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# The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in

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Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Sep 2017
Posts: 291
The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 04:05
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⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked
⠀⠀⠀ a turning point in the history of biology—biologists
⠀⠀⠀ became less interested in applying an ideal of
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation deductively to organic function
(5)⠀⠀and more interested in discerning the causes of vital
⠀⠀⠀ processes through experimental manipulation. But it
⠀⠀⠀ is impossible to discuss the history of biology in the
⠀⠀⠀ nineteenth century without emphasizing that those
⠀⠀⠀ areas of biology most in the public eye had depended
(10)⠀⠀on historical explanation. Wherever it was applied,
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation was deemed causal explanation.
⠀⠀⠀ The biologist-as-historian and the general historian of
⠀⠀⠀ human events dealt with comparable phenomena and
⠀⠀⠀ assumed necessarily a common mode of explanation.
(15)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Nineteenth-century biologists found a historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation of organic function attractive partly
⠀⠀⠀ because their observation of the formation of a
⠀⠀⠀ new cell from a preexisting cell seemed to confirm
⠀⠀⠀ a historical explanation of cell generation. The
(20)⠀⠀same direct observation of continuous stages of
⠀⠀⠀ development was also possible when they examined
⠀⠀⠀ the complex sequence of events of embryogenesis.
⠀⠀⠀ In both cases, the observer received a concrete
⠀⠀⠀ impression that the daughter cell was brought into
(25)⠀⠀being, or caused, by the prior cell. The argument
⠀⠀⠀ that these scientists employed confuses temporal
⠀⠀⠀ succession and causal explanation, of course,
⠀⠀⠀ but such confusion is the heart of most historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation.
(30)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Not surprisingly, the evolutionary biologists of
⠀⠀⠀ the nineteenth century encountered a particularly
⠀⠀⠀ troublesome problem in their attempts to document
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation convincingly: the factual record
⠀⠀⠀ of the history of life on earth (e.g., that provided by
(35)⠀⠀fossils) was incomplete. The temporal continuity of
⠀⠀⠀ living forms was convincing, but was an assumption
⠀⠀⠀ that was difficult to uphold when one compared
⠀⠀⠀ species or organisms forming any two stages of the
⠀⠀⠀ evolutionary record. Nineteenth-century biologists
(40)⠀⠀recognized this problem and attempted to resolve
⠀⠀⠀ it. Their solution today appears to be only verbal,
⠀⠀⠀ but was then regarded as eminently causal. The fact
⠀⠀⠀ of evolution demanded some connection between
⠀⠀⠀ all reproducing individuals and the species that they
(45)⠀⠀compose, as well as between living species and
⠀⠀⠀ their extinct ancestors. Their solution, the concept
⠀⠀⠀ of heredity, seemed to fill in an admittedly deficient
⠀⠀⠀ historical record and seemed to complete the
⠀⠀⠀ argument for a historical explanation of evolutionary
(50)⠀⠀events.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the information about organic function made available by historical explanation with that made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms
B. assess the influence that theories of history had on developments in the field of biology in the nineteenth century
C. discuss the importance of historical explanation in the thinking of nineteenth century biologists
D. contrast biologists' use of historical explanation during the early nineteenth century with its use during the final quarter of the nineteenth century
E. evaluate the way in which the concept of heredity altered the use of historical explanation by nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-10

2. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the methods of explanation used by biologists and historians in the nineteenth century?

A. Neither biologists nor historians were able to develop methods of explanation that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.
B. The methods used by biologists to explain phenomena changed dramatically, whereas the methods used by historians to explain events did not change as noticeably.
C. Biologists believed that they had refined the methods of explanation used by historians.
D. Biologists' and historians' methods of explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena were similar.
E. Although biologists and historians adopted similar methods of explanation, the biologists were more apologetic about their use of these methods.

RC49461.01-20

3. Which of the following best summarizes the “turning point” mentioned in line 2?

A. The beginning of the conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation
B. The substitution of historical explanation for causal explanation
C. The shift from interest in historical explanation to interest in experimentation
D. The attention suddenly paid to problems of organic function
E. The growth of public awareness of the controversies among biologists

RC49461.01-30

4. The author implies that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they

A. had discovered physical evidence that supported their use of historical explanation
B. were the first biologists to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms
C. were able to use historical explanation more systematically than were biologists who did not study embryogenesis
D. had inadvertently discovered an important part of the factual record of the history of living organisms on earth
E. had avoided the logical fallacies that characterize the reasoning of most nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-40

