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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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30 Jan 2005, 20:26
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Last edited by HongHu on 03 Feb 2005, 23:02, edited 1 time in total.
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03 Feb 2005, 20:14
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(C)..

(A), (B) : Verb Tense "was" is used where "were" is reqd.
(D) wrong: it should be differing

(C) correctly uses "which" to point to localtimes.
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04 Feb 2005, 00:18
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proper idiom is different from......

diffred from is better than differing from. choices only B and D are remaining. in B, which was is not correct form of verb for times.
D remains.
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04 Feb 2005, 02:23
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I'll go with (D)

(C) comes close, but is wrong because of the following reason:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which were determined by (1) when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and (2) differing
from city to city
, and to the establishment of regional times.

Local times were not determined by two different factors as (C) conveys. The fact that the local times differed from city to city was a characteristic of the local time. This is correctly conveyed in (D)
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04 Feb 2005, 06:26
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E)
The difference lies in active/passive voice
Local times were determined by X, it is the object of X. In other words, "local times" are not determining X but determined by X so past participle is correct.
However, local times are differing from city to city because it not only "differed" in the past but it is also "differing" today. We need present participle to logically illustrate that.

A, B and C make the second half a relative clause and lack in conciseness compared to the participial forms of D and E
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04 Feb 2005, 22:28
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OA is (E).
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15 Apr 2008, 10:03
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As per Paul's explanation answer should be E
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15 Apr 2008, 13:20
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This seems to be a tricky one. I had my money on D - Damn it!

Paul - What do you recommend I use to beef up on my SC?

Guys any suggestions?
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15 Apr 2008, 18:14
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Wow this is a tough one. I was dead on for D - my line of thinking was that determined and differed need to be parallel. But clearly the past and present participles matter. We need further practice on tough concepts such as this one.
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05 May 2008, 19:31
Can anyone explain why it's E?
I still don't understand
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05 May 2008, 21:48
Between D and E , E seems correct for me because the local time when measured in the way it is mentioned ,will still be differing and hence "differed" seems incorrect.
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11 May 2008, 17:27
Guys the OA to this one is E - and it is clearly explained by Paul.
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27 May 2008, 21:47
Paul wrote:
E)
The difference lies in active/passive voice
Local times were determined by X, it is the object of X. In other words, "local times" are not determining X but determined by X so past participle is correct.
However, local times are differing from city to city because it not only "differed" in the past but it is also "differing" today. We need present participle to logically illustrate that.

A, B and C make the second half a relative clause and lack in conciseness compared to the participial forms of D and E

Seems to be a perfect explanation. Though D is grammatically correct, but E makes more of a common sense.
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20 Jul 2008, 09:52
please can anybody expain why is which not required here. i went for an option containing which as i thought a refernt should be present.................

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20 Jul 2008, 11:12
I chose E.

In my opinion,
We can ignore A and B because Subject and Verb don't agree.
"Times" is plural so the verb should be "Were". Correct ?

In C, we might divide it into two segments which are
1)..times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
This should be correct.
2)..times, which were differing from city to city
I don't think this makes sense. I dont' think "Times were differing" is correct.
Since that the local times differ from city to city is a fact.
So, the present simple (or past simple) should be used.

present simple - always fact
past simeple - used to be fact at that time in the past

So..
The correct one should be "..times, which differ/differed from city to city"
This can be developed to...
"..times, differing from city to city" ("which were" is understood and ignored)

For D and E, we ignore "which were" and contract the clause.
As I remember, when we remove the pronoun, we have to change the verb to V+ing or V3 form
, depending on the action.

For example,
1) ..times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
This can be changed to
..times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian ,..

2)..times, which differs from city to city, ..
This can be changed to
..times, differing from city to city,

So... I think the correct one is 'E'
******************************************************************************

I really don't understand the word "Differ" in this case.
Can someone please advise what the actual meaning of it is and how to use it correctly ?
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20 Jul 2008, 22:10
apurva1985 wrote:
please can anybody expain why is which not required here. i went for an option containing which as i thought a refernt should be present.................

good question.

if "which" is used, the modifying phrase is not parallel. so which is not correct.

HongHu wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

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21 Jul 2008, 13:27
GMAT Tiger - What is the modifying phrase you're referring to? Thx.

GMAT TIGER wrote:
apurva1985 wrote:
please can anybody expain why is which not required here. i went for an option containing which as i thought a refernt should be present.................

good question.

if "which" is used, the modifying phrase is not parallel. so which is not correct.

HongHu wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the oberver's meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
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21 Jul 2008, 16:00
Paul wrote:
E)
The difference lies in active/passive voice
Local times were determined by X, it is the object of X. In other words, "local times" are not determining X but determined by X so past participle is correct.
However, local times are differing from city to city because it not only "differed" in the past but it is also "differing" today. We need present participle to logically illustrate that.

A, B and C make the second half a relative clause and lack in conciseness compared to the participial forms of D and E

Here is the problem I have with E.

"The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times...and to the establishment of regional times.

To me if you abolish local times that means you no longer use them. So they don't differ from city to city today because the growth of railroads lead to their abolishment in the past.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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12 Oct 2014, 03:16
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local   [#permalink] 12 Oct 2014, 03:16
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