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The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is

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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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11 May 2011, 21:59
1
let ratio for large animals = S/E
Ratio for small animals = s/e
option C: S/E < s/e.........when inverted looks like this:
E/S > e/s........ that is:
energy expended per unit space (for large animals) > that for small animals...
tallies with the stimulus

thats the kind of representation i was looking for , Got C in
3:00 min
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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16 Sep 2011, 05:30
Very tough one.. Took 3 minutes.. C it is..
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27 Sep 2011, 07:54
Thanks @gmatbull - Great explanation.
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06 Jan 2012, 07:33
Quite tricky. The ratio seemed to throw off track at first but it was the only answer that made sense. C is the answer.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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03 May 2012, 04:48
(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals.
WRONG. Because the author agrees energies are different for different sizes.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.
WRONG. This is the Premise so can't be the assumption.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
CORRECT
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.
WRONG. There is a lot of variation for larger animals ratio is higher and smaller animals ratio is smaller.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal.
WRONG. Speeds are irrelevant to the argument. We are discussing only energies needed.
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14 May 2012, 22:53
The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals. - Negating the information already provided in the Premise
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can. - Provided in the premise already
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals. - This provides the most appropriate assumption - Correct
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals. - If this is assumed, then both large and small animals should be able to move fast. Does not justify to be an assumption.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal. - Irrelevant information
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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19 May 2012, 03:13
I guess C is the straight choice...
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2012, 08:11
small animals ==> large surface area but less weight==> climb faster
Large animals ==> smaller surface area but more weight ==> slower
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06 Jun 2012, 21:03
Energy expended (E) to move uphill is proportional to Body weight. ie W
Hence more W results in greater E

Energy output (OE) available is proportional to surface area ie A
Hence more A results in greater OE

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals. - If this is the case, then both large and small animals should be able to move uphill with same efficiency - Incorrect.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can. - Already mentioned in the argument - Incorrect
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals. - This provides the proper link why small animals are more efficient at moving compared to large animals - Correct
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals. - Should have equal efficiency among all animals - Incorrect
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal. - Irrelevant in the present context - Incorrect
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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19 Aug 2012, 11:12
1
Though my reply is a bit late, still I shall not suffice just by solving and not by sharing.
ENERGY EXPENDED~ WEIGHT OF THE ANIMAL
ENERGY OUTPUT ~ SURFACE AREA OF THE ANIMAL
CLEARLY SURFACE AREA ~ WEIGHT,
let surface area be denoted by A and weight be W.
The more is A/W, the more is the energy output/energy expended.
If an option states that the ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals, then for sure the ratio of energy output/energy expended is much less than that of smaller animals.
Hence c is the clear winner.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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02 Oct 2012, 23:10
There are two possible assumption to this
one is straight fwd that there is a limitation on the max energy output as energy output is proportional to size. Hence when the slow down it means that they reached there is max. but unfortunately its not mentioned in the options
another is a mathmetical approach

Energy to move uphill proportional to Body wt...................1
Energy output Proprtional to Surface area..........................2

Divide 1 and 2

energy to move uphill Body wt
------------------------- = K* -----------------
energy output Surface area

This clearly justifies the option C As Energy decreses in animals with body wt the other side of eqn should aslo decrease
to maintain the proportionality
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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30 Aug 2013, 03:04
1
I chose C.
It clearly answers the question: bigger body weight means more energy output is needed to move uhill. Lower surface area means lower energy output. So in combination, this means slower uphill movement.

A is wrong. IMO, it weakens the conclusion. Because if energy amount is the same, then larger animals should be faster due to bigger surface area.
B looks irrelevant to me
D looks again irrelevant since the ratio of energy output to BW is not discussed in the question stem
E provides additional information which does not contribute to the logic of the author.
and it also talks about running while we are interested about moving uphill
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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24 Apr 2014, 21:46
jainu wrote:
The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal.

Solution: C
Premise: Generic Principle given that required energy for task is determined by body weight and available energy is determined by surface area of animal
Conclusion: Principal is assumed as reason for difference in speed between small and large animal while climbing uphill.
Assumption: for large animal --> required energy > available energy or body weight > surface area. then only above principal can serve as reason i.e must be true.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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29 Jun 2016, 00:02
jainu .. Whats the source of this ? Is it from LSAT ?
Coz there wont be this kind of calculation involved CR in GMAT
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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06 Jan 2017, 21:16
Energy output is proportional to surface area and inversely proportional to weight as per argument . So smaller Animal have this ratio more as compared to bigger animal . Option C is the anwer.

