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# The Discreet Charm of the DS

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The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2012, 03:15
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I'm posting the next set of medium/hard DS questions. I'll post OA's with detailed explanations after some discussion. Please, post your solutions along with the answers. Good luck!

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?
(1) x^2+y^2<12
(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-20.html#p1039633

2. Is xy<=1/2?
(1) x^2+y^2=1
(2) x^2-y^2=0

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-20.html#p1039634

3. If a, b and c are integers, is abc an even integer?
(1) b is halfway between a and c
(2) a = b - c

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039637

4. How many numbers of 5 consecutive positive integers is divisible by 4?
(1) The median of these numbers is odd
(2) The average (arithmetic mean) of these numbers is a prime number

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039645

5. What is the value of integer x?
(1) 2x^2+9<9x
(2) |x+10|=2x+8

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039650

6. If a and b are integers and ab=2, is a=2?
(1) b+3 is not a prime number
(2) a>b

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039651

7. A certain fruit stand sold total of 76 oranges to 19 customers. How many of them bought only one orange?
(1) None of the customers bought more than 4 oranges
(2) The difference between the number of oranges bought by any two customers is even

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039655

8. If x=0.abcd, where a, b, c and d are digits from 0 to 9, inclusive, is x>7/9?
(1) a+b>14
(2) a-c>6

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039662

9. If x and y are negative numbers, is x<y?
(1) 3x + 4 < 2y + 3
(2) 2x - 3 < 3y - 4

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039665

10. The function f is defined for all positive integers a and b by the following rule: f(a,b)=(a+b)/GCF(a,b), where GCF(a,b) is the greatest common factor of a and b. If f(10,x)=11, what is the value of x?
(1) x is a square of an integer
(2) The sum of the distinct prime factors of x is a prime number.

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039671

11. If x and y are integers, is x a positive integer?
(1) x*|y| is a prime number.
(2) x*|y| is non-negative integer.

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039678

12. If 6a=3b=7c, what is the value of a+b+c?
(1) ac=6b
(2) 5b=8a+4c

Solution: the-discreet-charm-of-the-ds-126962-40.html#p1039680
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05 Feb 2012, 04:43
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7. A certain fruit stand sold total of 76 oranges to 19 customers. How many of them bought only one orange?

(1) None of the customers bought more than 4 oranges --> this basically means that all customers bought exactly 4 oranges (76/19=4), because if even one customer bought less than 4, the sum will be less than 76. Hence, no one bought only one orange. Sufficient.

(2) The difference between the number of oranges bought by any two customers is even --> in order the difference between ANY number of oranges bought to be even, either all customers must have bought odd number of oranges or all customers must have bough even number of oranges. But the first case is not possible: the sum of 19 odd numbers is odd and not even like 76. Hence, again no one bought only one=odd orange. Sufficient.

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05 Feb 2012, 06:11
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10. The function f is defined for all positive integers a and b by the following rule: f(a,b)=(a+b)/GCF(a,b), where GCF(a,b) is the greatest common factor of a and b. If f(10,x)=11, what is the value of x?

Notice that the greatest common factor of 10 and x, GCF(10,x), naturally must be a factor of 10: 1, 2, 5, and 10. Thus from f(10,x)=11 we can get four different values of x:

GCF(10,x)=1 --> $$f(10,x)=11=\frac{10+x}{1}$$ --> $$x=1$$;
GCF(10,x)=2 --> $$f(10,x)=11=\frac{10+x}{2}$$ --> $$x=12$$;
GCF(10,x)=5 --> $$f(10,x)=11=\frac{10+x}{5}$$ --> $$x=45$$;
GCF(10,x)=10 --> $$f(10,x)=11=\frac{10+x}{10}$$ --> $$x=100$$.

(1) x is a square of an integer --> $$x$$ can be 1 or 100. Not sufficient.

