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The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue

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Re: The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue  [#permalink]

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New post 09 Sep 2013, 03:56
aakrity wrote:
Thanks Chiranjeev. Yes I am new to gmat. I understand the concept of inference questions now.
Just want to check if the question was to strengthen the conclusion then what would be the correct answer choice? D?

Posted from my mobile device


Yup. Option D seems to strengthen the argument.

Thanks,
Chiranjeev
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New post 16 Feb 2015, 09:08
Good one !

So, we have here a must be true question, so we can use ONLY the information stated in the text.

The fewer restrictions --> the more lawyers who advertise --> they charge less $ for that service than lawyers who do not advertise --> CONCLUSION: state removes restrictionsoverall --> consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.

(A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements -> reversed answer. If they don't have to specify fee arr.. they charge LESS
(B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services -> Argument delivers NO information about the # of consumers
(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services --> CORRECT. No restriction -> more lawyers advertise ther services (see my reasoning above)
(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services --> WRONG. This information is not stated anywhere in the argument. The arguments says only that those who advertise chage less than those who don't.
(E) If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services --> Arguments delivers no information about restrictions other than for legal services.
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Re: The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue  [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jun 2015, 20:29
1
Argument :
PART1
Fewer restrictions--> more ads--> charge less

PART2
Fewere resrt--> (-----ANS------------)----> charge less


Options :

C fits best
Kudos if you found helpful :-)
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New post 05 Aug 2015, 23:27
What I feel is the word "overall" is being misread, as stated by the egmat expert.

Overall = net change is towards positive. One lawyer may hike his fees because now ads don't need to carry the fee he charges if the state bans the law of putting fee with ads. But majority have lowered, i.e. those who were advertising might have continued to charge the same as they did before and those who newly started to advertise have lowered a bit. So basically the net movement of prices is IN FAVOR of the public at large, By this logic we can negate A and D easily (because the passage doesn't tell us the percentage of lawyers who have increased/decreased/not changed their fee.

Hence C seems more inferential from the passage. Its clear and concise.

Hope this helps!
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New post 18 Sep 2016, 05:40
Thanks Chiranjeev.
your explanations are always so awesome.

thanks a lot
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New post 22 Sep 2016, 08:32
Could you please explain Why D is wrong, in eloborate.

Regards
Raju gvvsnraju


JP wrote:
OK here is why it is (C).

Let's make this passage into a semblance of logic:

Fewer restrictions on advertising = 1
More lawyers advertise = 2
Lawyers who advertise charge less than those who do not = 3

The first sentence of the passage now reads:

If 1,
then 2,
then 3.

In the second sentence:

The state relaxes the restrictions (1)
Costs will go down (3)

What is missing in the logic of the second sentence, then, is (2) - why will the costs go down?

According to our opening sentence, fees are lower when more services are advertised (2). This is what (C) says.
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New post 22 Sep 2016, 09:15
gvvsnraju wrote:
Could you please explain Why D is wrong, in eloborate.

Regards
Raju


Could you please specify which part of the passage makes you think that D must be true. This will enable us to discuss your query effectively.
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Re: The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue  [#permalink]

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New post 05 Oct 2016, 22:53
egmat wrote:
vivek1303 wrote:
Q - 54 - The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than the lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.
(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.


In this OG Q#54 of CR section, the question asks for a statement that can be drawn from the Argument.

The premise in this question states that - Fewer restrictions --> More lawyers who advertise --> AND, These lawyers charge less as compared to lawyers who do not advertise.
Based on this the conclusion states that - No restrictions (eg. mentioning fee) --> OVERALL legal cost must be lower


Hi Vivek,

It's very good to see your detailed analysis - this is the way to go to understand CR questions. So, you are on the right path :)

The other benefit of sharing such analysis is that an expert can figure out the exact problem in your thinking and provide you a solution that helps you not only in this particular question but also in other CR questions too.

Let me now respond to your questions.

vivek1303 wrote:
*The word "overall" implies that both who advertise and those who don't (maybe due to competition once the rates are out in the open) will lower their fees.

By this logic, isn't 'D' the correct answer..?


"Overall" sort of means total; it does not mean each and every cost. So, when we say overall cost of living has come down, we mean that total cost of living has come down, not that each and every cost (eatables, cars, cylinders etc) has come down. Similarly, in this case, overall means total - includes both who advertise and those who don't - so, even if one of the categories reduces its charges, it leads to reduction in overall costs. Both of them need not reduce the charges. So, option D is not required for the conclusion in the argument to hold and thus, we cannot conclude it from the argument.

