The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local : GMAT Sentence Correction (SC)
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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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04 Aug 2007, 15:00
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70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

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04 Aug 2007, 15:12
I think it's B, for parallelism "which was determined .........and which differed........"
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04 Aug 2007, 19:33
B is wrong because of subject verb agreement error. was doesnt agree with local times.

D is the correct modifier for local times and parallel.
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07 Aug 2007, 15:59
I agree with B...for the parallism.

also the verb "was" is in agreement with the subject "growth"....

what is the OA
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07 Aug 2007, 16:29
I think E.

ABC are out because the phrase modifies times, not the abolition of times.

D, differed seems wrong because it implies that the differing no longer happens for whatever reason, but we know this isn't true.

Yes E isn't parallel but it's the most logical internally.
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07 Aug 2007, 16:42
It's D

A and B are out for local times....was
C and E are out for using differing. Led is in the past tense, so you have to use differed to keep it on the same page.

D is the only one that works here.
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07 Aug 2007, 16:45
Quote:
D, differed seems wrong because it implies that the differing no longer happens for whatever reason, but we know this isn't true.

but it IS true! it's talking about local times and how they differed from city to city. The first part of the sentence tells us that local times were abolished, so they no longer exist, so they can't currently do anything. How can two things that no longer exist still differ? they had to have differed in the past when they were used
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07 Aug 2007, 16:49
eschn3am wrote:
Quote:
D, differed seems wrong because it implies that the differing no longer happens for whatever reason, but we know this isn't true.

but it IS true! it's talking about local times and how they differed from city to city. The first part of the sentence tells us that local times were abolished, so they no longer exist, so they can't currently do anything. How can two things that no longer exist still differ? they had to have differed in the past when they were used
I think too much of the passage is underlined. I see what you're saying but I think past progressive is more appropriate.
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07 Aug 2007, 17:48
I agree. I think "from city to city" was accidentally underlined. I just assumed this when making my decision.
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07 Aug 2007, 18:39
I'll take B. The first 'which' correctly modifies times and the second 'which' correctly modifies the meridian.

D suggests that local times differed from city to city instead of the observer's meridian.
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08 Aug 2007, 00:10
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70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

I thought it was C, but then I saw D/E, and it's E.

Compare:

D) The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

E) The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Here's the trick:

Look at D. break it up:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian

& the 2nd part after the AND:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differed from city to city,

or, as in E,

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times

Clear E. This is a hard one. Look up the fungus SC question to understand this one better.
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25 Aug 2007, 11:59
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09 Sep 2007, 13:35
anita_083 wrote:
70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Thanks!

I thought Paul would have solved this question for us.

However, I will explain this to the best of my ability.

When we have a noun + of + object construction, WHICH refers to the NOUN, not the object. Reading the original question, you can see that the middle clause refers to "local times." As such, you cannot use which to subordinate the sentence.

Now we are left with D & E. As Erin on TestMagic said, there is a clear difference between differed and differing.

Differed = PASSIVE voice / action is being done on the subject
Differing = ACTIVE / subject performs the action

"determined by when..." is a participial phrase modifying the object of the preposition. Therefore, we see that the "subject" is TIMES. TIMES is being acted upon by the sun. Therefore DIFFERED.

TIME is differing from city to city. It is "performing the action." Therefore, we use ACTIVE voice.

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09 Sep 2007, 22:08
this one was tough.. i picked E not sure of the logic and reasoning.
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09 Sep 2007, 22:43
anita_083 wrote:
70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

Thanks!

I vote for D.

need were for correct tense. C looked promising b/c it uses were, but "differing" is not parrallel.
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01 Nov 2009, 14:40
I think StartupAddict has it spot on; the trick is to break it up. I have to admit that I didn't see this at first. The underlined portion is so long.
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19 Dec 2010, 05:30
In E determined can modify many things...so for me there is ambiguity.
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31 Oct 2011, 16:13
70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

I thought it was C, but then I saw D/E, and it's E.

Compare:

D) The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

E) The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Here's the trick:

Look at D. break it up:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian

& the 2nd part after the AND:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differed from city to city,

or, as in E,

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times

Clear E. This is a hard one. Look up the fungus SC question to understand this one better.

Great explanation start up addict. I agree the answer is E. Local times still differ, hence "differing" usage is correct.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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01 Nov 2011, 17:53
Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the two that's a participle at all.
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02 Nov 2011, 01:16
70. The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

I thought it was C, but then I saw D/E, and it's E.

Compare:

D) The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

E) The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Here's the trick:

Look at D. break it up:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian

& the 2nd part after the AND:

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differed from city to city,

or, as in E,

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times

Clear E. This is a hard one. Look up the fungus SC question to understand this one better.

Good explaination.... I selected D at first... but going through your explaination I changed my mind to E
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Re:   [#permalink] 02 Nov 2011, 01:16

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