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The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 09 May 2014, 04:26
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but--> that incorrectly modifies Middle East
B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also--> stop after reading yields, subject - trenches needs plural verb
C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but--> parallelism error. Per sentence, these societies were arising simultaneously with but independently of other societies
D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also--> changes meaning
E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but--> best option

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 18 Jun 2014, 08:45
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar. Svria. have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

(A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

(B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also

(C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but

(D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also

(E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar. Svria. have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

evidence for or evidence of is incorrectly used in option A and D. centrally administered complex societies is not the intended object that preposition of or for meaning wise intends to modify. In some cases we can use evidence of or for but in this question it is used in a worst manner.

e.g: We have not found any evidence of food poisoning. (correct)
We have not found any evidence of my brother stealing bread ( incorrect). Here intention is to express evidence of theft not evidence of my brother and that can be best expressed by using restrictive clause that and same is done in B, D, and E.

(A) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

(B) that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
S-V error, trenches is plural but verb yields is in singular form. best half of But also that is not only is missing. thus, such use is incorrect.

(C) having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
99.99% use of having modifying a noun is incorrect in official incorrect options. I don't have any other reason to reject this choice.

(D) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
S-V error + evidence of error as explained above.

(E) cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but[/quote]
Here cut is acting as -ed modifier modifying trenches. Evidence that is fine . Arose past tense verb is fine. simultaneously with but independently of X is fine.

Therefore, E is the best.

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar [#permalink]

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New post 08 Sep 2014, 23:17
Hi e-gmat,

As explained in the video explanation in the portal, there is no mention of the two related events .

"were cut" and "were arising".

trenches were cut
societies were arising

Were arising should "describe an ongoing event when the other event occurred".

However, here logically we know that since the trenches provide evidence of the distant past there is no need for progressive tense to keep the sentence simple.

Societies arose is correct and coincidentally it is correct in correct choice too.

However, is above the valid reason to conduct POE as this reason is not mentioned in video explanation @portal.

Please clarify !
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar [#permalink]

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New post 07 Oct 2014, 00:25
TGC wrote:
Hi e-gmat,

As explained in the video explanation in the portal, there is no mention of the two related events .

"were cut" and "were arising".

trenches were cut
societies were arising

Were arising should "describe an ongoing event when the other event occurred".

However, here logically we know that since the trenches provide evidence of the distant past there is no need for progressive tense to keep the sentence simple.

Societies arose is correct and coincidentally it is correct in correct choice too.

However, is above the valid reason to conduct POE as this reason is not mentioned in video explanation @portal.

Please clarify !



Hi Saurabh,

No. This is not the valid reason to eliminate a choice. Since these events happened at a very distant time in the past, using either the simple past tense or the past continuous tense in the context of this sentence does not change the meaning.
So, we cannot eliminate any choice on the basis of this reasoning. Also, as mentioned in the video we have more concrete reasons to eliminate the choices.




Hope this helps! :)
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2015, 07:27
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but
B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

Meaning
Trenches that cut into 500 Acre, yielded strong evidence that some region arose simultaneously but independently.

Error Analysis :
1. Modifier : "The first trenches that were cut" - It implies that Trenches were Cut, but trenches cut by whom. Don't you think it the phrase "Cut into 500 acres" Should actually describe of modify the noun trenches.
Hence The First trenches (that - Silent) cut into 500 acre site is preferred over "The Trenches that were cut"


2. Idiomatic error "Evidence For" – “Evidence that” is correct

3. use of past continuous tense “ Were arising “, Past continuous is used to show an event interrupted by some other event.
I was working, when Mr X shouted. – My work got interrupted when some other event (X shouted) happened.
No other event is mentioned, which likely interrupt the ongoing action of arise. Hence incorrect. Instead we should use, Simple past tense arose.

4. “Simultaneously with” more celebrated city – Correct
“Independently of” more celebrated city – Correct

POE :

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

Incorrect – See reasons explained in Error Analysis

B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also

Incorrect –
1. Modifer error “Trenches that were”
2. Plural Verb “Trenches” Does not match in number with Singular verb “Yields”
3. Idiom error – “But Also” – But also requires “Not only”
4. Past continuous tense – Were arising

C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but

Incorrect –
1. Modifier – “Having been cut” – Having modifying noun does not sound correct
2. Absence of With after simultaneously makes it incorrect.
3. Past continuous “Were arising”

D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also

Incorrect –
1. Plural Verb “Trenches” Does not match in number with Singular verb “Yields”
2. Incorrect idiom “Evidence Of”
3. Absence of With after simultaneously makes it incorrect.



E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

Correct:
1. Modifer “cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria” correctly modifies Trenches
2. Subject “Trenches” agress in number with verb “Have yielded”
3. Correct Idiom “yielded Evidence that”
4. Simple past tense “arose simultaneously with”

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2015, 09:23
Hi vishwaprakash,

You haven't asked for any assistance, but I hope you're okay with my going through your analysis.

1. The modifier here is not The first trenches that were cut. The modifier is that were cut. It is correctly modifying the noun The first trenches. However, in English, when we get a passive verb in a relative clause, we can "reduce" that clause to a phrase. More specifically, we can move to a participle (cut). Keep in mind that this is not the active verb cut. The meaning of the two options (The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence and The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence) is exactly the same. The first one uses a few more words is all.

2. Evidence for is idiomatically possible. Evidence of is also idiomatically possible.

It's great to see how you worked through the question. Analysis is super useful when we're looking to get better.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 17 Jul 2015, 10:07
AjiteshArun wrote:
Hi vishwaprakash,

You haven't asked for any assistance, but I hope you're okay with my going through your analysis.