GENERAL ADVICE
Whenever you are confused about the meaning of a word, try to use that word in a regular everyday sentence and see what it means - that would help you in most of the cases. While solving CR questions, we tend to take very literal meaning (overall means all) of the words but if we can think of a regular everyday use of the word, that would provide us the right context and meaning of the sentence.

vivek1303 wrote:
All I see is that C is an assumption that needs to hold as per the premise for the author's conclusion to hold true. Also, C states the middle action (from the premise statement) which helps to achieve the final aim of lowering the costs of Lawyer services (which is the actual objective of removing the restrictions)


Option C is not an assumption. It is a direct inference from the first statement of the passage. The first statement says that
"The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services"

So, we know from this statement that if we reduce restrictions, more lawyers will advertise their services. This is what option C says:
If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services

It does not matter which restrictions are removed, we know if any restriction is removed, it will lead to more lawyers advertising their services.

GENERAL ADVICE
It happens to lot of us that as we move through an inference passage, we read them as in other question types - i.e. we try to get an overall hang of the passage. However, unlike in other question types where not every statement is critical and the overall understanding matters most, in Inference questions, we must read each statement very carefully because the answer statement could just be an inference or restatement of a single statement in the passage.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev



Wanted to confirm, inference answer choice can be a restatement of a statement in the passage?
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Re: The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue  [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2016, 06:34
pranav6082 wrote:
egmat wrote:
vivek1303 wrote:
Q - 54 - The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than the lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.
(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.


In this OG Q#54 of CR section, the question asks for a statement that can be drawn from the Argument.

The premise in this question states that - Fewer restrictions --> More lawyers who advertise --> AND, These lawyers charge less as compared to lawyers who do not advertise.
Based on this the conclusion states that - No restrictions (eg. mentioning fee) --> OVERALL legal cost must be lower


Hi Vivek,

It's very good to see your detailed analysis - this is the way to go to understand CR questions. So, you are on the right path :)

The other benefit of sharing such analysis is that an expert can figure out the exact problem in your thinking and provide you a solution that helps you not only in this particular question but also in other CR questions too.

Let me now respond to your questions.

vivek1303 wrote:
*The word "overall" implies that both who advertise and those who don't (maybe due to competition once the rates are out in the open) will lower their fees.

By this logic, isn't 'D' the correct answer..?


"Overall" sort of means total; it does not mean each and every cost. So, when we say overall cost of living has come down, we mean that total cost of living has come down, not that each and every cost (eatables, cars, cylinders etc) has come down. Similarly, in this case, overall means total - includes both who advertise and those who don't - so, even if one of the categories reduces its charges, it leads to reduction in overall costs. Both of them need not reduce the charges. So, option D is not required for the conclusion in the argument to hold and thus, we cannot conclude it from the argument.

GENERAL ADVICE
Whenever you are confused about the meaning of a word, try to use that word in a regular everyday sentence and see what it means - that would help you in most of the cases. While solving CR questions, we tend to take very literal meaning (overall means all) of the words but if we can think of a regular everyday use of the word, that would provide us the right context and meaning of the sentence.

vivek1303 wrote:
All I see is that C is an assumption that needs to hold as per the premise for the author's conclusion to hold true. Also, C states the middle action (from the premise statement) which helps to achieve the final aim of lowering the costs of Lawyer services (which is the actual objective of removing the restrictions)


Option C is not an assumption. It is a direct inference from the first statement of the passage. The first statement says that
"The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services"

So, we know from this statement that if we reduce restrictions, more lawyers will advertise their services. This is what option C says:
If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services

It does not matter which restrictions are removed, we know if any restriction is removed, it will lead to more lawyers advertising their services.

GENERAL ADVICE
It happens to lot of us that as we move through an inference passage, we read them as in other question types - i.e. we try to get an overall hang of the passage. However, unlike in other question types where not every statement is critical and the overall understanding matters most, in Inference questions, we must read each statement very carefully because the answer statement could just be an inference or restatement of a single statement in the passage.

Hope this helps :)

Thanks,
Chiranjeev



Wanted to confirm, inference answer choice can be a restatement of a statement in the passage?


Strictly speaking, no, there has to be a logical connection, not just a restatement.

(But sometimes the inference may be so obvious that it might seem to be a restatement.)
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New post 11 Jun 2017, 11:12
Will d be the answer if it is an assumption question instead of inference question?
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New post 17 Jun 2017, 10:00
vivek1080 wrote:
Will d be the answer if it is an assumption question instead of inference question?


