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# The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity

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Joined: 01 Sep 2010
Posts: 3211

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02 Jun 2013, 11:49
6
KUDOS
7
This post was
BOOKMARKED
Question 1
00:00

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56% (02:49) correct 44% (01:56) wrong based on 147

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Question 2
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35% (01:34) correct 65% (00:31) wrong based on 148

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Question 3
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86% (01:28) correct 14% (01:00) wrong based on 128

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Question 4
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34% (01:27) correct 66% (00:19) wrong based on 146

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Question 5
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55% (01:44) correct 45% (01:05) wrong based on 137

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Question 6
00:00

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78% (01:35) correct 23% (00:56) wrong based on 40

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Question 7
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18% (01:19) correct 82% (00:59) wrong based on 39

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The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity inspired an unusual degree of human interest from a public generally unconcerned about amphibians, may have been driven to extinction by human activity nevertheless. In the United States, a public relations campaign featuring the toad raised money to purchase and protect the toad’s
habitat in Costa Rica, establishing the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve in 1972. Although this action seemed to secure the toad’s future, it is now apparent that setting aside habitat was not enough to save this beautiful creature. The toad’s demise in the late 1980s was a harbinger of further species extinction in Costa Rica. Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.

The unexplained, relatively sudden disappearance of amphibians in Costa Rica is not a unique story. Populations of frogs, toads, and salamanders have declined or isappeared the world over. Scientists hypothesize that the more subtle effects of human activities on the world’s ecosystems, such as the build-up of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns due to global warming, are beginning to take their toll. Perhaps amphibians - whose permeable skin makes them sensitive to environmental changes - are the “canary in the coal mine,” giving us early notification of the deterioration of our environment. If amphibians are the biological harbingers of environmental problems, humans would be wise to heed their warning.
1. According to the passage, all of the following are true EXCEPT:

A. Humans are at least partially responsible for changing weather patterns.

B. Toads, like frogs, have permeable skin.

C. Human activity is not necessarily responsible for the global decline of amphibious populations.

D. Costa Rica’s Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve was not paid for solely by the Costa Rican government.

E. More frog and toad species than salamander species have disappeared in Costa Rica since the late 1980s.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

2. It can be inferred from the passage that

A. only thirty species of frogs and toads remain in Costa Rica

B. humans do not have permeable skin

C. the build-up of pollutants in the atmosphere causes a decrease in atmospheric ozone

D. humans do not usually take signals of environmental deterioration seriously

E. Costa Rica suffers from more serious environmental problems than many other countries

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

3. The author uses the adjective “subtle” in the second paragraph most probably to emphasize that

A. these effects are not easily recognized by sophisticated testing equipment

B. these effects are difficult to notice because they take place over time on a global scale

C. these effects are so minimal that they affect only small animal species such as amphibians

D. these slight effects of human activity are rarely discussed by scientists

E. these effects are infrequently observed because they affect only specific world regions

[Reveal] Spoiler:
B

4. The passage implies that
A. many amphibians are not considered beautiful.

B. the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve was not large enough to protect the golden toad.

C. only Costa Rican amphibians living near Monteverde have disappeared since the 1980s.

D. amphibians sometimes live in coal mines.

E. no humans yet consider the decline of amphibious populations an indication of a threat to human populations.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

5. The primary purpose of the passage is to

A. discuss the mysterious disappearance of Costa Rica’s golden toad.

B. explain why human activity is undoubtedly to blame for the global decline of amphibious populations

C. convince humans that they must minimize the global output of pollutants.

D. describe the recent global decline of amphibious populations and hypothesize about its causes.

E. urge humans to pay careful attention to important environmental changes.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
D

6. Which of the following best describes the overall organization of the passage?

A) The first paragraph speculates on the causes of a global phenomenon; the second paragraph describes one specific example of this phenomenon.

B) The first paragraph explains one environmental consequence of human activity; the second paragraph discusses solutions which might mitigate further environmental damage.

C) The first paragraph details one instance of an ecological change; the second paragraph discusses the import and global extent of this change.

D) The first paragraph discusses efforts to protect the habitat of a particular species; the second paragraph advocates for additional habitat protection.

E) The first paragraph describes the unexplained worldwide disappearance of toads; the second paragraph adds that salamanders and frogs are also disappearing.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
C

7. The passage implies that

A) the Monteverde area may be home to toad or frog species that have not yet been noted by researchers

B) the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve was not large enough to protect the golden toad

C) only Costa Rican amphibians living near Monteverde have disappeared since the 1980s

D) if amphibians did not have permeable skin, then they could not act as biological harbingers

E) more than one third of the world’s amphibian species have become extinct

[Reveal] Spoiler:
A

The previous discussion here http://gmatclub.com/forum/the-golden-to ... 08608.html is incomplete with the questions..

regards
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #1 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #2 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #3 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #4 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #5 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #6 OA
[Reveal] Spoiler: Question #7 OA

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Last edited by Vyshak on 26 May 2017, 22:10, edited 2 times in total.
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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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03 Jun 2013, 12:16
1.C
2.C
3.B
4.E
5.D

Again going by my past records all Questions can go wrong.

