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I'm posting the next set of medium/hard DS questions. I'll post OA's with detailed explanations after some discussion. Please, post your solutions along with the answers. Good luck!

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y? (1) x^2+y^2<12 (2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am

4. How many numbers of 5 consecutive positive integers is divisible by 4? (1) The median of these numbers is odd (2) The average (arithmetic mean) of these numbers is a prime number

7. A certain fruit stand sold total of 76 oranges to 19 customers. How many of them bought only one orange? (1) None of the customers bought more than 4 oranges (2) The difference between the number of oranges bought by any two customers is even

10. The function f is defined for all positive integers a and b by the following rule: f(a,b)=(a+b)/GCF(a,b), where GCF(a,b) is the greatest common factor of a and b. If f(10,x)=11, what is the value of x? (1) x is a square of an integer (2) The sum of the distinct prime factors of x is a prime number.

(1) 3x + 4 < 2y + 3 --> \(3x<2y-1\). \(x\) can be some very small number for instance -100 and \(y\) some large enough number for instance -3 and the answer would be YES, \(x<y\) BUT if \(x=-2\) and \(y=-2.1\) then the answer would be NO, \(x>y\). Not sufficient.

Bunuel, while solving (1), how do you know which nos to plugin in and test? Can you suggest some approach please? I got this one wrong because for the values I plugged in, I was always getting \(x<y\)

I'm quite confused by the fundamental concept here. I sub in x = -1.1 and y = -1 (which makes x<y), and equation 2x - 3 < 3y - 4 doesn't work, but then if you switch them around, x = -1 and y = -1.1, the equation still doesn't work.

What are we trying to find with substituting in numbers here? I feel like I have tied a knot in my head. Someoone please help? Thanks.

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

(1) x^2+y^2<12

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am

Responding to a pm:

Time taken by Bonnie to complete one work = x hrs Time taken by Clyde to complete one work = y hrs x and y are odd integers i.e. they could take values such as 1/3/5/7/9/11...

Question: Is x = y? i.e. is the time taken by Bonnie equal to time taken by Clyde? i.e. is the speed of Bonnie equal to the speed of Clyde?

(1) x^2+y^2<12 This info is not related to work concepts. It's just number properties. x and y are odd integers. If x = y = 1, this inequality is satisfied. If x = 1 and y = 3, this inequality is satisfied.

This means x may or may not be equal to y. Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30 am.r Together, they take 45 mins to complete the painting of the car. This means, if their rate of work were the same, each one of them would have taken 1.5 hrs working alone. But their time taken is an integer value. We can say that they do not take the same time i.e. x is not equal to y. Hence this statement is sufficient to say \(x \neq y\)

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

(1) x^2+y^2<12

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am

Responding to a pm:

Time taken by Bonnie to complete one work = x hrs Time taken by Clyde to complete one work = y hrs x and y are odd integers i.e. they could take values such as 1/3/5/7/9/11...

Question: Is x = y? i.e. is the time taken by Bonnie equal to time taken by Clyde? i.e. is the speed of Bonnie equal to the speed of Clyde?

(1) x^2+y^2<12 This info is not related to work concepts. It's just number properties. x and y are odd integers. If x = y = 1, this inequality is satisfied. If x = 1 and y = 3, this inequality is satisfied.

This means x may or may not be equal to y. Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30 am.r Together, they take 45 mins to complete the painting of the car. This means, if their rate of work were the same, each one of them would have taken 1.5 hrs working alone. But their time taken is an integer value. We can say that they do not take the same time i.e. x is not equal to y. Hence this statement is sufficient to say \(x \neq y\)

Answer (B)

Thanks a lot for your explanation and response to my pm
_________________

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

Bonnie and Clyde when working together complete the painting of the car ins \(\frac{xy}{x+y}\) hours (sum of the rates equal to the combined rate or reciprocal of total time: \(\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}=\frac{1}{T}\) --> \(T=\frac{xy}{x+y}\)). Now, if \(x=y\) then the total time would be: \(\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}\), since \(x\) is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, ....

(1) x^2+y^2<12 --> it's possible \(x\) and \(y\) to be odd and equal to each other if \(x=y=1\) but it's also possible that \(x=1\) and \(y=3\) (or vise-versa). Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am --> they complete the job in 3/4 of an hour (45 minutes), since it's not odd/2 then \(x\) and \(y\) are not equal. Sufficient.

Answer: B.

i didnot understand this..... the questions says if they are working independently.... why are you considering combined rate? my analysis I ended up at the same answer though

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

Bonnie and Clyde when working together complete the painting of the car ins \(\frac{xy}{x+y}\) hours (sum of the rates equal to the combined rate or reciprocal of total time: \(\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}=\frac{1}{T}\) --> \(T=\frac{xy}{x+y}\)). Now, if \(x=y\) then the total time would be: \(\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}\), since \(x\) is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, ....

