
I vote for (B).

(A) talks about economy. But in the passage, nothing about economy is discussed in general

Hi,

"Economy" term is very commonly used to refer to regions e.g. You need to have solid infrastructure for an economy to succeed. Here, "economy" refers to a region.

Hope this helps

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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01 Feb 2013, 00:50
Rock750 wrote:
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.

The conclusion is : Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

I think that D is best supported by the conclusion since changing its processes is the same as bringing new processes. Hence, a company needs to frequently change its processes in order to develop new products ..

Hi,

You got into a trap

This option could have been a very close option choice without the word "frequently". This word spoils the game

Refer to the detailed solution posted above to understand the nuances of this.

Thanks
Chiranjeev
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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08 Sep 2013, 09:07
egmat wrote:
Rock750 wrote:
egmat wrote:
The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain reaction. Once manufacturing is outsourced, process-engineering expertise can’t be maintained, since it depends on daily interactions with manufacturing. Without process-engineering capabilities, companies find it increasingly difficult to conduct advanced research on next-generation process technologies. Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

Which of the following is best supported by the passage?

A. In the long term, an economy with a deteriorating infrastructure for advanced process engineering and with declining manufacturing activity will likely lose its ability to innovate.
B. To develop new products, a company must never cut down on its manufacturing.
C. An increase in the manufacturing activity in a region leads to increase in innovation within the region
D. To develop new products, a company needs to frequently change its processes.
E. An economy that has growing manufacturing capabilities will churn out more new products than other economies.

The conclusion is : Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products.

I think that D is best supported by the conclusion since changing its processes is the same as bringing new processes. Hence, a company needs to frequently change its processes in order to develop new products ..

Hi,

You got into a trap

This option could have been a very close option choice without the word "frequently". This word spoils the game

Refer to the detailed solution posted above to understand the nuances of this.

Thanks
Chiranjeev

Hi Chiranjeev
Even had the option D not used 'frequently', still it couldn't have been a close contender of A for the same reason you've stated in OE for B - talks about 'company' whereas the argument is all about a region/economy.

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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2013, 04:12
bagdbmba wrote:

Hi Chiranjeev
Even had the option D not used 'frequently', still it couldn't have been a close contender of A for the same reason you've stated in OE for B - talks about 'company' whereas the argument is all about a region/economy.

Interesting doubt!

However, the reasoning given in the detailed solution is correct.

Look - if a company is spread out in multiple regions, then it can cut production in one region and maintain production in other regions. In such a case, it will still be able to develop new products (in other regions). So, option B is incorrect.

Let's look at modified version of option D (without the word "frequently"):

D. To develop new products, a company needs to change its processes

Now, this must be true. Why? Because it follows directly from the last line of the passage:

"Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products".

What does "they" refer to? "they" refers to "companies".

So, companies cannot develop new products without new processes.

This is what option D says.

Does it help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain [#permalink]

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09 Sep 2013, 10:53
Hi,
Just one help. I have seen lots of CR answers get rejected due to use of strong word , such as here it is frequently.As i was sure of A but selected D.So can any one please en light me how we will catch strong word trick in CR.
Thank you
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 03:01
egmat wrote:
bagdbmba wrote:

Hi Chiranjeev
Even had the option D not used 'frequently', still it couldn't have been a close contender of A for the same reason you've stated in OE for B - talks about 'company' whereas the argument is all about a region/economy.

Interesting doubt!

However, the reasoning given in the detailed solution is correct.

Look - if a company is spread out in multiple regions, then it can cut production in one region and maintain production in other regions. In such a case, it will still be able to develop new products (in other regions). So, option B is incorrect.

Let's look at modified version of option D (without the word "frequently"):

D. To develop new products, a company needs to change its processes

Now, this must be true. Why? Because it follows directly from the last line of the passage:

"Without the ability to develop such new processes, they find they can no longer develop new products".

What does "they" refer to? "they" refers to "companies".

So, companies cannot develop new products without new processes.

This is what option D says.

Does it help?

Thanks,
Chiranjeev

Hi Chiranjeev,

So,basically the word 'frequently' throws D out of the game here. Isn't it something similar concept I was trying to make in your another question http://gmatclub.com/forum/inference-vs-assumption-146758.html#p1265147 regrading the scope of the argument...?

Anything too narrow or too broad in the context of the scope of the argument should be eliminated...! Let me know please whether this analogy is proper?
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Re: A 700 level inference question [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2013, 21:55
bagdbmba wrote:
Hi Chiranjeev,

So,basically the word 'frequently' throws D out of the game here. Isn't it something similar concept I was trying to make in your another question http://gmatclub.com/forum/inference-vs-assumption-146758.html#p1265147 regrading the scope of the argument...?

Anything too narrow or too broad in the context of the scope of the argument should be eliminated...! Let me know please whether this analogy is proper?

I don't think the word "frequently" here makes option D either too narrow or too broad here.

-Chiranjeev
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Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2013, 05:45
Re: The decline of manufacturing in a region sets off a chain   [#permalink] 08 Nov 2013, 05:45

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