Still trying hard to improve RCs.

Thanks,
Abhinav

"3 RCs a day keep the fear of RCs away"
_________________

Regards,
Abhinav

GMAT 1 - 580 (Q47 V23) http://gmatclub.com/forum/a-tight-slap-on-face-149457.html

GMAT 2 - 670 (Q48 V34) http://gmatclub.com/forum/670-one-month-off-from-office-and-2-months-hard-work-163761.html#p1297561

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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2013, 03:55
3
KUDOS
1.
"Except" questions require us to test the five answer choices to determine the "odd
one out." It is beneficial to use the True / False technique: label each answer choice
with a T or an F and look for the odd one out (which, in this case, we should expect
to be an F).
(A) True. The third sentence of the second paragraph characterizes changing
weather patterns due to global warming as a subtle effect of human activities.
(B) True. The first two sentences of the second paragraph classify both toads and
frogs as amphibians. Later in the second paragraph, the passage explains that
amphibians have permeable skin.
(C) True. The third sentence of the second paragraph states explicitly that scientists
“hypothesize” that human activity is responsible for the global decline of amphibious
populations. Since a hypothesis is an educated guess rather than a fact, it is true
that human activity may not be responsible for the decline.
(D) True. The second sentence of the first paragraph states that money was raised
in the United States to establish the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve.
(E) CORRECT. False. The passage offers no information about the number of
salamander species in Costa Rica that have disappeared since the late 1980s. We
cannot assume that this omission indicates a lesser number than either toad or frog
species.
2.
The correct answer to an inference question on the GMAT must be supported by
evidence from the text without need for external information.
(A) The passage states that twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to
once inhabit a 30-square-kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared.
Nothing is implied about the areas of Costa Rica farther from Monteverde.

(B) CORRECT. The passage suggests that amphibians are able to offer humans
early notification of the deterioration of the environment because of the amphibians’
permeable skin. Thus, permeable skin must be a characteristic that humans do not
possess.

(C) No causal relationship between the build-up of pollutants in the atmosphere and
a decrease in atmospheric ozone is suggested in the passage.

(D) The author states that humans would be wise to heed the warning offered by the
decline of amphibious populations, but nothing suggests that humans normally do
not take signals of environmental deterioration seriously.

(E) The passage does not compare Costa Rica’s environmental problems to those of
other countries.

3.
In the second paragraph, the author mentions “the more subtle effects of human
activity on the world's ecosystems,” and then lists three of these effects: the build-up
of pollutants, the decrease in atmospheric ozone, and changing weather patterns
due to global warming, all of which, scientists hypothesize, “are beginning to take
their toll.” The key to answering this question correctly is to recognize, in context,
what these effects have in common.

(A) Nowhere does the passage suggest or imply that these changes are not easily
recognized by sophisticated testing equipment.

(B) CORRECT. All of these effects happen on a global scale, so their immediate
consequences on specific ecosystems are difficult to recognize. Furthermore, the
passage states these effects are “beginning to take their toll,” indicating that the
effects happen over time.

(C) Scientists hypothesize that these effects do affect amphibians, but nothing in the
passage indicates that only small animal species such as amphibians are affected.
In fact, the final sentence of the passage indicates that humans too might be affected
by these environmental changes.

(D) The passage states that scientists hypothesize about the consequences of these
subtle effects; this indicates that scientists do in fact discuss these effects.

(E) The passage indicates that the consequences of these effects are global,
causing disruptions in amphibious populations “the world over.”

4.
This question is really just a disguised inference question. The correct answer to an
inference question must be directly supported by evidence from the text.
(A) CORRECT. The first sentence of the passage states that the beauty of Costa
Rica’s golden toad was one factor that generated interest from a public normally
unconcerned with amphibians. Thus, many amphibians must not be considered
beautiful.

(B) The passage indicates that habitat preservation in isolation - no matter the size of
the habitat - was not enough to save the golden toad. Instead, scientists theorize that
broader ecological issues are harming the world’s amphibious populations.

(C) The second paragraph tells us that amphibian populations have been declining
around the world.

(D) This is a misinterpretation of the analogy used in the second paragraph. The
author is implying that amphibians may provide humans an early warning for
detrimental changes to the environment, just as canaries provide humans an
indication of detrimental conditions in coal mines.

(E) The final sentence of the passage indicates that humans would be wise to
recognize the potential environmental deterioration signified by declining amphibious
population, but it is too extreme to infer that no humans consider this decline a threat
to humans. In fact, the author of the passage seems to consider it a threat!

5.
The first paragraph of the passage discusses a specific case in which a particular
amphibian mysteriously disappeared from its habitat and suggests that humans may
have been in some way responsible for its demise. The second paragraph explains
that declining amphibious populations are actually a global trend and hypothesizes
that a variety of human activities are harming these environmentally sensitive
animals.

