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The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic

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The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 01:45
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The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.


A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system

B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system

D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system

E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Apr 2020, 01:30

OFFICIAL EXPLANATION



The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.


A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system

This answer choice makes correct use of Parallelism. Note that this question has three lists:

1. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low interest loans (nouns)

2. landscape preservation and maintenance (nouns)

3. viable and sustainable (adjectives)



B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

Incorrect.

This answer choice unnecessarily changes the meaning and logic of the original sentence.

What helps us identify this question as a Parallelism question as well as identify the mistake is the following Stop Sign: A list of 2 items or more, separated by commas and and/or before the last item.

In a list of 2 or more items, all the items should be the same part of speech (all nouns, all verbs, or all adjectives), and they should be logically parallel.

By changing the original parallel construction of two nouns (landscape preservation and maintenance) to a parallelism of two verbs (encourage and maintain), the corrected sentence changes the meaning and logic of the original sentence.

Whereas in the original sentence maintenance is the object of the verb encourage (to encourage...preservation and maintenance), in the corrected sentence to maintain is the object (or purpose) of the loans (loans ...to encourage and maintain). This may not seem like a radical change of meaning but getting money for someone to do something versus getting money to encourage someone to do something may be very different activities.

In addition, this answer choice unnecessarily changes the adjective economic to economical. While these words sometimes have the same meaning, economical can also signify avoiding waste, or being efficient. Therefore changing economic to economical is both unnecessary and confusing.



C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect. Verb+ing (preserving, maintaining) can be used as a noun or an adjective replacement only when there's no actual noun. Since in this sentence there are real nouns - preservation, maintenance - they should be used.

Changing the adjective sustainable to an adjective with a Verb+ing form sustaining, is not only incorrect because of the change of form; this also changes the original meaning of the sentence:

A sustainable...agricultural system is a system that is able to be sustained, e.g. by not depleting resources or causing environmental damage. A sustaining agriculture system is a system that is able to sustain something else. e.g. by feeding lots of people.

There is also the meaning change from the plural subsidies, tax breaks, and loans to their singular forms. According to the original sentence, the European Union offers more than one of each. In this sentence the 'an' can be read as a single unit and not as a general concept.



D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system

Incorrect.

While this answer choice is grammatically correct, it violates the parallelism of the original sentence, thereby changing its meaning and making it illogical.

The original sentence has two lists of nouns:

1. economic subsidies, tax breaks, low-interest loans

2. preservation, maintenance


In the corrected sentence, the nouns loans and maintenance are changed to verbs lends and maintains.

This creates a new parallel structure for the sentence, by creating a new list of three verbs: offers, lends, maintains. The result is illogical, because the European Union (the subject of the sentence) does not itself maintain agricultural systems. Farmers do this. The Union encourages them with the incentives.



E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

Incorrect.

This answer choice is grammatically incorrect and illogical. By changing the adjective economic to the noun economics, the corrected sentence unnecessarily uses a noun rather than an adjective to describe a noun.

Note: While it is true that a noun can sometimes be used as an adjective (e.g an economics professor = a professor of economics), here economics would only make sense if used to describe the professional or theoretical field of economics (like mathematics). In the original sentence, however, economic subsidies does not refer to the field of economics. Therefore the original adjective economic is the only grammatically correct and logical choice, and the change is entirely unnecessary.

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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 03:46
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Quote:
The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.


A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system

B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system

D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system

E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture


NOTES: the gvt provides "economic" meaning monetary, not "economical"; it provides options, thus "or" not "and"; parallelism is "to encourage preservation and [to encourage] the maintenance"

Ans (A)
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 04:23
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A is the right answer.

Meaning: The EU offers farmers incentives. What kind of incentives? in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans. Purpose of the incentives? to encourage X: landscape preservation and Y: the maintenance of a A: viable and B: sustainable agricultural system. X and Y are both action nouns modified with adjectives. X, preservation is modified by the adjective landscape while Y: maintenance is modified by the definite article the. In addition, A and B are adjectives that modify agricultural system. The meaning is clear. The original sentence is clear with no apparent errors.

Quote:
A. The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.

Correct per the explanation given above. Keep A.

Quote:
B. The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture.

In B, the parallelism is between encourage and maintain. While this is correct grammatically, the meaning has changed. B says that the incentives offered are to 1. encourage landscape preservation and 2. maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture. In addition, economical subsidies is not the same as economic subsidies. Eliminate B for changing the meaning of the sentence.

