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The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently

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The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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A
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The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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A somewhat intimidating S-V agreement and parallelism question here
The first clue is that the subject is the discovery, a singular and therefore the main verb will be -is - So eliminate C and D

The discovery is responsible for advancing the studies (1. of the flow of heat 2. of the formation and periodic reversal) Choice A only maintains the prepositional parallelism.
B misses the parallel – of - in the second part.
E distorts the parallelism by stating -of how – in the second part
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2010, 17:58
raghavs wrote:
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than
Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner
through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal
of its direction
D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of
its direction


"Independently of" and "quickly" are not parallal but still if A is right than perhaps A is right.

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2010, 20:36
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Points to be noted are -

1) S/V agreement - The discovery that..... IS ( eliminate C and D)
2) || ism - is responsible for advancing studies OF X ... and OF Y ( Eliminate B and E)

A is the rt answer
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 21 Nov 2010, 20:45
What is the source of this question?
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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daagh wrote:
A somewhat intimidating S-V agreement and parallelism question here
The first clue is that the subject is the discovery, a singular and therefore the main verb will be -is - So eliminate C and D

The discovery is responsible for advancing the studies (1. of the flow of heat 2. of the formation and periodic reversal) Choice A only maintains the prepositional parallelism.
B misses the parallel – of - in the second part.
E distorts the parallelism by stating -of how – in the second part


Couldn't agree with you more on the intimidating part! You tackled this one nicely. Thanks!!

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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Great work, daagh, and I like how you mentioned "intimidating" (and how werewolf agreed). I think that this is a great example of how intimidating problems can be made pretty efficient if you're looking for decision points. When I first looked at this one I scanned and noticed that three choices used "is" and two used "are" - I've just trained myself to notice the singular/plural differences of is/are; it/they; its/their; etc. So right away I could break down the S-V agreement to eliminate C and D.

Then I saw that another major difference as the addition of a modifier in E - I think because, while still thinking S-V agreement, I saw "core rotates" in both A and B but that E used a different construction. Reading the modifier, then, I noticed that it ruined the meaning of the sentence...it's the discovery THAT the core rotates that is responsible... Not "the discovery THAT the core is responsible...". So E was out, and then I could just look at the differences between A and B to find that B violated the parallel structure (and in doing so, left an awkward meaning) and that A was all that was left.


My point is this - train yourself to seek out the commonly-occurring decision points on these SC questions - singular/plural verbs or pronouns should start to jump off the screen at you, and then you can make decisions quickly and in smaller parts. On its own, this is a dense, long sentence with a lot underlined, but if you're paying attention to decision points I think it's a lot more manageable than it looks on the surface. Nice job, guys!
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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I agree in toto; This is the crux of Sentence Correction in GMAT: to be able to eliminate first a good number of choices, through identifying the more visible mistakes and then to go into nuances in the rest to narrow down to the best answer
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 19 Dec 2012, 00:42
Is (E) even a complete sentence?
The discovery that <core, [modifier], is responsible ...>
Subject is 'discovery', but there is no verb in (E)!

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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daagh wrote:
A somewhat intimidating S-V agreement and parallelism question here
The first clue is that the subject is the discovery, a singular and therefore the main verb will be -is - So eliminate C and D

The discovery is responsible for advancing the studies (1. of the flow of heat 2. of the formation and periodic reversal) Choice A only maintains the prepositional parallelism.
B misses the parallel – of - in the second part.
E distorts the parallelism by stating -of how – in the second part
@daagh,Brian, Q1) regarding the prepositional parallelism, do we really need an "of" after "and"? Both of you have emphasized on this, so I would like to get this concept straight.

Wouldn't both of below sentences hold correct?
"Discovery is responsible for studies of heat flow and magnetic field".
"Discovery is responsible for studies of heat flow and of magnetic field".

Q2) This highlighted structure in A "the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet" made me leave this choice. Shouldn't there be a qualified noun for the adjective "the inner" in the specified phrase?
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2014, 13:14
Its A.
B- drops second 'of'
C- just too many issues here. Just to quote one- the discovery is singular and hence should not take 'are'
D- again too many issues and same 'are' is wrong verb for singular subject of the discovery
E- parallelism is broken "the flow" should be followed by 'the formation and reversal'
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2014, 20:47
raghavs wrote:
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than
Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner
through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field.
A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal
of its direction
D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of
its direction


A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field -correct prallele and correct use of verb form
B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and (missing parallelism 'OF') the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field - incorrect
C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal
of its direction - are here represents the discovery which is singlular. -incorrect
D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field - are here represents the discovery which is singlular. -incorrect
E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of
its direction
-- awkward sounding = out


IMO A
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2014, 11:05
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field - Correct

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

How X and the formation -> are not parallel
,and -> Comma and suggests there are more than three items in the list
.