5. The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following?

A. An essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events
B. A book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century
C. A seminar paper on the development of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology
D. A review of a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century
E. A lecture whose subject is the limitations of experimental investigation in modern biology

RC49461.01-50

Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Sep 2017
Posts: 291
The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Sep 2019, 04:07
1
1
gmatt1476 wrote:
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked
⠀⠀⠀ a turning point in the history of biology—biologists
⠀⠀⠀ became less interested in applying an ideal of
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation deductively to organic function
(5)⠀⠀and more interested in discerning the causes of vital
⠀⠀⠀ processes through experimental manipulation. But it
⠀⠀⠀ is impossible to discuss the history of biology in the
⠀⠀⠀ nineteenth century without emphasizing that those
⠀⠀⠀ areas of biology most in the public eye had depended
(10)⠀⠀on historical explanation. Wherever it was applied,
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation was deemed causal explanation.
⠀⠀⠀ The biologist-as-historian and the general historian of
⠀⠀⠀ human events dealt with comparable phenomena and
⠀⠀⠀ assumed necessarily a common mode of explanation.
(15)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Nineteenth-century biologists found a historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation of organic function attractive partly
⠀⠀⠀ because their observation of the formation of a
⠀⠀⠀ new cell from a preexisting cell seemed to confirm
⠀⠀⠀ a historical explanation of cell generation. The
(20)⠀⠀same direct observation of continuous stages of
⠀⠀⠀ development was also possible when they examined
⠀⠀⠀ the complex sequence of events of embryogenesis.
⠀⠀⠀ In both cases, the observer received a concrete
⠀⠀⠀ impression that the daughter cell was brought into
(25)⠀⠀being, or caused, by the prior cell. The argument
⠀⠀⠀ that these scientists employed confuses temporal
⠀⠀⠀ succession and causal explanation, of course,
⠀⠀⠀ but such confusion is the heart of most historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation.
(30)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Not surprisingly, the evolutionary biologists of
⠀⠀⠀ the nineteenth century encountered a particularly
⠀⠀⠀ troublesome problem in their attempts to document
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation convincingly: the factual record
⠀⠀⠀ of the history of life on earth (e.g., that provided by
(35)⠀⠀fossils) was incomplete. The temporal continuity of
⠀⠀⠀ living forms was convincing, but was an assumption
⠀⠀⠀ that was difficult to uphold when one compared
⠀⠀⠀ species or organisms forming any two stages of the
⠀⠀⠀ evolutionary record. Nineteenth-century biologists
(40)⠀⠀recognized this problem and attempted to resolve
⠀⠀⠀ it. Their solution today appears to be only verbal,
⠀⠀⠀ but was then regarded as eminently causal. The fact
⠀⠀⠀ of evolution demanded some connection between
⠀⠀⠀ all reproducing individuals and the species that they
(45)⠀⠀compose, as well as between living species and
⠀⠀⠀ their extinct ancestors. Their solution, the concept
⠀⠀⠀ of heredity, seemed to fill in an admittedly deficient
⠀⠀⠀ historical record and seemed to complete the
⠀⠀⠀ argument for a historical explanation of evolutionary
(50)⠀⠀events.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the information about organic function made available by historical explanation with that made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms
B. assess the influence that theories of history had on developments in the field of biology in the nineteenth century
C. discuss the importance of historical explanation in the thinking of nineteenth century biologists
D. contrast biologists' use of historical explanation during the early nineteenth century with its use during the final quarter of the nineteenth century
E. evaluate the way in which the concept of heredity altered the use of historical explanation by nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-10

2. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the methods of explanation used by biologists and historians in the nineteenth century?

A. Neither biologists nor historians were able to develop methods of explanation that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.
B. The methods used by biologists to explain phenomena changed dramatically, whereas the methods used by historians to explain events did not change as noticeably.
C. Biologists believed that they had refined the methods of explanation used by historians.
D. Biologists' and historians' methods of explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena were similar.
E. Although biologists and historians adopted similar methods of explanation, the biologists were more apologetic about their use of these methods.