(1) x^2+y^2<12 --> it's possible \(x\) and \(y\) to be odd and equal to each other if \(x=y=1\) but it's also possible that \(x=1\) and \(y=3\) (or vise-versa). Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am --> they complete the job in 3/4 of an hour (45 minutes), since it's not odd/2 then \(x\) and \(y\) are not equal. Sufficient.

Answer: B.

i didnot understand this..... the questions says if they are working independently.... why are you considering combined rate? my analysis I ended up at the same answer though

Because they are working simultaneously and independently to paint the same car.
_________________

(1) x^2+y^2=1. Recall that \((x-y)^2\geq{0}\) (square of any number is more than or equal to zero) --> \(x^2-2xy+y^2\geq{0}\) --> since \(x^2+y^2=1\) then: \(1-2xy\geq{0}\) --> \(xy\leq{\frac{1}{2}}\). Sufficient.

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

Bonnie and Clyde when working together complete the painting of the car ins \(\frac{xy}{x+y}\) hours (sum of the rates equal to the combined rate or reciprocal of total time: \(\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}=\frac{1}{T}\) --> \(T=\frac{xy}{x+y}\)). Now, if \(x=y\) then the total time would be: \(\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}\), since \(x\) is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, ....

(1) x^2+y^2<12 --> it's possible \(x\) and \(y\) to be odd and equal to each other if \(x=y=1\) but it's also possible that \(x=1\) and \(y=3\) (or vise-versa). Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am --> they complete the job in 3/4 of an hour (45 minutes), since it's not odd/2 then \(x\) and \(y\) are not equal. Sufficient.

Answer: B.

Hi,

Just a question, Only if we get a answer which is "odd/2" then x & y are considered to be equal . rite?

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

Bonnie and Clyde when working together complete the painting of the car ins \(\frac{xy}{x+y}\) hours (sum of the rates equal to the combined rate or reciprocal of total time: \(\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}=\frac{1}{T}\) --> \(T=\frac{xy}{x+y}\)). Now, if \(x=y\) then the total time would be: \(\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}\), since \(x\) is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, ....

(1) x^2+y^2<12 --> it's possible \(x\) and \(y\) to be odd and equal to each other if \(x=y=1\) but it's also possible that \(x=1\) and \(y=3\) (or vise-versa). Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am --> they complete the job in 3/4 of an hour (45 minutes), since it's not odd/2 then \(x\) and \(y\) are not equal. Sufficient.

Answer: B.

Hi,

Just a question, Only if we get a answer which is "odd/2" then x & y are considered to be equal . rite?

Given: \(6a=3b=7c\) --> least common multiple of 6, 3, and 7 is 42 hence we ca write: \(6a=3b=7c=42x\), for some number \(x\) --> \(a=7x\), \(b=14x\) and \(c=6x\).

(1) ac=6b --> \(7x*6x=6*14x\) --> \(x^2=2x\) --> \(x=0\) or \(x=2\). Not sufficient.

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

Bonnie and Clyde when working together complete the painting of the car ins \(\frac{xy}{x+y}\) hours (sum of the rates equal to the combined rate or reciprocal of total time: \(\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}=\frac{1}{T}\) --> \(T=\frac{xy}{x+y}\)). Now, if \(x=y\) then the total time would be: \(\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}\), since \(x\) is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, ....

(1) x^2+y^2<12 --> it's possible \(x\) and \(y\) to be odd and equal to each other if \(x=y=1\) but it's also possible that \(x=1\) and \(y=3\) (or vise-versa). Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am --> they complete the job in 3/4 of an hour (45 minutes), since it's not odd/2 then \(x\) and \(y\) are not equal. Sufficient.

Answer: B.

Bunuel, I did not understand the reasoning behind statement 2 being sufficient. Line marked in red is my doubt. what does it mean ?

Given: \(6a=3b=7c\) --> least common multiple of 6, 3, and 7 is 42 hence we ca write: \(6a=3b=7c=42x\), for some number \(x\) --> \(a=7x\), \(b=14x\) and \(c=6x\).

(1) ac=6b --> \(7x*6x=6*14x\) --> \(x^2=2x\) --> \(x=0\) or \(x=2\). Not sufficient.

Bunuel, Here's how I did . I don't know why it is wrong. Please advise :

6a=3b=7c

=> 12a=6b=14c

From 1) ac=6b => ac=12a => c=12.. a can be cancelled because it is not inequality. .

so c =12..

however,

ac-12a=0 --> a(c-12)=0 so a=0 OR c=12 .. Is this the reason why my soln is wrong?

Never reduce an equation by a variable (or expression with a variable), if you are not certain that the variable (or the expression with a variable) doesn't equal to zero. We can not divide by zero.

So, if you divide (reduce) ac=12a by a, you assume, with no ground for it, that a does not equal to zero thus exclude a possible solution (notice that both a=0 AND c-12=0 satisfy the equation).

