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# The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local

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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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28 Nov 2008, 23:41
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times,which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
[Reveal] Spoiler: OA

Last edited by mau5 on 18 Aug 2013, 12:31, edited 1 time in total.
If you have any questions
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19 Sep 2009, 22:23
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topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

The sentence goes like this:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times and to the establishment of regional times.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, Modifier 1 and Modifier 2, and to the establishment of regional times.

Modifier 1 = determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian
Modifier 2 = differing from city to city

Sentence with modifier 1 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian, and to the establishment of regional times.

Sentence with modifier 2 only:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

Complete sentence:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.
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16 Sep 2009, 09:22
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My take is E.

One imp point to note is - participles(both present and past) and adjectives can be made parallel as long as they modify the same noun.

(D)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differed]
(E)[determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian] and [differing]

Here both the above statements are adj of local times(local times are determined by when the sun....and local times are differeing from city to city.

Differed from city to city is not correct. So you are left with E.

In A,B,C time zones cannot be modified by a relative pronoun - which.
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20 Sep 2009, 07:20
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here, You need to consider the action, similar to active and passive.

why determined and not determining?
Local times are not determining sun position or ....., but they are getting determined by (action performed by some other agent)
==> In this case we use past participle [determined]

differing vs. differed ==> differing is present property of the subject (local times). [*No other agent of action]
==>we use present participle.
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16 Sep 2009, 09:32
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"...out
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
SUBJECT-VERB AGREEMENT
LOCAL TIMES should be "were"
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
THOGH "WERE" USAGE IS CORRECT,"WHICH WERE DETERMINED" should be parralel to
"WHICH WERE DIFFERING or WHICH DIFFERED"
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
HERE THE ELEMENTS ARE PARALLEL BUT IF YOU NOTICE CLOSELY DIFFERED USAGE IS
INCORRECT because THE SENTECNE IS TALKING ABOUT 2 PIECES ABOUT LOCAL TIME
A) DETERMINED BY ....
B) DIFFERING FROM CITY TO CITY
DIFFERED here is incorrect usage
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
CORRECT
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19 Sep 2009, 23:23
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It is very much logical let me try to explain it logically.
we have to determine the time and it is determined by the position of Sun. Sun's position will always change let me say it is relative at every place....therefore we can not say differed from place to place.....position is differing from place to place is correct therefore E is correct.

Hope this will help.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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24 Jun 2012, 11:41
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Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranging from 200 to 800.
or would you say :
Admission to a top B-School depends on one's GMAT score, determined by one's ability and ranged from 200 to 800.

E is good.
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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18 Aug 2013, 13:00
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This question is about parallelism and modifier.

The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong.
- Parallelism problem. "which was ...." is a clause --> not parallel to "differing" which is Verb-ing modifier.
- "was" is wrong because "local times" is plural.

(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
Wrong. Simple past tense "differed" is not correct. Because "local times" always differ from city to city.

(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Wrong. Same as A. Clause and Verb-ing modifier are not parallel.

(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
Wrong. Verb-ed "differed" is not correct because local times themselves differ from city to city. --> should use Verb-ing modifier.

(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
Correct. "determined by" and "differing" are modifiers and are parallel. Hence, E is correct.

Hope it helps.
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12 Feb 2009, 12:59
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

local times ===> were
Eliminate A and B
C and E not ||

IMO D
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16 Sep 2009, 09:04
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topmbaseeker wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by
when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing
from city to city, and to the
establishment of regional times.
(A)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(B)which was determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and which
differed
(C)which were determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and
differing
(D)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differed
(E)determined by when the sun reached the observer's meridian and differing

also have chosen D, but i guess this sentence is a bit ambigious. it can be understood as Sun reached..and differed (instead of local times differed). though "differing" breaks the parallelism. Tough question.
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20 Apr 2010, 18:28
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This is a toughie - it looks like you've realized that the key to the problem is parallelism, but you've been tricked by the rather weird form of

parallelism exhibited here.

The only difference between choices D and E is differed/differing, and, as you've no doubt realized, the key issue is making the choice that's most parallel

to 'determined' (from the first half of the modifier).

Here's the key: 'Determined' isn't a verb here. It's a PARTICIPLE: a verb form that functions as an adjective.
The local times were WEIRD (adjective).
The local times were DETERMINED (participle acting as adjective) by ...

So you need to pick the second half that's also 'participle acting as adjective'. Try them both:
D) The local times were DIFFERED: uh oh, that doesn't work.
E) The local times were DIFFERING from city to city. That works. It's a 'present participle' rather than a 'past participle', but it's the only one of the

two that's a participle at all.
In D and E, you can tell determined = participle, not verb, because (a) it immediately follows a comma and (b) there's no subject you could match up with

determined in a normal subject-verb configuration. Even if you match determined with the noun "times" (to which the clause is referring) "times, determined

by" is not proper subject-verb config.

The discussion with detailed explanation can be found in the link:
http://www.manhattangmat.com/forums/100 ... t1787.html
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Re: The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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07 Nov 2016, 22:49
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Do you how to distinguish between a verb in the past tense and a past participle?

Here is a quick answer by GMAT guru, Ron:

"Past-tense verbs and participles have meanings that are essentially complete opposites -- the former suggests that the noun actually does the action, while the latter suggests an action done to the noun -- so, if you can't reliably tell them apart, then you must not be thinking much (if at all) about the meaning of the words.

for instance:
robots made (= verb) today's breakfast --> this is something that the robots did.
millions of robots made (= participle) in korea are shipped to the u.s. each year --> this is something done to the robots."

If it's not clear let's continue our discussion
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Be sad, and you lose them all.

Feast, and your halls are crowded;
Fast, and the world goes by.
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The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local [#permalink]

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08 Nov 2016, 17:08
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Top Contributor
mbaprep2016 wrote:
Jabrah

What's wrong with the below sentence.
The growth of the rail roads led to the abolition of local times, differed from city to city. Here differed is modifying time , so does the determined

Hey mbaprep2016

It's illogical to use the past tense "differed". Present participle "differing" is better because it represents the eternal state of something, or a definition in general. For instance, you wouldn't say, two dogs alive at this very moment differed from one another. You'd say, they differ from one another. The best way to convey something that doesn't end is the present participle -ing when of course the word is modifying another.

I hope this helps.
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12 Feb 2009, 11:43
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
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12 Feb 2009, 12:44
D

took a while though to understand the sentence
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12 Feb 2009, 13:16
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x2suresh wrote:
The growth of the railroads led to the abolition of local times, which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing from city to city, and to the establishment of regional times.

(A) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(B) which was determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and which differed
(C) which were determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing
(D) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differed
(E) determined by when the sun reached the observer’s meridian and differing

Wanted to say C, but then realized that "differed" is needed. Therefore D.
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10 Sep 2009, 20:55
OA is E which I'm not too sure about.

Anyone can explain this? Thanks.
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18 Sep 2009, 13:15
mrsmarthi wrote:
My take is E.

Differed from city to city is not correct. So you are left with E.

I don't understand why differed is incorrect.
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18 Sep 2009, 13:30
I quite didn't understand, what is wrong with D, and why E is right.
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23 Sep 2009, 12:19
It is very much logical let me try to explain it logically.
we have to determine the time and it is determined by the position of Sun. Sun's position will always change let me say it is relative at every place....therefore we can not say differed from place to place.....position is differing from place to place is correct therefore E is correct.

Hope this will help.

The subject is time, not the sun. The time differed from city to city.

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