RC49461.01-20

3. Which of the following best summarizes the “turning point” mentioned in line 2?

A. The beginning of the conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation
B. The substitution of historical explanation for causal explanation
C. The shift from interest in historical explanation to interest in experimentation
D. The attention suddenly paid to problems of organic function
E. The growth of public awareness of the controversies among biologists

RC49461.01-30

4. The author implies that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they

A. had discovered physical evidence that supported their use of historical explanation
B. were the first biologists to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms
C. were able to use historical explanation more systematically than were biologists who did not study embryogenesis
D. had inadvertently discovered an important part of the factual record of the history of living organisms on earth
E. had avoided the logical fallacies that characterize the reasoning of most nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-40

5. The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following?

A. An essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events
B. A book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century
C. A seminar paper on the development of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology
D. A review of a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century
E. A lecture whose subject is the limitations of experimental investigation in modern biology

RC49461.01-50

Official Explanation

RC49461.01-10

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the information about organic function made available by historical explanation with that made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms
B. assess the influence that theories of history had on developments in the field of biology in the nineteenth century
C. discuss the importance of historical explanation in the thinking of nineteenth century biologists
D. contrast biologists' use of historical explanation during the early nineteenth century with its use during the final quarter of the nineteenth century
E. evaluate the way in which the concept of heredity altered the use of historical explanation by nineteenth-century biologists

Main idea

This question requires that we understand the fundamental purpose of the passage, which is a function of both its structure and content.

The first paragraph of the passage notes a turning point in the history of biology. In the late nineteenth century, biologists made a shift away from historical explanation of biology.

However, as the passage continues, it addresses the importance of historical explanation in biology throughout the nineteenth century.

A. The passage says little about the information about organic function that is made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms.

B. The passage focuses on historical explanation in biology. It does not discuss different theories of history. Therefore, it does not assess the influence of different theories of history on the influence on developments in biology.

C. Correct. The primary purpose of the passage is to discuss the importance of historical explanation in nineteenth-century biology.

D. The passage mentions the final quarter of the nineteenth century specifically to note the turning point when biologists began to use experimental manipulation as a way to discern the causes of vital processes. The passage does not contrast these biologists' use of historical explanation during the final quarter of the nineteenth century with their use of it earlier in the nineteenth century.

E. The final sentence of the passage suggests that the concept of heredity seemed to complete the argument for a historical explanation of evolutionary events. However, this is just one part of the passage's discussion of historical explanation in biology in the nineteenth century.

Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Sep 2017
Posts: 291
Re: The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Sep 2019, 04:11
1
gmatt1476 wrote:
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked
⠀⠀⠀ a turning point in the history of biology—biologists
⠀⠀⠀ became less interested in applying an ideal of
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation deductively to organic function
(5)⠀⠀and more interested in discerning the causes of vital
⠀⠀⠀ processes through experimental manipulation. But it
⠀⠀⠀ is impossible to discuss the history of biology in the
⠀⠀⠀ nineteenth century without emphasizing that those
⠀⠀⠀ areas of biology most in the public eye had depended
(10)⠀⠀on historical explanation. Wherever it was applied,
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation was deemed causal explanation.
⠀⠀⠀ The biologist-as-historian and the general historian of
⠀⠀⠀ human events dealt with comparable phenomena and
⠀⠀⠀ assumed necessarily a common mode of explanation.
(15)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Nineteenth-century biologists found a historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation of organic function attractive partly
⠀⠀⠀ because their observation of the formation of a
⠀⠀⠀ new cell from a preexisting cell seemed to confirm
⠀⠀⠀ a historical explanation of cell generation. The
(20)⠀⠀same direct observation of continuous stages of
⠀⠀⠀ development was also possible when they examined
⠀⠀⠀ the complex sequence of events of embryogenesis.
⠀⠀⠀ In both cases, the observer received a concrete
⠀⠀⠀ impression that the daughter cell was brought into
(25)⠀⠀being, or caused, by the prior cell. The argument
⠀⠀⠀ that these scientists employed confuses temporal
⠀⠀⠀ succession and causal explanation, of course,
⠀⠀⠀ but such confusion is the heart of most historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation.
(30)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Not surprisingly, the evolutionary biologists of
⠀⠀⠀ the nineteenth century encountered a particularly
⠀⠀⠀ troublesome problem in their attempts to document
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation convincingly: the factual record
⠀⠀⠀ of the history of life on earth (e.g., that provided by
(35)⠀⠀fossils) was incomplete. The temporal continuity of
⠀⠀⠀ living forms was convincing, but was an assumption
⠀⠀⠀ that was difficult to uphold when one compared
⠀⠀⠀ species or organisms forming any two stages of the
⠀⠀⠀ evolutionary record. Nineteenth-century biologists
(40)⠀⠀recognized this problem and attempted to resolve
⠀⠀⠀ it. Their solution today appears to be only verbal,
⠀⠀⠀ but was then regarded as eminently causal. The fact
⠀⠀⠀ of evolution demanded some connection between
⠀⠀⠀ all reproducing individuals and the species that they
(45)⠀⠀compose, as well as between living species and
⠀⠀⠀ their extinct ancestors. Their solution, the concept
⠀⠀⠀ of heredity, seemed to fill in an admittedly deficient
⠀⠀⠀ historical record and seemed to complete the
⠀⠀⠀ argument for a historical explanation of evolutionary
(50)⠀⠀events.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the information about organic function made available by historical explanation with that made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms
B. assess the influence that theories of history had on developments in the field of biology in the nineteenth century
C. discuss the importance of historical explanation in the thinking of nineteenth century biologists
D. contrast biologists' use of historical explanation during the early nineteenth century with its use during the final quarter of the nineteenth century
E. evaluate the way in which the concept of heredity altered the use of historical explanation by nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-10

2. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the methods of explanation used by biologists and historians in the nineteenth century?

A. Neither biologists nor historians were able to develop methods of explanation that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.
B. The methods used by biologists to explain phenomena changed dramatically, whereas the methods used by historians to explain events did not change as noticeably.
C. Biologists believed that they had refined the methods of explanation used by historians.
D. Biologists' and historians' methods of explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena were similar.
E. Although biologists and historians adopted similar methods of explanation, the biologists were more apologetic about their use of these methods.

RC49461.01-20

3. Which of the following best summarizes the “turning point” mentioned in line 2?

A. The beginning of the conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation
B. The substitution of historical explanation for causal explanation
C. The shift from interest in historical explanation to interest in experimentation
D. The attention suddenly paid to problems of organic function
E. The growth of public awareness of the controversies among biologists

RC49461.01-30

4. The author implies that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they

A. had discovered physical evidence that supported their use of historical explanation
B. were the first biologists to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms
C. were able to use historical explanation more systematically than were biologists who did not study embryogenesis
D. had inadvertently discovered an important part of the factual record of the history of living organisms on earth
E. had avoided the logical fallacies that characterize the reasoning of most nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-40

5. The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following?

A. An essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events
B. A book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century
C. A seminar paper on the development of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology
D. A review of a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century
E. A lecture whose subject is the limitations of experimental investigation in modern biology

RC49461.01-50

Official Explanation

RC49461.01-20

2. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the methods of explanation used by biologists and historians in the nineteenth century?

A. Neither biologists nor historians were able to develop methods of explanation that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.
B. The methods used by biologists to explain phenomena changed dramatically, whereas the methods used by historians to explain events did not change as noticeably.
C. Biologists believed that they had refined the methods of explanation used by historians.
D. Biologists' and historians' methods of explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena were similar.
E. Although biologists and historians adopted similar methods of explanation, the biologists were more apologetic about their use of these methods.

Supporting idea

The passage states The biologist-as-historian and the general historian of human events dealt with comparable phenomena and assumed necessarily a common mode of explanation. This indicates, in other words, that biologists' and historians' methods were similar in explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena.

A. The passage suggests that biologists through most of the nineteenth century tended to use historical explanation. Presumably, it is not true that biologists were unable to develop methods that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.

B. The passage suggests that methods used by biologists changed significantly toward the end of the nineteenth century. However, nothing in the passage indicates to what extent, if at all, historians' methods changed.

C. The passage suggests that biologists believed that, in observing embryogenesis and cell formation, there existed a clear justification for the utility of historical explanation in biology. However, there is no indication that these biologists believed that they had refined the historical methods used by historians.

D. Correct. The final sentence of the first paragraph indicates that the methods of biologists and historians in the nineteenth century were similar.

E. The only evidence that biologists were apologetic about their methods in the nineteenth century is that a turning point in their methods existed toward the end of the century. This is of course only weak evidence that biologists were apologetic. And even if these biologists were apologetic, nothing in the passage indicates whether historians were more or less apologetic.

Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Sep 2017
Posts: 291
Re: The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