(2) The sum of the distinct prime factors of x is a prime number ---> distinct primes of 12 are 2 and 3: $$2+3=5=prime$$, distinct primes of 45 are 3 and 5: $$3+5=8\neq{prime}$$ and distinct primes of 100 are 2 and 5: $$2+5=7=prime$$. $$x$$ can be 12 or 100. Not sufficient.

(1)+(2) $$x$$ can only be 100. Sufficient.

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2012, 03:59
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3. If a, b and c are integers, is abc an even integer?

In order the product of the integers to be even at leas on of them must be even

(1) b is halfway between a and c --> on the GMAT we often see such statement and it can ALWAYS be expressed algebraically as $$b=\frac{a+c}{2}$$. Now, does that mean that at leas on of them is be even? Not necessarily, consider $$a=1$$, $$b=3$$ and $$c=5$$. Of course it's also possible that $$b=even$$, for example if $$a=1$$ and $$b=7$$. Not sufficient.

(2) a = b - c --> $$a+c=b$$. Since it's not possible that the sum of two odd integers to be odd then the case of 3 odd numbers is ruled out, hence at least on of them must be even. Sufficient.

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05 Feb 2012, 03:31
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SOLUTIONS:

1. Bonnie can paint a stolen car in x hours, and Clyde can paint the same car in y hours. They start working simultaneously and independently at their respective constant rates at 9:45am. If both x and y are odd integers, is x=y?

Bonnie and Clyde when working together complete the painting of the car ins $$\frac{xy}{x+y}$$ hours (sum of the rates equal to the combined rate or reciprocal of total time: $$\frac{1}{x}+\frac{1}{y}=\frac{1}{T}$$ --> $$T=\frac{xy}{x+y}$$). Now, if $$x=y$$ then the total time would be: $$\frac{x^2}{2x}=\frac{x}{2}$$, since $$x$$ is odd then this time would be odd/2: 0.5 hours, 1.5 hours, 2.5 hours, ....

(1) x^2+y^2<12 --> it's possible $$x$$ and $$y$$ to be odd and equal to each other if $$x=y=1$$ but it's also possible that $$x=1$$ and $$y=3$$ (or vise-versa). Not sufficient.

(2) Bonnie and Clyde complete the painting of the car at 10:30am --> they complete the job in 3/4 of an hour (45 minutes), since it's not odd/2 then $$x$$ and $$y$$ are not equal. Sufficient.

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2012, 03:37
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2. Is xy<=1/2?

(1) x^2+y^2=1. Recall that $$(x-y)^2\geq{0}$$ (square of any number is more than or equal to zero) --> $$x^2-2xy+y^2\geq{0}$$ --> since $$x^2+y^2=1$$ then: $$1-2xy\geq{0}$$ --> $$xy\leq{\frac{1}{2}}$$. Sufficient.

(2) x^2-y^2=0 --> $$|x|=|y|$$. Clearly insufficient.

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05 Feb 2012, 05:35
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9. If x and y are negative numbers, is x<y?

(1) 3x + 4 < 2y + 3 --> $$3x<2y-1$$. $$x$$ can be some very small number for instance -100 and $$y$$ some large enough number for instance -3 and the answer would be YES, $$x<y$$ BUT if $$x=-2$$ and $$y=-2.1$$ then the answer would be NO, $$x>y$$. Not sufficient.

(2) 2x - 3 < 3y - 4 --> $$x<1.5y-\frac{1}{2}$$ --> $$x<y+(0.5y-\frac{1}{2})=y+negative$$ --> $$x<y$$ (as y+negative is "more negative" than y). Sufficient.

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05 Feb 2012, 04:32
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5. What is the value of integer x?

(1) 2x^2+9<9x --> factor qudratics: $$(x-\frac{3}{2})(x-3)<0$$ --> roots are $$\frac{3}{2}$$ and 3 --> "<" sign indicates that the solution lies between the roots: $$1.5<x<3$$ --> since there only integer in this range is 2 then $$x=2$$. Sufficient.