1. The modifier here is not The first trenches that were cut. The modifier is that were cut. It is correctly modifying the noun The first trenches. However, in English, when we get a passive verb in a relative clause, we can "reduce" that clause to a phrase. More specifically, we can move to a participle (cut). Keep in mind that this is not the active verb cut. The meaning of the two options (The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence and The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence) is exactly the same. The first one uses a few more words is all.

2. Evidence for is idiomatically possible. Evidence of is also idiomatically possible.

It's great to see how you worked through the question. Analysis is super useful when we're looking to get better.


AjiteshArun

Thanks for the correction,

When i wrote modifier "The first trenches that were cut" i actually mean modifier in "The first trenches that were cut" that is "That were cut" . But i have one point over here ""The first trenches that were cut" doesn't it say that "trenches were cut" -> trenches don' cut now.
However "Trenches cut into blah blah" - Truth still valid.
Whats your view on this :)

Idioms are subject dependent, hence i usually dont take it as driving factor behind POE. most of idioms error, will not be an error, if we just change the context. :)

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 26 Jul 2015, 20:21
The First trenches cut into a 500-acre site .....

What is the function of cut here?

a) Does it act as Past participle here?
b) Does it act as verb here?
c) How can we differentiate whether it acts as a verb or a past participle?

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar [#permalink]

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar [#permalink]

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New post 03 Jul 2016, 23:48
Ideally Gmat would never waste your time given that it is a timed exam. So for clever and sharp test taker GMAT presents unique decision points that makes the choice of Option very easy.

The decision point here is "simultaneously with but independently of "
This is the correct parallelism and any choice that does not have it, will be incorrect.

Option B,C,D, are out. (There might be some other mistakes in them, Reading them once will tell you that BCD are wrong. I won't even waste my time and energy on reading the complete sentence when the PARALLELISM criteria fails.. after all what's the use? They are wrong because they are not using the correct Parallelism. SO better to move on to other options)

A and E remaining.

A is out because of the verb "arising". Since the sentence is describing something that happened in the past tense "arose" is a much better option. Also "evidence that" is better usage than "evidence for"

E is the correct answer .


jerrywu wrote:
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but
B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 04 Aug 2016, 23:37
dkverma wrote:
The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

A. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but
B. that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously with but also
C. having been cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but
D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, yields strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but also
E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but


I understand that E is the correct answer but I don't get the meaning of the following part.
"(complex societies) arose simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia".
Isn't an idiom "simultaneously with" supposed to be followed by a noun, is it? Would anybody help explain the structure of the sentence?

Thanks.

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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at [#permalink]

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New post 05 Aug 2016, 10:45
flowerchild wrote:
I understand that E is the correct answer but I don't get the meaning of the following part.
"(complex societies) arose simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia".
Isn't an idiom "simultaneously with" supposed to be followed by a noun, is it? Would anybody help explain the structure of the sentence?

Hi flowerchild, indeed it is followed by a noun (noun-phrase here):

..centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.

So, the sentence is trying say that complex societies had two properties:

i) complex societies arose simultaneously with the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, but

ii) complex societies arose independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia

As is evident, simultaneously with is followed by noun phrase the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia.
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Re: The first trenches that were cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar [#permalink]

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New post 19 Aug 2016, 22:58
Few pointers:-


1> simultaneously with _ Independently of

2. Evidence for => Not correct
evidence that X arose (It's the idea for which evidence are presented)

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The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, [#permalink]

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The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.


A. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administeredcomplex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

B. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously but

C. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but

D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but

E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

Please assist with above sentence correction problem.

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Re: The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, [#permalink]

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alanforde800Maximus wrote:
The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but independently of the more celebrated city-states of southern Mesopotamia, in what is now southern Iraq.


A. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence for centrally administeredcomplex societies in northern regions of the Middle East that were arising simultaneously with but

B. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously but

C. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East were arising simultaneously but

D. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence of centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arising simultaneously but

E. cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, have yielded strong evidence that centrally administered complex societies in northern regions of the Middle East arose simultaneously with but

Please assist with above sentence correction problem.


"with" links the "northern regions of Middle East" and "more celebrated city-states". So "with" is required. So A and E. I'm stuck between these 2 choices.

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Re: The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, [#permalink]

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New post 14 Sep 2016, 21:39
In A, "evidence for" is incorrect. In E, that correctly modifies evidence and elaborates the modified noun
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Re: The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2017, 03:22
Hi all,
I couldn't figure out the object of "that were arising simultaneously with..."
Why "with but" is correct here?

Could you help me with the break down of this sentence?
Thanks :-)

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The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, [#permalink]

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sleepynut wrote:
Hi all,
I couldn't figure out the object of "that were arising simultaneously with..."
Why "with but" is correct here?

Could you help me with the break down of this sentence?
Thanks :-)


"But" is a conjunction. Here "but" joins the two phrases "simultaneously with" and " independently of". ("But", instead of "and", is used to highlight the contrast between the two phrases).

Parallelism:
Parallelism marker: X BUT Y - X and Y should be parallel.
X = simultaneously with
Y = independently of

Consider the two elements separately:
...that were arising simultaneously with the more celebrated city-states...
...that were arising independently of the more celebrated city-states ...

Thus parallelism is properly maintained.

Kudos [?]: 3292 [1], given: 22

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Re: The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria, [#permalink]

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New post 09 Jan 2017, 06:29
sayantanc2k,

Thanks for your lucid explanation

Kudos [?]: 32 [0], given: 906

Re: The first trenches cut into a 500-acre site at Tell Hamoukar, Syria,   [#permalink] 09 Jan 2017, 06:29

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