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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2008, 23:41
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mau5 on 18 Aug 2013, 12:31, edited 1 time in total.
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12 Feb 2009, 11:43
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
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12 Feb 2009, 12:44
D

took a while though to understand the sentence
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12 Feb 2009, 12:59
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

local times ===> were
Eliminate A and B
C and E not ||

IMO D
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12 Feb 2009, 13:16
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x2suresh wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Wanted to say C, but then realized that "differed" is needed. Therefore D.
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10 Sep 2009, 20:55
OA is E which I'm not too sure about.

Anyone can explain this? Thanks.
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16 Sep 2009, 09:04
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topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

also have chosen D, but i guess this sentence is a bit ambigious. it can be understood as Sun reached..and differed (instead of local times differed). though "differing" breaks the parallelism. Tough question.
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16 Sep 2009, 09:22
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My take is E.

One imp point to note is - participles(both present and past) and adjectives can be made parallel as long as they modify the same noun.

(D)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differed]
(E)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differing]

Here both the above statements are adj of local times(local times are determined by when the sun....and local times are differeing from city to city.

Differed from city to city is not correct. So you are left with E.

In A,B,C time zones cannot be modified by a relative pronoun - which.
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16 Sep 2009, 09:32
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"...out
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
THOGH "WERE" USAGE IS CORRECT,"WHICH WERE DETERMINED" should be parralel to
"WHICH WERE DIFFERING or WHICH DIFFERED"
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
HERE THE ELEMENTS ARE PARALLEL BUT IF YOU NOTICE CLOSELY DIFFERED USAGE IS
INCORRECT because THE SENTECNE IS TALKING ABOUT 2 PIECES ABOUT LOCAL TIME
A) DETERMINED BY ....
B) DIFFERING FROM CITY TO CITY
DIFFERED here is incorrect usage
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
CORRECT
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18 Sep 2009, 13:15
mrsmarthi wrote:
My take is E.

Differed from city to city is not correct. So you are left with E.

I don't understand why differed is incorrect.
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18 Sep 2009, 13:30
I quite didn't understand, what is wrong with D, and why E is right.
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19 Sep 2009, 22:23
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topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
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19 Sep 2009, 23:23
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It is very much logical let me try to explain it logically.
we have to determine the time and it is determined by the position of Sun. Sun's position will always change let me say it is relative at every place....therefore we can not say differed from place to place.....position is differing from place to place is correct therefore E is correct.

Hope this will help.
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20 Sep 2009, 07:20
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here, You need to consider the action, similar to active and passive.

why determined and not determining?
Local times are not determining sun position or ....., but they are getting determined by (action performed by some other agent)
==> In this case we use past participle [determined]

differing vs. differed ==> differing is present property of the subject (local times). [*No other agent of action]
==>we use present participle.
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23 Sep 2009, 12:19
It is very much logical let me try to explain it logically.
we have to determine the time and it is determined by the position of Sun. Sun's position will always change let me say it is relative at every place....therefore we can not say differed from place to place.....position is differing from place to place is correct therefore E is correct.

Hope this will help.

The subject is time, not the sun. The time differed from city to city.
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23 Sep 2009, 12:23
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?
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24 Sep 2009, 09:37
mendelay wrote:
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?

In general what I have noticed:

<clause>, participle modifier, <clause>.

In such cases, participle modifier modifies the immediate noun in the preceding clause. If the participle modifier, then only it in general can modify the preeding clause.
Note: It is not a rule but an observation. There could be exception, but in this case it is referring to (local times).
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24 Sep 2009, 12:36
sudeep wrote:
mendelay wrote:
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?

In general what I have noticed:

<clause>, participle modifier, <clause>.

In such cases, participle modifier modifies the immediate noun in the preceding clause. If the participle modifier, then only it in general can modify the preeding clause.
Note: It is not a rule but an observation. There could be exception, but in this case it is referring to (local times).

If it modifies the preceding clause then we still don't know which noun determined refers to.
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24 Sep 2009, 22:41
mendelay wrote:
sudeep wrote:
mendelay wrote:
I have another problem with D and E.
The word determined has no clear referant. What is being determined, growth of railroads, or times?

In general what I have noticed:

<clause>, participle modifier, <clause>.

In such cases, participle modifier modifies the immediate noun in the preceding clause. If the participle modifier, then only it in general can modify the preeding clause.
Note: It is not a rule but an observation. There could be exception, but in this case it is referring to (local times).

If it modifies the preceding clause then we still don't know which noun determined refers to.

I misquote in hurry, what I meant is that when the participle modifier is in the last, then only it can, in general, modify the preceding clause.
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25 Oct 2009, 02:44
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

here (A) and (B) are out as use of "was" for "local times" is incorrect ,but how to eliminate the other options.

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