Hi Vivek,

While anything can be assumed, statement D is simply out of scope. The passage concerns the subset of lawyers who advertises, all other lawyers can be excluded.

I hope I have answered your question.

Best,
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New post 27 Jul 2017, 08:59
The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.
Goes against the information stem. Total opposite.

(B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.
By common sense, legal service is not a product for which demand and supply applies.

(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.
This is actual rephrase. If the restrictions are lifted, legal costs will come down. And how will legal costs come down if more lawyers advertise.

(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.
We cannot predict the future.

(E) If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services.
We do not know what other types of restrictions are on other types of advertisements.
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New post 05 Jun 2018, 19:36
Hi GMATNinja generis VeritasPrepKarishma nightblade354

Can you please validate my reasoning and PoE:
I think the stimulus is most important part for an inference question since usually there is no conclusion present.

Quote:
The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise.


↓ restrictions on advertising of legal services → ↑ lawyers can advertise their services.
lawyers (who advertise specific service say family matters or criminal cases) → ↓ costs for customers than customers availing services of
lawyers who do not advertise their specific services. Hope my causal interpretation is correct.

Quote:
Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.


States removing a current restriction (particular eg. one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements ) → ↓ legal costs for consumers
Very odd, but we do find a conclusion marked by therefore in this inference question.

Quote:
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

This suggests I need to infer from the statements above.

Quote:
(A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.

The stimulus says that if lawyers do not have to specify fee arrangements in their advertisements then they shall charge less since they will be
able to advertise more.
This option is completely opposite.

Quote:
(B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.

Sound too logical and compelling, but the stimulus does not say so. It is very hard though to disregard common sense
in saying if lower restrictions lead to lower costs, why would consumers not avail such legal services.

Quote:
(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services

I missed this in initial read since specific arrangements is mentioned in only last sentence and is one of example of restrictions to be planned
imposing by state. The first sentence of argument merely tells advertisements about legal services. In a way this option is so
close to paraphrasing first sentence of argument.


Quote:
(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.

I can not infer about the group in underlined portion.

Quote:
(E) If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services

The underlined portion is completely out of scope of topic discussed in argument.
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Re: The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue  [#permalink]

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New post 08 Jun 2018, 05:13
adkikani wrote:
Hi GMATNinja generis VeritasPrepKarishma nightblade354

Can you please validate my reasoning and PoE:
I think the stimulus is most important part for an inference question since usually there is no conclusion present.

Quote:
The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise.


↓ restrictions on advertising of legal services → ↑ lawyers can advertise their services.
lawyers (who advertise specific service say family matters or criminal cases) → ↓ costs for customers than customers availing services of
lawyers who do not advertise their specific services. Hope my causal interpretation is correct.

Quote:
Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.


States removing a current restriction (particular eg. one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements ) → ↓ legal costs for consumers
Very odd, but we do find a conclusion marked by therefore in this inference question.

Quote:
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

This suggests I need to infer from the statements above.

Quote:
(A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.

The stimulus says that if lawyers do not have to specify fee arrangements in their advertisements then they shall charge less since they will be
able to advertise more.
This option is completely opposite.

Quote:
(B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.

Sound too logical and compelling, but the stimulus does not say so. It is very hard though to disregard common sense
in saying if lower restrictions lead to lower costs, why would consumers not avail such legal services.

Quote:
(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services

I missed this in initial read since specific arrangements is mentioned in only last sentence and is one of example of restrictions to be planned
imposing by state. The first sentence of argument merely tells advertisements about legal services. In a way this option is so
close to paraphrasing first sentence of argument.


Quote:
(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.

I can not infer about the group in underlined portion.

Quote:
(E) If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services

The underlined portion is completely out of scope of topic discussed in argument.


You look good here, too. I would suggest that with (E) you understand that it cannot be inferred because it is never mentioned. I assume by "out of scope" this is what you meant, but I just wanted to mention it. There are many great replies above as well. Many non-mods/experts post great replies that can help you with your process, if you have questions. I am always happy to respond, but give others a chance :) they just might surprise you
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The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue  [#permalink]

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New post 23 Jun 2018, 07:48
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adkikani wrote:
Can you please validate my reasoning and PoE:
I think the stimulus is most important part for an inference question since usually there is no conclusion present.