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction
The discovery - are

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field
The discovery - are

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

This option changes the meaning. The original sentence states that Discovery that Earth's Inner Core independently of and more quickly than Y is responsible.
In this option, The discovery of Earth's inner core is responsible.
"rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers" is a modifier for Inner Core.

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 28 Dec 2014, 11:07
A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field (Correct)

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
Wrong because of parallelism - missing 'of' after and

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are
responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through
the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal
of its direction
WRONG - Subject verb error - 'are' does not agree with 'discovery'

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s
magnetic field
Same as (C). Also now the dependent clause starting with 'that' does not have a verb because 'rotating is turned into a verb-ing modifier

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is
responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the
outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of
its direction
Same sub verb issue as (D)
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 06 Sep 2015, 19:50
Hi EducationAisle,

As discussed long back (yes I am preparing again), wrt "10.9. Modifier-clauses ending in preposition are incorrect" of your book, we have "independently of" in the above construction? What am I missing?

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2015, 14:17
E and C can be eliminated on the basis of pronoun ambiguity also
"Its" in the last sentence can refer to earth or earth's core.

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2015, 21:32
rohitmanglik wrote:
Hi EducationAisle,

As discussed long back (yes I am preparing again), wrt "10.9. Modifier-clauses ending in preposition are incorrect" of your book, we have "independently of" in the above construction? What am I missing?

Hi Rohit, good morning! Section 10.9 of Sentence Correction Nirvana specifically mentions that clauses (especially relative clauses) ending in a preposition, are not preferred on GMAT.

Here, the sentence is:

The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

So, basically the core of the clause that we are discussing is:

Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers

In other words,

Earth’s inner core rotates independently of Earth’s outer layers.

Hopefully it is easy for you to see that this clause is not ending in a preposition.

Following are few examples from Official sources, where section 10.9 will in fact apply, since all the following have clauses that end in a preposition. Notice that in all these cases below, typically it is the relative clause that is ending in a preposition (hence our recommendation in the book you need to specifically look out for relative clauses ending in a preposition).

In each of the following cases, I have highlighted the incorrect modifier in red, and have also marked the preposition in bold.

GMATPrep (option B):
Because the numbers 1 and 2 and the letters A and B have connotations they are aware of, companies conducting consumer taste tests of foods or beverages typically choose numbers such as 697 or 483 to label the products.

OG 13, #83 (option D):
A report by the American Academy for the Advancement of Science has concluded that many of the dioxins that are currently uncontrolled and North Americans are exposed to come from the incineration of wastes.

OG Verbal Review, #20 (Option D):
Declining values for farm equipment and land, which farmers use as collateral to borrow against to get through the harvest season, are going to force many lenders to tighten or deny credit this spring.

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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently [#permalink]

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New post 24 May 2016, 14:37
raghavs wrote:
The discovery that Earth’s inner core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

C. core rotates independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers are responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction

D. core, rotating independently and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, are responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction


'The discovery' is singular. C and D are out.

A. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field discovery is responsible for studies OF the flow of heat and OF the formation and reversal. Correct parallelism

B. core rotates independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers is responsible for advancing studies of how heat from the inner core flows through the outer planet, and the formation and periodic reversal in direction of Earth’s magnetic field. discovery is responsible for advancing studies OF how heat , and the formation and periodic reversal. OF is missing in the second part of sentence.

E. core, rotating independently of and more quickly than Earth’s outer layers, is responsible for advancing studies of the flow of heat from the inner through the outer planet and of how Earth’s magnetic field forms and the periodic reversal of its direction . 'The discovery that earth's inner core is responsible for advancing studies' is not the intended meaning, 'The discovery that earth's inner core rotates is responsible' is the intended meaning
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Re: The discovery that Earths inner core rotates independently   [#permalink] 24 May 2016, 14:37

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