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

Bonnie and Clyde when working together complete the painting of the car ins \(\frac{xy}{x+y}\) hours (sum of the rates equal to the combined rate or reciprocal of total time: \(\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}=\frac{1}{T}\) --> \(T=\frac{xy}{x+y}\)). Now, if \(x=y\) then the total time would be: \(\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}\), since \(x\) is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, ....

(1) x^2+y^2<12 --> it's possible \(x\) and \(y\) to be odd and equal to each other if \(x=y=1\) but it's also possible that \(x=1\) and \(y=3\) (or vise-versa). Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am --> they complete the job in 3/4 of an hour (45 minutes), since it's not odd/2 then \(x\) and \(y\) are not equal. Sufficient.

Answer: B.

Bunuel, I did not understand the reasoning behind statement 2 being sufficient. Line marked in red is my doubt. what does it mean ?

From the stem we got that if \(x=y\) then the total time would be: \(\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}\), since \(x\) is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours (1/2 hours = 0.5 hours), 1.5 hours (3/2 hours = 1.5 hours), 2.5 hours (5/2 hours = 2.5 hours), 3.5 hours (7/2 hours = 3.5 hours), 4.5 hours (9/2 hours = 4.5 hours), ....

Now, from the second statement we got that they complete the job in 0.75 hours, since the total time (0.75 hours) is NOT odd/2 (0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, 3.5 hours, 4.5 hours, ....), then \(x\) and \(y\) are not equal.

Given: \(6a=3b=7c\) --> least common multiple of 6, 3, and 7 is 42 hence we ca write: \(6a=3b=7c=42x\), for some number \(x\) --> \(a=7x\), \(b=14x\) and \(c=6x\).

(1) ac=6b --> \(7x*6x=6*14x\) --> \(x^2=2x\) --> \(x=0\) or \(x=2\). Not sufficient.

Bunuel, Here's how I did . I don't know why it is wrong. Please advise :

6a=3b=7c

=> 12a=6b=14c

From 1) ac=6b => ac=12a => c=12.. a can be cancelled because it is not inequality. .

so c =12..

however,

ac-12a=0 --> a(c-12)=0 so a=0 OR c=12 .. Is this the reason why my soln is wrong?

Never reduce an equation by a variable (or expression with a variable), if you are not certain that the variable (or the expression with a variable) doesn't equal to zero. We can not divide by zero.

So, if you divide (reduce) ac=12a by a, you assume, with no ground for it, that a does not equal to zero thus exclude a possible solution (notice that both a=0 AND c-12=0 satisfy the equation).

Hope it's clear.

thanks alot. .you rock man!! r u a phd in maths ?
_________________

hope is a good thing, maybe the best of things. And no good thing ever dies.

3. If a, b and c are integers, is abc an even integer?

In order the product of the integers to be even at leas on of them must be even

(1) b is halfway between a and c --> on the GMAT we often see such statement and it can ALWAYS be expressed algebraically as \(b=\frac{a+c}{2}\). Now, does that mean that at leas on of them is be even? Not necessarily, consider \(a=1\), \(b=3\) and \(c=5\). Of course it's also possible that \(b=even\), for example if \(a=1\) and \(b=7\). Not sufficient.

(2) a = b - c --> \(a+c=b\). Since it's not possible that the sum of two odd integers to be odd then the case of 3 odd numbers is ruled out, hence at least on of them must be even. Sufficient.

Answer: B.

1) b = a+c/2 i.e. a+c = even (as it is divisible by 2) and an even# divided by another even# can be odd or even (e.g. 46/2 = 23 an odd, but 48/2 = 24 an even). now if a + c = odd + odd = even and if a+c/2 = odd then all 3 numbers are odd (e.g. a=21, b=23 and c=25) and abc = odd but if a+c = even+even then a+c/2 = odd and abc = even (a=22, b=24 and c=26). so insufficient 2) a = b - c i.e. a + c = b. from number properties we know that i) odd+odd = even, ii) even+odd = odd iii) even+even = even so in any of the 3 cases you will end up with atleast one number that is even and hence abc = even. sufficient. correct ans. B
_________________

___________________________________________ Consider +1 Kudos if my post helped

Hi Brunnel, I have trouble with question 9 for the second statement, 2x-3<3y-4, when I substitute x=-5; y= -1; the equation holds but when I substitute x=-2; y=-5; the equation collapsed. So, wouldn't the answer be E? Please help explain, Thanks.

Hi Brunnel, I have trouble with question 9 for the second statement, 2x-3<3y-4, when I substitute x=-5; y= -1; the equation holds but when I substitute x=-2; y=-5; the equation collapsed. So, wouldn't the answer be E? Please help explain, Thanks.

The question does not ask whether 2x - 3 < 3y - 4, it asks whether x<y. While 2x - 3 < 3y - 4 is given to be true by the second statement.
_________________

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