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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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Senior Manager
Joined: 12 Mar 2007
Posts: 274

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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24 May 2007, 17:26
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762. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

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Manager
Joined: 08 Dec 2006
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24 May 2007, 20:07
IMO E

"Determined" is participle whereas "differed" is past form of verb. So, "differing" , which is a participle, is appropriate.

Here, "the abolition of local times" if followed by which/ that would modify the noun before the "of" preposition structure (of + preposition object) therefore GMAT would like us to use a modifying phrase. Therefore, we let the A, B and C go.

Now the tough part. To understand which option is correct, we must first try to construct how the clauses would have modified "local time"

"local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed"

When we reduce an adjective clause to a modifying phrase the rule is:

1. If there is a "be" verb after the "pronoun" (which/ that), then we simply remove the pronoun and the "be" verb.

2. If "be" verb is absent, then we remove the "pronoun" (which/ that) and change the verb to verb-ing (participle)

Using the rules the sentence becomes:

"local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing"

and this is the choice E.

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Senior Manager
Joined: 04 Mar 2007
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Re: SC - 762 - local times [#permalink]

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25 May 2007, 01:56
leeye84 wrote:
762. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

I don't understand quite well why not D. D seems very parallel.
No?

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Director
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25 May 2007, 05:58
I'm thinking it is A

Which refers to the local times here

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Senior Manager
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25 May 2007, 09:05
E is the OA.

msrinath: you wrote an excellent explaination. Thank you.

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Manager
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25 May 2007, 10:01
762. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and (which differed) differing => "differing"
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed => which what - growth of railroads ??
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing => "were"
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed => changes meaning - sun reached meridian and then differed from
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Between B & E

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25 May 2007, 10:01
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