(2) |x+10|=2x+8 --> LHS is an absolute value, which is always non negative, hence RHS must also be non-negative: $$2x+8\geq{0}$$ --> $$x\geq{-4}$$, for this range $$x+10$$ is positive hence $$|x+10|=x+10$$ --> $$x+10=2x+8$$ --> $$x=2$$. Sufficient.

Check this for more on solving inequalities like the one in the first statement:
x2-4x-94661.html#p731476
inequalities-trick-91482.html
everything-is-less-than-zero-108884.html?hilit=extreme#p868863

Hope it helps.
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The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2012, 06:49
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12. If 6a=3b=7c, what is the value of a+b+c?

Given: $$6a=3b=7c$$ --> least common multiple of 6, 3, and 7 is 42 hence we ca write: $$6a=3b=7c=42x$$, for some number $$x$$ --> $$a=7x$$, $$b=14x$$ and $$c=6x$$.

(1) ac=6b --> $$7x*6x=6*14x$$ --> $$x^2=2x$$ --> $$x=0$$ or $$x=2$$. Not sufficient.

(2) 5b=8a+4c --> $$5*14x=8*7x+4*6x$$ --> $$70x=80x$$ --> $$10x=0$$ --> $$x=0$$ --> $$a=b=c=0$$ --> $$a+b+c=0$$. Sufficient.

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05 Feb 2012, 04:33
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6. If a and b are integers and ab=2, is a=2?

Notice that we are not told that a and b are positive.

There are following integer pairs of (a, b) possible: (1, 2), (-1, -2), (2, 1) and (-2, -1). Basically we are asked whether we have the third case.

(1) b+3 is not a prime number --> rules out 1st and 4th options. Not sufficient.
(2) a>b --> again rules out 1st and 4th options. Not sufficient.

(1)+(2) Still two options are left: (-1, -2) and (2, 1). Not sufficient.

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05 Feb 2012, 04:21
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4. How many numbers of 5 consecutive positive integers is divisible by 4?

(1) The median of these numbers is odd --> the median of the set with odd number of terms is just a middle term, thus our set of 5 consecutive numbers is: {Odd, Even, Odd, Even, Odd}. Out of 2 consecutive even integers only one is a multiple of 4. Sufficient.

(2) The average (arithmetic mean) of these numbers is a prime number --> in any evenly spaced set the arithmetic mean (average) is equal to the median --> mean=median=prime. Since it's not possible that median=2=even, (in this case not all 5 numbers will be positive), then median=odd prime, and we have the same case as above. Sufficient.

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2012, 13:56
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5. What is the value of integer x?
(1) 2x^2+9<9x
(2) |x+10|=2x+8

Stmt 1 - 2x^2+9<9x
Put the values -5, -4, -3, -2, -1, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 So the only value that satifies the equation is 2.
Sufficient

Stmt 2 |x+10|=2x+8
In number line take one number X = - 10.
Condition one X > - 10 which will result in positive equation.
x+10=2x+8
x = 2
x = 2 greater than -10 so satifies the equation.

Condition two X < - 10 which will result in negative equation.
x+10 = - 2x - 8
x = 6 which is is not less than -10 which cannot the solution of inequality.

So we get only one value X = 2
Sufficient

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2012, 04:56
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8. If x=0.abcd, where a, b, c and d are digits from 0 to 9, inclusive, is x>7/9?

First of all 7/9 is a recurring decimal =0.77(7). For more on converting Converting Decimals to Fractions see: math-number-theory-88376.html

(1) a+b>14 --> the least value of a is 6 (6+9=15>14), so in this case x=0.69d<0.77(7) but a=7 and b=9 is also possible, and in this case x=0.79d>0.77(7). Not sufficient.

(2) a-c>6 --> the least value of a is 7 (7-0=7>6), but we don't know the value of b. Not sufficient.

(1)+(2) The least value of a is 7 and in this case from (1) least value of b is 8 (7+8=15>14), hence the least value of x=0.78d>0.77(7). Sufficient.