### Show Tags

24 Sep 2019, 04:13
gmatt1476 wrote:
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked
⠀⠀⠀ a turning point in the history of biology—biologists
⠀⠀⠀ became less interested in applying an ideal of
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation deductively to organic function
(5)⠀⠀and more interested in discerning the causes of vital
⠀⠀⠀ processes through experimental manipulation. But it
⠀⠀⠀ is impossible to discuss the history of biology in the
⠀⠀⠀ nineteenth century without emphasizing that those
⠀⠀⠀ areas of biology most in the public eye had depended
(10)⠀⠀on historical explanation. Wherever it was applied,
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation was deemed causal explanation.
⠀⠀⠀ The biologist-as-historian and the general historian of
⠀⠀⠀ human events dealt with comparable phenomena and
⠀⠀⠀ assumed necessarily a common mode of explanation.
(15)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Nineteenth-century biologists found a historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation of organic function attractive partly
⠀⠀⠀ because their observation of the formation of a
⠀⠀⠀ new cell from a preexisting cell seemed to confirm
⠀⠀⠀ a historical explanation of cell generation. The
(20)⠀⠀same direct observation of continuous stages of
⠀⠀⠀ development was also possible when they examined
⠀⠀⠀ the complex sequence of events of embryogenesis.
⠀⠀⠀ In both cases, the observer received a concrete
⠀⠀⠀ impression that the daughter cell was brought into
(25)⠀⠀being, or caused, by the prior cell. The argument
⠀⠀⠀ that these scientists employed confuses temporal
⠀⠀⠀ succession and causal explanation, of course,
⠀⠀⠀ but such confusion is the heart of most historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation.
(30)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Not surprisingly, the evolutionary biologists of
⠀⠀⠀ the nineteenth century encountered a particularly
⠀⠀⠀ troublesome problem in their attempts to document
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation convincingly: the factual record
⠀⠀⠀ of the history of life on earth (e.g., that provided by
(35)⠀⠀fossils) was incomplete. The temporal continuity of
⠀⠀⠀ living forms was convincing, but was an assumption
⠀⠀⠀ that was difficult to uphold when one compared
⠀⠀⠀ species or organisms forming any two stages of the
⠀⠀⠀ evolutionary record. Nineteenth-century biologists
(40)⠀⠀recognized this problem and attempted to resolve
⠀⠀⠀ it. Their solution today appears to be only verbal,
⠀⠀⠀ but was then regarded as eminently causal. The fact
⠀⠀⠀ of evolution demanded some connection between
⠀⠀⠀ all reproducing individuals and the species that they
(45)⠀⠀compose, as well as between living species and
⠀⠀⠀ their extinct ancestors. Their solution, the concept
⠀⠀⠀ of heredity, seemed to fill in an admittedly deficient
⠀⠀⠀ historical record and seemed to complete the
⠀⠀⠀ argument for a historical explanation of evolutionary
(50)⠀⠀events.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the information about organic function made available by historical explanation with that made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms
B. assess the influence that theories of history had on developments in the field of biology in the nineteenth century
C. discuss the importance of historical explanation in the thinking of nineteenth century biologists
D. contrast biologists' use of historical explanation during the early nineteenth century with its use during the final quarter of the nineteenth century
E. evaluate the way in which the concept of heredity altered the use of historical explanation by nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-10

2. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the methods of explanation used by biologists and historians in the nineteenth century?

A. Neither biologists nor historians were able to develop methods of explanation that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.
B. The methods used by biologists to explain phenomena changed dramatically, whereas the methods used by historians to explain events did not change as noticeably.
C. Biologists believed that they had refined the methods of explanation used by historians.
D. Biologists' and historians' methods of explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena were similar.
E. Although biologists and historians adopted similar methods of explanation, the biologists were more apologetic about their use of these methods.

RC49461.01-20

3. Which of the following best summarizes the “turning point” mentioned in line 2?

A. The beginning of the conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation
B. The substitution of historical explanation for causal explanation
C. The shift from interest in historical explanation to interest in experimentation
D. The attention suddenly paid to problems of organic function
E. The growth of public awareness of the controversies among biologists

RC49461.01-30

4. The author implies that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they

A. had discovered physical evidence that supported their use of historical explanation
B. were the first biologists to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms
C. were able to use historical explanation more systematically than were biologists who did not study embryogenesis
D. had inadvertently discovered an important part of the factual record of the history of living organisms on earth
E. had avoided the logical fallacies that characterize the reasoning of most nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-40

5. The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following?

A. An essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events
B. A book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century
C. A seminar paper on the development of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology
D. A review of a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century
E. A lecture whose subject is the limitations of experimental investigation in modern biology

RC49461.01-50

Official Explanation

RC49461.01-30

3. Which of the following best summarizes the “turning point” mentioned in line 2?

A. The beginning of the conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation
B. The substitution of historical explanation for causal explanation
C. The shift from interest in historical explanation to interest in experimentation
D. The attention suddenly paid to problems of organic function
E. The growth of public awareness of the controversies among biologists

Evaluation

The turning point mentioned in the passage refers to a shift among biologists during the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Specifically, this shift was from favoring historical explanation to a greater interest in experimentation.

A. The passage does not specify any sort of conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation. The passage only notes that there was a shift in interest from historical explanation—applied deductively to organic function—to experimentation.

