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# The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 07:52
I also did not choose option A, as it is unclear what "inner" refers to, does it imply inner planet or inner layers or inner core? Experts please advise!

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 08:00
raghavs wrote:
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

And of the is repetition.

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

Verb are responsible is plural for singular subject The discovery

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field
Same as C

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

Verb-ing is incorrectly used .

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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15 May 2017, 09:54
GmatBawse wrote:
I also did not choose option A, as it is unclear what "inner" refers to, does it imply inner planet or inner layers or inner core? Experts please advise!

Posted from my mobile device

Hi GmatBawse, B has an issue with parallelism. Clearly, from a parallelism perspective, the structure of B is:

....responsible for advancing studies of X and Y, where:

i) X: how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, (this is a clause)

ii) Y: the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field (this is a phrase)

Since X and Y are the logically similar parts of the sentence, these parts must be grammatically similar as well. However, while X is a clause, Y is a phrase. Hence, X and Y are not grammatically similar. So, option B fails the parallelism test.

p.s. Our book EducationAisle Sentence Correction Nirvana discusses Parallelism in Phrases and Clauses, its application and examples in significant detail. Have attached the corresponding section of the book, for your reference.
Attachments

Parallelism - Phrases and Clauses.pdf [22.62 KiB]

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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01 Jul 2017, 14:48
raghavs wrote:
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

SV Error in C & D Discovery ==> Should be "is" not "are"

E misses the parallelism

B - misses parallelism too

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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24 Oct 2017, 23:30
Very long and intimidating, but at its core, this problem is not too complex, and rests largely on understanding the author's intended meaning.

"The discovery that..." should alert you that there subject-verb agreement is going to be tested. Anyway, continue reading. Original sentence too wordy, but the author's intended meaning is clear: the discovery is responsible for something.

Vertically scan the answer choices. Eliminate C and D for wrong subject-verb agreement. discovery is not discovery are

Eliminate B for parallelism issues.The discovery blah blah blah is responsible for advancing studies of how, AND the formation ... . The second of is missing after the parallel marker 'and.'

Eliminate E. If we eliminate the modifier,rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, we get the discovery that the Earth's inner
core is responsible for advancing studies...
. This doesn't make sense.

POE, leaves you with A.
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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25 Oct 2017, 05:34
raghavs wrote:
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

The subject is "The discovery" which is singular so we have to use singular verb so C and D are out
Second difference is parallelism the discovery led to advance studies of X and of Y
So A has proper parallelism.
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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28 Oct 2017, 00:25
Hi, i have a general question. Whenever there is a 2/3 split (most of the cases), can we be sure that the answer would like amongst the 3 answer choices reduced from the split.
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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22 Nov 2017, 11:45
raghavs wrote:
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

Point -1: ‘The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates…’ is correct, not ‘The discovery that Earth’s inner core, rotating…’
Point -2: We never use ‘independently than’, for example ‘The sun shines independently of any climate change’.
So applying parallelism concept i.e ‘The core rotates independently and more quickly than….’ over here is wrong. The correct one should ne ‘independently of and more quickly than’. Than is used here for the comparative form of quick.

C,D,E are out . We are now left with A,B.
In B , the 2nd part of the sentence not parallel - ‘how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal…’ So option B is out.
So by process o f elimination A is right answer
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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27 Jan 2018, 05:38
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field - CORRECT, parallelism and SV agreement is taken care of also expresses the meaning clearly

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field - Parallelism issue in the second part of is missing

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction- SV issue as subject is the discovery

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field -SV issue as subject is the discovery

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction- Incorrect as changes the meaning completely
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The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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29 Jan 2018, 16:22
Hi JarvisR,

Thank you for your question. While some of the other commenters are on the right track, here is how I tackled the question myself. I began by noting the most obvious differences between each possible answer, then reducing down answers based on those differences. Let's start with what I noticed right away:

1. Punctuation = some of the answers used a comma + and, but others didn't

2. Parallel structure = especially with the two ways studies were advanced (at the end of each answer)

Let's start with #1 on our list. We know that by using the comma + and, it creates two independent clauses that are separated by a comma and a conjunction. So this means whatever comes after the comma MUST be able to stand alone as a complete sentence. Let's look at each answer that uses the comma + and to see if ONLY what comes after the "and" can stand alone:

B. the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field (NO = fragment)
C. how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction (NO = fragment)
D. the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field (NO = fragment)

Since none of these are able to stand alone, they can't come after a comma + and. We can rule out these answers, which leaves us with A & E.

If we look at #2 on the list, we can figure out if both answers use parallel format. Let's only block out the parts we want to focus on: the two ways the studies were advanced:

A: of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field (uses parallel structure = CORRECT)

E: of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction (does NOT use parallel structure = WRONG)

Since answer E doesn't use parallel structure, we're left with answer A, which is the correct answer.
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The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently   [#permalink] 29 Jan 2018, 16:22

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