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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05 Feb 2012, 06:38
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11. If x and y are integers, is x a positive integer?

(1) x*|y| is a prime number --> since only positive numbers can be primes, then: x*|y|=positive --> x=positive. Sufficient

(2) x*|y| is non-negative integer. Notice that we are told that x*|y| is non-negative, not that it's positive, so x can be positive as well as zero. Not sufficient.

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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02 Feb 2012, 03:58
2
1.B
2.A
3.B
4.D
5.A
6.E
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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2012, 13:56
2
7. A certain fruit stand sold total of 76 oranges to 19 customers. How many of them bought only one orange?
(1) None of the customers bought more than 4 oranges
(2) The difference between the number of oranges bought by any two customers is even

76 oranges / 19 customers.

Stmt 1 - Let's say everyone got maximum 4 oranges to 76 distributed. And if someone got less than 4 and someone would have more than 4 which is not possible. So sufficient to tell that noone got 1 orange.

Stmt 2 - Difference will be even if, even - even OR odd - odd.

Say suppose they got odd, the nall of them have to recieve odd number else the difference will not even. Which is not possible as there 76 oranges which wont divide oddly. But if its even if someone gets 2 then someone can get 6 which will make the difference even. All evens will evenly divide 79 between 19 of them.

Sufficient

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2012, 17:20
2
Bunuel wrote:
If you answered this question in less than 30 sec using this approach then all I can say is great job!

As for the easier/faster solution, little hint: it involves simplest algebraic manipulation.

F***ing good !

(x-y)2 = 1-2xy >=0 => xy>=1/2.

Now this should take 15sec !
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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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16 May 2012, 00:39
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piyushksharma wrote:
Bunuel wrote:
9. If x and y are negative numbers, is x<y?

(1) 3x + 4 < 2y + 3 --> $$3x<2y-1$$. $$x$$ can be some very small number for instance -100 and $$y$$ some large enough number for instance -3 and the answer would be YES, $$x<y$$ BUT if $$x=-2$$ and $$y=-2.1$$ then the answer would be NO, $$x>y$$. Not sufficient.

(2) 2x - 3 < 3y - 4 --> $$x<1.5y-\frac{1}{2}$$ --> $$x<y+(0.5y-\frac{1}{2})=y+negative$$ --> $$x<y$$ (as y+negative is "more negative" than y). Sufficient.

Hi bunuel,
Did not got how u solved option 2.Could you please explain in detail.
thanks.

(2) 2x - 3 < 3y - 4 --> $$x<1.5y-\frac{1}{2}$$ --> $$x<y+(0.5y-\frac{1}{2})$$. Now, since $$y$$ is a negative number then $$0.5y-\frac{1}{2}=negative$$ so, we have that: $$x<y+negative$$. $$y+negative$$ is less then $$y$$ and if $$x$$ is less than $$y+negative$$ then it must also be less than $$y$$ itself: $$x<y$$.

Hope it's clear.
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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2012, 07:01
1
3. If a, b and c are integers, is abc an even integer?
(1) b is halfway between a and c
(2) a = b - c

Funda for product abc to be even, if any one of them even then product will be even.

Stmt 1 - says b = (a+c)/2
means a+c is some even number.
E + E also results in even
O + O also results in Even and b can be anything even or odd
so not sufficient.

Stmt 2 - says a = b - c
say worst condition b an c are odd . will results in a even. or lets says any one among b or c is even then a off but since one number is even the product will be even so sufficient.

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Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS  [#permalink]

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03 Feb 2012, 08:00
1
1) statement 2 means

rate = 1/x + 1/y = 4/3 (1/[45 mins/ 60 mins]).

The only integer that would work is 1 n 3. Therefore x =/=y. Since X has to be 1 or 3 and Y is whatever X isn't.
Re: The Discreet Charm of the DS   [#permalink] 03 Feb 2012, 08:00

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