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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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12 Mar 2004, 12:28
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Twinkle
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12 Mar 2004, 12:34
I think the Answer is C. Here "Times" are being refered.
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12 Mar 2004, 12:55
Twinkle wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Twinkle

this has been discussed just days ago.

The growth of rail roads led to [1] , , and [2]

1. Clearly, If you use "which" after [1], it is incorrect under the context . why?
which, the relative pronoun, is used to refer to a thing.thus, in this case, "which" cannot refer to times.

2. Also, in A and B , we need "were" to correctly modify "times".

So A, B and C are not correct. Its between D and E.

3. Now would be a good time to read up on participial phrases. Present participle contain verbs ending with -ing. Past participles are verbs ending with -ed.

if you see the original sentence, the correct form to use here is
determined - past participle ( times were determined in the past)
differing - present participle ( times are still differing)

Thus, we have E as the answer

NOTE : Participial Phrases act as adjectives.

Hope this helps
Praetorian
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12 Mar 2004, 14:54
Can you please explain why C is WRONG ?

Rajbhai . . . .
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14 Mar 2004, 19:12
Rajbhai wrote:
Can you please explain why C is WRONG ?

Rajbhai . . . .

For one, see the "which" in C.. which can only refer to "things" and so logically "which" cannot refer to local times.

Second and equally serious problem , no parallel structure.

which were ....and differing

ok now?

regards
praetorian
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15 Mar 2004, 08:05
Thanx a lot praetorian123

Rajbhai
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19 Apr 2004, 08:35
praetorian123 wrote:
Rajbhai wrote:
Can you please explain why C is WRONG ?

Rajbhai . . . .

For one, see the "which" in C.. which can only refer to "things" and so logically "which" cannot refer to local times.

Second and equally serious problem , no parallel structure.

which were ....and differing

ok now?

regards

praetorian

Praet,

I choose to differ on this explanation. Your exaplanation for the lack of parallelism is good and I agree with that. But the explanation regarding the use of "which" does not sound correct to me. I believe that "which" can be used for any noun as long as the noun does not refer to a human. For example,

"Operational effeciency, which reduces overhead for an organization, is hard to achieve."

In this sentence "Operational effeciency" is not a thing. but the use of "which" is correct.
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19 Apr 2004, 10:00
yes, you are right. which refers to a noun or a noun phrase.

Incorrect parallelism is what makes C incorrect.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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11 Oct 2014, 13:52
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Thanks to another GMAT Club member, I have just discovered this valuable topic, yet it had no discussion for over a year. I am now bumping it up - doing my job. I think you may find it valuable (esp those replies with Kudos).

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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local   [#permalink] 11 Oct 2014, 13:52
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