Quote:
C. The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of an economic subsidy, [a] tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system.

B makes preserving and maintaining parallel, thereby changing the meaning of the original sentence to create an illogical meaning. In addition, viable and sustaining are not parallel. Eliminate C for these errors.

Quote:
D. The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system.

D changes the meaning of the original sentence by making the verbs lends and offers parallel. D is now suggesting that the EU lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation, illogically implying that the only circumstance under which the EU lends at low interest is to encourage landscape preservation. In addition, clearly, we cannot make maintains parallel to any verb in the sentence, implying that maintains should rather be maintenance. Even if maintains is maintenance, what does maintenance a viable and sustainable agricultural system mean? Eliminate D for the aforementioned issues.

Quote:
E. The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture.

economics subsidies is incorrect. Eliminate E.
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 05:00
Lets understand the structure
The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to (usage of to is correct as there is a PURPOSE ) encourage landscape preservation and (llism indication) the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.
to encourage AND to maintain . This format is only in option B .
IMO B
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 06:37
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The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.


A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system – preservation and the maintenance of is //. – The correct choice.

B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture -- preservation and maintain =not //.

C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system= to encourage and maintaining= not //.

D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system --- to encourage landscape preservation and maintains == not parallel.

E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture. == loans to encourage and the maintenance of = not parallel.
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 10:12
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Ans: A

a)correct.
b)economical wrong. two verbs encourage and maintain is now parallel. changes meaning.
c)not parallel
d)meaning change
e)a is better. the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 10:54
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The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.

A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system - CORRECT. 'landscape preservation' || 'the maintenance of a viable and sustainable ... ' both nouns are parallel.

B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture - WRONG.

C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system - WRONG. Neither 'landscape preserving' || maintaining not 'maintaining' || 'sustaining'.

D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system - WRONG.

E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture - WRONG.

IMO Answer A.
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 16:00
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The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.

Meaning: The US offers farms incentives in the form of [a parallel sets] to encourage two things: Landscape Preservation and The maintenance of a system.

Parallels sets: Economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loan
Another parallel sets: Preservation and Maintenance.

So far I don't see any errors. So let's check out the answer choices.

Quote:
A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system

Keep A for now.

Quote:
B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

Landscape preservation and maintain systems: a noun and a verb. This is not parallel. B is out.
Quote:
C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system

Land Preserving and maintaining: a noun and a noun. This is parallel. let's keep it for now.
Quote:
D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system

Same error as B. D is out.
Quote:
E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

Landscape preservation and the maintenance: a noun and a noun. This is okay. Let's keep it.

Now compare A, C, and E.

C seems like saying that the Us offers farms incentives to encourage "landscape preservation" and "maintaining a viable agricultural system and [maintaining] sustaining agricultural system. We say maintaining a sustainable agricultural system, not maintaining sustaining agricultural system. This doesn't make sense. So C is out.

E seems like saying that the US offers farms incentives to encourage the maintenance of systems (many systems) of viable and sustainable agriculture. This commits logical predication. The author intended to say that the US offer farms incentives to take care of the agricultural system. There should be only one agricultural system, not 2 or 3 or more. so E is out.

So A is the correct answer.
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 19:22
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ANS A

Parallelism and Meaning errors
EU gave to encourage the maintenance seems better than EU gave to maintain

The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.


A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system

B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustainable agricultural system

D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system

E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 20:45
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A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system......................obeys parallelism in all the nouns and the adjectives.....No flaws .......CORRECT

B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system

D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system

E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture

OA:A
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Apr 2020, 22:15
The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system.

The meaning of the sentence is EU offers farmers incentives in the form of X, Y or Z and A

A. economic subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of a viable and sustainable agricultural system distorts the meaning of the sentence and parallelism

B. economical subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and maintain systems of viable and sustainable agriculture here it tries to make to encourage and maintain parallel. Incorrect

C. an economic subsidy, tax break, or a low-interest loan to encourage landscape preserving and maintaining a viable and sustaining agricultural system same error of B trying to make preserving and maintaining

D. economic subsidies and tax breaks, or lends at low interest to encourage landscape preservation and maintains a viable and sustainable agricultural system IMO D corrects the parallelism error

E. economics subsidies, tax breaks, or low-interest loans to encourage landscape preservation and the maintenance of systems of viable and sustainable agriculture by skipping the word system the meaning of the sentence is altered
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Re: The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic   [#permalink] 07 Apr 2020, 22:15

The European Union offers farmers incentives in the form of economic

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