Every part of the prompt and the question are important, so it can be dangerous to assume that one part is more important than the others. It's not a very sexy thing to say, but you'll always want to break each question down as it’s written, and make your decisions based on exactly what's on the page -- without cherry-picking some bits that are more important.

Quote:
The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.

As you’ve noted, this prompt definitely has a conclusion: if the state removes any of its current restrictions... overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.

So let’s break down how the author reaches this conclusion:
  • Lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise.
  • If restrictions on advertising legal services decrease, then the number of lawyers who advertise their services increases.
  • There is a current restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements.
  • If the state removes any current restriction, then overall consumer legal costs will decrease.

Quote:
If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

adkikani wrote:
This suggests I need to infer from the statements above.

That’s correct. It would be tempting to pick an answer choice that strengthens or completes the argument, but we’re being asked to identify which of the five statements below must be true based on the information already provided.

Note that the question stem is not something like, "The information provided most strongly supports which of the following?" That would be your classic inference question. Yes, we are looking for something that can be inferred from the passage. But, more specifically, we are looking for something that must be true based on the information already provided.

Let’s dive in!

Quote:
(A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.

adkikani wrote:
The stimulus says that if lawyers do not have to specify fee arrangements in their advertisements then they shall charge less since they will be able to advertise more. This option is completely opposite.

To be more precise, the passage states that “lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise.” Because we take this statement to be true, and because we see no information stating how these lawyers would change their fee amounts in response to this particular change, we eliminate (A).

Quote:
(B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.

adkikani wrote:
Sound too logical and compelling, but the stimulus does not say so. It is very hard though to disregard common sense in saying if lower restrictions lead to lower costs, why would consumers not avail such legal services.

(B) is tempting because it bridges the logical gap between an increase in lawyers advertising services and a decrease in overall consumer legal costs. It would certainly strengthen the argument if true. However, nothing in the passage indicates that this must already be true. That’s why we eliminate (B).

Quote:
(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.

adkikani wrote:
I missed this in initial read since specific arrangements is mentioned in only last sentence and is one of example of restrictions to be planned imposing by state. The first sentence of argument merely tells advertisements about legal services. In a way this option is so close to paraphrasing first sentence of argument.

Yes, this option restates information that we’ve see in the passage:
  • If restrictions on advertising legal services decrease, then the number of lawyers who advertise their services increases.
  • There is a current restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements.

If each of these statements is true, then it must follow that removing this one current restriction will result in an increase in lawyers advertising legal services. Because (C) can be verified without bringing in any outside information, let’s keep it around as the best answer choice and finish reviewing the other choices.

Quote:
(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.

adkikani wrote:
I can not infer about the group in underlined portion

Right. There is no information about how lawyers who don’t advertise would behave, so we eliminate (D).

Quote:
(E) If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services.

adkikani wrote:
The underlined portion is completely out of scope of topic discussed in argument.

We see no information about how lawyers would change their advertising preferences in response to this particular use of restrictions. Eliminate (E).

That leaves us with (C) as the strongest (and correct) answer choices. I hope this helps!
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Re: The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue  [#permalink]

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New post 02 Sep 2018, 13:09
stolyar wrote:
The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if the state retains its current restrictions.

If the statements above are true, which of the following must be true?

(A) Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee arrangements in the advertisements.
(B) More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal services.
(C) If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will advertise their services.
(D) If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also charge less than they currently charge for those services.
(E) If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, most lawyers would advertise their services.

Note: This question is from OG10 -- Q#11. Q#12 of OG10 has same stimulus but different questions.
OG10#11 (Must Be True): http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-fewer-res ... 51118.html
OG10#12 (Weaken): http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-fewer-res ... 33526.html


First note down the premises(inputs) given in argument.

1. \(Restrictions =K*1/Lawyers\) (fewer restrictions, more lawyers)
2. \(Adv Lawyer Charge < Non Adv Lawyer Charge\)

Conclusion=> \(Restrictions = M*Overall Consumer Cost\) (If restrictions are removed, they will be less than before so overall consumer cost will go down, which means restriction are proportional to overall consumer costs.)

Now, looking at conclusion and 1st premise=> \(M*Overall consumer cost = K*1/Lawyers\). So if cost will go down, number of lawyers will go up and hence C is correct.

if you look at A,B, D and E they are not at all supported by the given information and conclusion in the argument. for inference questions it is best to list down the info in the argument in this form to eliminate the incorrect choices faster.
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Re: The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising -MBeTrue &nbs [#permalink] 02 Sep 2018, 13:09

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