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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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29 May 2007, 04:50
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Last edited by apache on 29 May 2007, 06:01, edited 1 time in total.
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29 May 2007, 06:44
weird one...

i would think that "which" refers to "the abolition of local times" and not only"local times" therefore I find all solutions not suitable...
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29 May 2007, 10:40
go with B

D/E - determined by - ambiguous - growth of railroads or local times ?

catch in B - not comfortable with singular for local times

what is the OA ?
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29 May 2007, 11:38
IMO E

"Determined" is participle whereas "differed" is past form of verb. So, "differing" , which is a participle, is appropriate.

Here, "the abolition of local times" if followed by which/ that would modify the noun before the "of" preposition structure (of + preposition object) therefore GMAT would like us to use a modifying phrase. Therefore, we let the A, B and C go.

Now the tough part. To understand which option is correct, we must first try to construct how the clauses would have modified "local time"

"local times, which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed"

When we reduce an adjective clause to a modifying phrase the rule is:

1. If there is a "be" verb after the "pronoun" (which/ that), then we simply remove the pronoun and the "be" verb.

2. If "be" verb is absent, then we remove the "pronoun" (which/ that) and change the verb to verb-ing (participle)

Using the rules the sentence becomes:

"local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing"

and this is the choice E.
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29 May 2007, 19:13
apache wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

D seemed very much correct to me. But as Srinath has explained in his post, then it could be E. I wasn't aware of such rules!
What is OA?
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29 May 2007, 19:48
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing => which what growth or local times ?
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed => which what growth or local times ?(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing => which what growth or local times ?
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed => wrong tense !! gives impression that action has already completed in the past
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

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29 May 2007, 22:40
OA E.
thanks.

srinath,
how to identify that a verb is participle not a finite verb.As the key over here is that Determined is a participle .
To what noun ,Determined is working as adjective?

and can you elaborate on the following rule with few examples.

When we reduce an adjective clause to a modifying phrase the rule is:

1. If there is a "be" verb after the "pronoun" (which/ that), then we simply remove the pronoun and the "be" verb.

2. If "be" verb is absent, then we remove the "pronoun" (which/ that) and change the verb to verb-ing (participle)

Thanks for your wonderful explanation .
29 May 2007, 22:40
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