B. The passage indicates, with some criticism, that historical explanation was seen as a type of causal explanation.

C. Correct. As noted above, the turning point was a shift away from historical explanation—the dominant thread in biology throughout most of the nineteenth century—toward experimentation.

D. The passage suggests that, throughout the nineteenth century, biology had been concerned with organic function: initially it explained organic function through historical processes and then it began to explain organic function through experimentation.

E. The passage does not indicate whether public awareness of controversies among biologists grew.

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Joined: 04 Sep 2017
Posts: 291
Re: The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 04:15
gmatt1476 wrote:
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked
⠀⠀⠀ a turning point in the history of biology—biologists
⠀⠀⠀ became less interested in applying an ideal of
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation deductively to organic function
(5)⠀⠀and more interested in discerning the causes of vital
⠀⠀⠀ processes through experimental manipulation. But it
⠀⠀⠀ is impossible to discuss the history of biology in the
⠀⠀⠀ nineteenth century without emphasizing that those
⠀⠀⠀ areas of biology most in the public eye had depended
(10)⠀⠀on historical explanation. Wherever it was applied,
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation was deemed causal explanation.
⠀⠀⠀ The biologist-as-historian and the general historian of
⠀⠀⠀ human events dealt with comparable phenomena and
⠀⠀⠀ assumed necessarily a common mode of explanation.
(15)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Nineteenth-century biologists found a historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation of organic function attractive partly
⠀⠀⠀ because their observation of the formation of a
⠀⠀⠀ new cell from a preexisting cell seemed to confirm
⠀⠀⠀ a historical explanation of cell generation. The
(20)⠀⠀same direct observation of continuous stages of
⠀⠀⠀ development was also possible when they examined
⠀⠀⠀ the complex sequence of events of embryogenesis.
⠀⠀⠀ In both cases, the observer received a concrete
⠀⠀⠀ impression that the daughter cell was brought into
(25)⠀⠀being, or caused, by the prior cell. The argument
⠀⠀⠀ that these scientists employed confuses temporal
⠀⠀⠀ succession and causal explanation, of course,
⠀⠀⠀ but such confusion is the heart of most historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation.
(30)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Not surprisingly, the evolutionary biologists of
⠀⠀⠀ the nineteenth century encountered a particularly
⠀⠀⠀ troublesome problem in their attempts to document
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation convincingly: the factual record
⠀⠀⠀ of the history of life on earth (e.g., that provided by
(35)⠀⠀fossils) was incomplete. The temporal continuity of
⠀⠀⠀ living forms was convincing, but was an assumption
⠀⠀⠀ that was difficult to uphold when one compared
⠀⠀⠀ species or organisms forming any two stages of the
⠀⠀⠀ evolutionary record. Nineteenth-century biologists
(40)⠀⠀recognized this problem and attempted to resolve
⠀⠀⠀ it. Their solution today appears to be only verbal,
⠀⠀⠀ but was then regarded as eminently causal. The fact
⠀⠀⠀ of evolution demanded some connection between
⠀⠀⠀ all reproducing individuals and the species that they
(45)⠀⠀compose, as well as between living species and
⠀⠀⠀ their extinct ancestors. Their solution, the concept
⠀⠀⠀ of heredity, seemed to fill in an admittedly deficient
⠀⠀⠀ historical record and seemed to complete the
⠀⠀⠀ argument for a historical explanation of evolutionary
(50)⠀⠀events.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the information about organic function made available by historical explanation with that made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms
B. assess the influence that theories of history had on developments in the field of biology in the nineteenth century
C. discuss the importance of historical explanation in the thinking of nineteenth century biologists
D. contrast biologists' use of historical explanation during the early nineteenth century with its use during the final quarter of the nineteenth century
E. evaluate the way in which the concept of heredity altered the use of historical explanation by nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-10

2. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the methods of explanation used by biologists and historians in the nineteenth century?

A. Neither biologists nor historians were able to develop methods of explanation that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.
B. The methods used by biologists to explain phenomena changed dramatically, whereas the methods used by historians to explain events did not change as noticeably.
C. Biologists believed that they had refined the methods of explanation used by historians.
D. Biologists' and historians' methods of explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena were similar.
E. Although biologists and historians adopted similar methods of explanation, the biologists were more apologetic about their use of these methods.