(A) The example of the golden toad is too narrow and specific to be the primary
purpose of the passage. Instead, the golden toad is used as an example of a much
larger trend.

(B) Though this answer choice is on the right track, it is too extreme to say that
human activity is “undoubtedly” to blame for the global decline of amphibian
populations. Instead the passage indicates that scientists “hypothesize” that human
activity is responsible.

(C) An attempt to convince humans to minimize the output of pollutants is never
mentioned in the passage.

(D) CORRECT. The passage discusses the mysterious disappearance of
amphibious populations worldwide and hypothesizes that subtle effects on
ecosystems resulting from human activity may be responsible for these
disappearances.

(E) The final sentence of the passage does urge humans to pay attention to
declining amphibian populations, but this is not the primary purpose of the passage. Moreover, the passage specifically discusses amphibians, while this answer choice
broadly mentions “important environmental changes” rather than focusing on
amphibians.
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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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06 Jun 2014, 23:54
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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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25 Mar 2016, 02:17
Can someone please explain , why Option B for Q4 is incorrect ? . When it is clearly stated in the passage "it is now apparent that setting aside habitat was not enough to save this beautiful creature."

Also I mostly end up doing inference questions wrong . Any advice/tips on how to attack an inference question would be very helpful.

Thanks !
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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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15 Apr 2016, 17:04
I can't believe there could be such stupid questions. Senseless.

2. It can be inferred from the passage that
· only thirty species of frogs and toads remain in Costa Rica
· humans do not have permeable skin
· the build-up of pollutants in the atmosphere causes a decrease in atmospheric ozone
· humans do not usually take signals of environmental deterioration seriously
· Costa Rica suffers from more serious environmental problems than many other countries

[Reveal] Spoiler:

3. The author uses the adjective “subtle” in the second paragraph most probably to emphasize that
· these effects are not easily recognized by sophisticated testing equipment
· these effects are difficult to notice because they take place over time on a global scale
· these effects are so minimal that they affect only small animal species such as amphibians
· these slight effects of human activity are rarely discussed by scientists
· these effects are infrequently observed because they affect only specific world regions

[Reveal] Spoiler:

4. The passage implies that
· many amphibians are not considered beautiful.
· the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve was not large enough to protect the golden toad.
· only Costa Rican amphibians living near Monteverde have disappeared since the 1980s.
· amphibians sometimes live in coal mines.
· no humans yet consider the decline of amphibious populations an indication of a threat to human populations.

[Reveal] Spoiler:
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Posts: 25
Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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17 Apr 2016, 06:32
· Humans are at least partially responsible for changing weather patterns.
· Toads, like frogs, have permeable skin.
· Human activity is not necessarily responsible for the global decline of amphibious populations.
· Costa Rica’s Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve was not paid for solely by the Costa Rican government.
· More frog and toad species than salamander species have disappeared in Costa Rica since the late 1980s.
[Reveal] Spoiler:
E

2. It can be inferred from the passage that
· only thirty species of frogs and toads remain in Costa Rica
· humans do not have permeable skin- I did deduce 2 or 4 is correct. I was confused b/w 2 and 4. Got confused as option 2 was not written explicitly written in the passage. Got confused by the couple of last statements in the 2nd para..
· the build-up of pollutants in the atmosphere causes a decrease in atmospheric ozone
· humans do not usually take signals of environmental deterioration seriously
· Costa Rica suffers from more serious environmental problems than many other countries
[Reveal] Spoiler:
B
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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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02 Sep 2016, 00:33
Took 7 mins 30 seconds , including 2 mins to read

E B B A E
Was in a fix in last question between options D and E . Ended up selecting the wrong answer
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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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17 Oct 2016, 02:45
realized that all answers exc. "humans do not have permeable skin" in Q2 and "many amphibians are not considered beautiful" in Q4 are wrong. But did not select correct because considered them too extravagant
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Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity [#permalink]

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04 Jun 2017, 21:02

7. The passage implies that
A) the Monteverde area may be home to toad or frog species that have not yet been noted by researchers
B) the Monteverde Cloud Forest Preserve was not large enough to protect the golden toad
C) only Costa Rican amphibians living near Monteverde have disappeared since the 1980s
D) if amphibians did not have permeable skin, then they could not act as biological harbingers
E) more than one third of the world’s amphibian species have become extinct

How can A be correct? The passage says:

"Since that time, another twenty of the fifty species of frogs and toads known to once inhabit a 30 square kilometer area near Monteverde have disappeared".

It doesn't say that it was actually in the Monteverde area. Probably the Monteverde area was much more studied that the surrounding areas, so the existence of unknowned frogs and toads near Monteverde doesn't imply that there are unknowned frogs inside Monteverde. I know frogs and toads can move, but if I think like that, I would be considering that Monteverde is surrounded by no limits or by limits which frogs and toads can trespass, which we don't know.
Re: The golden toad of Costa Rica, whose beauty and rarity   [#permalink] 04 Jun 2017, 21:02
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