My bad I D without pre thiniking
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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18 Jan 2017, 16:07
C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
since if the ratio of the body weight and the surface area are large than the weight of small animals will increase but the surface area of their body wiill small and hence the small animals will have to put more effort to climb uphill.
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2018, 00:06
Quote:
The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals.
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal.

Couldn't understand this question. Hence need your help. Below is my understanding

Premise : -
Energy that an animal must expend ~ Body weight of this animal
Energy output available to perform this task ~ To surface area of the animal

Conclusion : -
Small animals such as squirrel can run at the same speed as it can run on level ground. But large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

I couldn't proceed ahead as i was confused with the options. Can you help to eliminate the options?
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The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2018, 05:20
1
pikolo2510 wrote:
Couldn't understand this question. Hence need your help. Below is my understanding

Premise : -
Energy that an animal must expend ~ Body weight of this animal
Energy output available to perform this task ~ To surface area of the animal

Conclusion : -
Small animals such as squirrel can run at the same speed as it can run on level ground. But large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

I couldn't proceed ahead as i was confused with the options. Can you help to eliminate the options?

Okay. Fist of all you have a look at the question in such a manner that you understand as to how the conclusion was derived. You identified the conclusion correctly, but understand how the author reached at it.

Energy Input to the body ~ Body Weight
Energy Output to the body ~ Surface Area

It's nature's law that the surface area of large animals will be greater than the surface area of small animals. Another law of nature is that while moving uphill a person has to put in more efforts because of the gravitational force. Thus, if the surface area/body weight is smaller in large animals then it means that the Output/Input is less. If the output is less than that would definitely mean that the smaller animals would be faster. Thus, "C" is correct.

Quote:
The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is proportional to its body weight, whereas the animal’s energy output available to perform this task is proportional to its surface area. This is the reason that small animals, like squirrel, can run up a tree trunk almost as fast as they can move on level ground, whereas large animals tend to slow down when they are moving uphill.

Which one of the following is an assumption on which the explanation above depends?

(A) The amount of energy needed to move uphill is no greater for large animals that it is for small animals. --This is only talking about the Energy input. But we know that the equation can change with different Output. We need to know both the parameters. Not sufficient.
(B) Small animals can move more rapidly than large animals can. --This is just restatement of the conclusion.
(C) The ratio of surface area to body weight is smaller in large animals than it is in small animals. --Correct as explained above
(D) There is little variation in the ratio of energy output to body weight among animals. --We are not worried about Output/Input ratio's variation. We need to understand the difference in ratio of different animals. Insuffieicnt.
(E) The amount of energy needed to run at a given speed is proportional to the surface area of the running animal. --This is just reinstatement of the premise. We already know Energy output ~ Surface Area

Hope this helps!

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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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12 Aug 2018, 10:45
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Re: The energy an animal must expend to move uphill is  [#permalink]

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10 Sep 2018, 16:45
Kaplan OE:
We’re looking for an assumption in an explanation, so your first task is to locate the
explanation and the observation it is supposed to explain. The Keyword phrase “This is the
reason that . . .” gives the structure away: The first sentence is meant to explain the
observation discussed in the second sentence. Squirrels can run up steep inclines very
quickly whereas large animals slow down while moving uphill. What is it about squirrels
that gives them the edge? The explanation claims that the energy required to run uphill is
proportional to body weight, but the energy available to run uphill is proportional to
surface area. So the animals that have an easier time running uphill have relatively more
surface area as compared to their body weight. How does this apply to the observation
about squirrels? We know that squirrels weigh less than larger animals, and so they don’t
need as much energy to run up hills, but we can also infer that squirrels have less surface
area than larger animals, and so they have less energy available to do the job. So while
squirrels have an advantage in one aspect (body weight), they have a disadvantage in
another (surface area). So what else has to be true about squirrels? As (C) puts it, squirrels
must have a high surface area to weight ratio, which means that they have more surface
area relative to their body weight. (C) fills in the gap by explaining why the squirrels’
disadvantage in surface area is more than compensated by their advantage in body weight.
Squirrels may have a little less energy to do the job, but this is more than made up by the
fact that larger animals are much, much heavier.
(A) Au-contraire: In the event that large animals weigh more than small animals (which is
most likely the case), the first line of the stimulus supports the opposite of (A).
(B) The issue here is moving uphill. The explanation therefore need not rely on any
comparison of the general speed of small and large animals. Moreover, (B) ignores the surface
area issue and thus fails to tie together the theory and the phenomenon it’s meant to explain.
(D) and (E) both focus on ratios that are never mentioned in the stimulus (energy output is
proportional to surface area; energy needed is proportional to weight), so there’s no way
that either of these can be the assumption on which the explanation depends. Moreover, (E)
has the same problem as (A)— “run” is simply too general because the stimulus focuses on
moving uphill.
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