RC49461.01-20

3. Which of the following best summarizes the “turning point” mentioned in line 2?

A. The beginning of the conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation
B. The substitution of historical explanation for causal explanation
C. The shift from interest in historical explanation to interest in experimentation
D. The attention suddenly paid to problems of organic function
E. The growth of public awareness of the controversies among biologists

RC49461.01-30

4. The author implies that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they

A. had discovered physical evidence that supported their use of historical explanation
B. were the first biologists to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms
C. were able to use historical explanation more systematically than were biologists who did not study embryogenesis
D. had inadvertently discovered an important part of the factual record of the history of living organisms on earth
E. had avoided the logical fallacies that characterize the reasoning of most nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-40

5. The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following?

A. An essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events
B. A book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century
C. A seminar paper on the development of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology
D. A review of a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century
E. A lecture whose subject is the limitations of experimental investigation in modern biology

RC49461.01-50

Official Explanation

RC49461.01-40

4. The author implies that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they

A. had discovered physical evidence that supported their use of historical explanation
B. were the first biologists to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms
C. were able to use historical explanation more systematically than were biologists who did not study embryogenesis
D. had inadvertently discovered an important part of the factual record of the history of living organisms on earth
E. had avoided the logical fallacies that characterize the reasoning of most nineteenth-century biologists

Implication

The author indicates that nineteenth-century biologists used a historical explanation of organic function. This use, they believed, was justified through observations of cell generation and stages in embryogenesis.

A. Correct. The author suggests that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they had discovered physical evidence supporting the use of historical explanation.

B. The passage does not imply that biologists who studied embryogenesis were the first to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms.

C. The passage does not imply that biologists who studied embryogenesis were any more successful in using historical explanation systematically than biologists who did not.

D. The passage states that the fossil record was incomplete, so it is likely that this means many important things were missing. Any specific inadvertent discovery would have to be mentioned directly in the passage. The passage does not suggest any sort of discovery.

E. The author, in the second paragraph, indicates that both those nineteenth-century biologists who studied cell generation and those who studied embryology confused temporal succession and causal explanation.

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Joined: 04 Sep 2017
Posts: 291
Re: The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

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24 Sep 2019, 04:19
1
gmatt1476 wrote:
⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked
⠀⠀⠀ a turning point in the history of biology—biologists
⠀⠀⠀ became less interested in applying an ideal of
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation deductively to organic function
(5)⠀⠀and more interested in discerning the causes of vital
⠀⠀⠀ processes through experimental manipulation. But it
⠀⠀⠀ is impossible to discuss the history of biology in the
⠀⠀⠀ nineteenth century without emphasizing that those
⠀⠀⠀ areas of biology most in the public eye had depended
(10)⠀⠀on historical explanation. Wherever it was applied,
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation was deemed causal explanation.
⠀⠀⠀ The biologist-as-historian and the general historian of
⠀⠀⠀ human events dealt with comparable phenomena and
⠀⠀⠀ assumed necessarily a common mode of explanation.
(15)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Nineteenth-century biologists found a historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation of organic function attractive partly
⠀⠀⠀ because their observation of the formation of a
⠀⠀⠀ new cell from a preexisting cell seemed to confirm
⠀⠀⠀ a historical explanation of cell generation. The
(20)⠀⠀same direct observation of continuous stages of
⠀⠀⠀ development was also possible when they examined
⠀⠀⠀ the complex sequence of events of embryogenesis.
⠀⠀⠀ In both cases, the observer received a concrete
⠀⠀⠀ impression that the daughter cell was brought into
(25)⠀⠀being, or caused, by the prior cell. The argument
⠀⠀⠀ that these scientists employed confuses temporal
⠀⠀⠀ succession and causal explanation, of course,
⠀⠀⠀ but such confusion is the heart of most historical
⠀⠀⠀ explanation.
(30)⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀⠀Not surprisingly, the evolutionary biologists of
⠀⠀⠀ the nineteenth century encountered a particularly
⠀⠀⠀ troublesome problem in their attempts to document
⠀⠀⠀ historical explanation convincingly: the factual record
⠀⠀⠀ of the history of life on earth (e.g., that provided by
(35)⠀⠀fossils) was incomplete. The temporal continuity of
⠀⠀⠀ living forms was convincing, but was an assumption
⠀⠀⠀ that was difficult to uphold when one compared
⠀⠀⠀ species or organisms forming any two stages of the
⠀⠀⠀ evolutionary record. Nineteenth-century biologists
(40)⠀⠀recognized this problem and attempted to resolve
⠀⠀⠀ it. Their solution today appears to be only verbal,
⠀⠀⠀ but was then regarded as eminently causal. The fact
⠀⠀⠀ of evolution demanded some connection between
⠀⠀⠀ all reproducing individuals and the species that they
(45)⠀⠀compose, as well as between living species and
⠀⠀⠀ their extinct ancestors. Their solution, the concept
⠀⠀⠀ of heredity, seemed to fill in an admittedly deficient
⠀⠀⠀ historical record and seemed to complete the
⠀⠀⠀ argument for a historical explanation of evolutionary
(50)⠀⠀events.

1. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. compare the information about organic function made available by historical explanation with that made available by the experimental investigation of living organisms
B. assess the influence that theories of history had on developments in the field of biology in the nineteenth century
C. discuss the importance of historical explanation in the thinking of nineteenth century biologists
D. contrast biologists' use of historical explanation during the early nineteenth century with its use during the final quarter of the nineteenth century
E. evaluate the way in which the concept of heredity altered the use of historical explanation by nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-10

2. According to information presented in the passage, which of the following is a true statement about the methods of explanation used by biologists and historians in the nineteenth century?

A. Neither biologists nor historians were able to develop methods of explanation that were accepted by the majority of their colleagues.
B. The methods used by biologists to explain phenomena changed dramatically, whereas the methods used by historians to explain events did not change as noticeably.
C. Biologists believed that they had refined the methods of explanation used by historians.
D. Biologists' and historians' methods of explaining what they believed to be comparable phenomena were similar.
E. Although biologists and historians adopted similar methods of explanation, the biologists were more apologetic about their use of these methods.

RC49461.01-20

3. Which of the following best summarizes the “turning point” mentioned in line 2?

A. The beginning of the conflict between proponents of the ideal of historical explanation and the proponents of experimentation
B. The substitution of historical explanation for causal explanation
C. The shift from interest in historical explanation to interest in experimentation
D. The attention suddenly paid to problems of organic function
E. The growth of public awareness of the controversies among biologists

RC49461.01-30

4. The author implies that nineteenth-century biologists who studied embryogenesis believed that they

A. had discovered physical evidence that supported their use of historical explanation
B. were the first biologists to call for systematic experimentation on living organisms
C. were able to use historical explanation more systematically than were biologists who did not study embryogenesis
D. had inadvertently discovered an important part of the factual record of the history of living organisms on earth
E. had avoided the logical fallacies that characterize the reasoning of most nineteenth-century biologists

RC49461.01-40

5. The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following?

A. An essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events
B. A book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century
C. A seminar paper on the development of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology
D. A review of a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century
E. A lecture whose subject is the limitations of experimental investigation in modern biology

RC49461.01-50

Official Explanation

RC49461.01-50

5. The passage would be most likely to appear in which of the following?

A. An essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events
B. A book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century
C. A seminar paper on the development of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology
D. A review of a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century
E. A lecture whose subject is the limitations of experimental investigation in modern biology

Evaluation

The passage discusses a turning point in the late nineteenth century in the history of biology. It then focuses primarily on the use of historical explanation in the field of biology during the nineteenth century. Therefore, it seems that, among the five options here, the one this passage would be most likely to appear in would be a book discussing the history of biology in the nineteenth century.

A. The passage focuses on nineteenth-century biologists' use of historical explanation. It presents no specific investigation of how historians used that methodology. Therefore, it would not be of particular value in an essay investigating the methodology used by historians of human events.

B. Correct. The passage focuses mainly on nineteenth-century biologists' use of historical explanation. It also mentions a turning point in the history of biology. It references the history of human events primarily as an analogy to help clarify the biologists' use of this historical method. These facts about the passage suggest that, among the five options here, the one the passage would be most likely to appear in would be a book outlining the history of biology in the nineteenth century.

C. The passage spends only a portion of one paragraph saying anything about embryogenesis. Even that portion is primarily offered only to give some explanation of why nineteenth-century biologists were attracted to the use of historical explanation. It does not seem that it would appropriate to use the entire passage in a seminar paper on the topic of embryogenesis as a field of study in nineteenth-century biology.

D. There is no reference to a book whose topic is the discovery of fossils in the nineteenth century. The passage only briefly mentions fossils. It seems unlikely that the passage would be of any use to a review of such a book.

E. The passage says almost nothing about experimental investigation in modern biology, and says absolutely nothing about its limitations.

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Re: The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

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01 Jan 2020, 01:08
The question stats show that correct answer rate is high, however I found the passage to be difficult.

How difficult is this ?
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Joined: 27 Mar 2017
Posts: 116
Re: The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in  [#permalink]

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03 Jan 2020, 07:08
17:52 to get all correct. POE approach was rewarded in these questions. Need to work on my timing.
Re: The final quarter of the nineteenth century marked a turning point in   [#permalink] 03 Jan 2020, 07:08
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